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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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EVOLVING THE
GEODETIC
INFRASTRUCTURE

TO MEET NEW SCIENTIFIC NEEDS

Committee on Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Committee on Seismology and Geodynamics

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. 80NSSC18K0176 and the National Academy of Sciences’ Arthur L. Day Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49778-7
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49778-7
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25579

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Cover: Front: Illustration of the Icesat-2 satellite measuring sea ice thickness, an important climate change variable, in the Arctic. The sea ice height measurement depends on cm-accuracy laser range measurement as well as cm-accuracy tracking using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) of the geodetic infrastructure. Back: The four geodetic measurement techniques of the geodetic infrastructure: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (top left), GNSS (top right), SLR (bottom left), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (bottom right). Images courtesy of NASA.

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25579.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
×

COMMITTEE ON EVOLVING THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE TO MEET NEW SCIENTIFIC NEEDS

DAVID T. SANDWELL (NAS), Chair, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California

SRINIVAS BETTADPUR, The University of Texas at Austin

GEOFFREY BLEWITT, University of Nevada, Reno

JOHN J. BRAUN, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado

ANNY CAZENAVE, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France

NANCY GLENN, Boise State University, Idaho, and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

KRISTINE M. LARSON, University of Colorado Boulder (emeritus)

R. STEVEN NEREM, University of Colorado Boulder

MICHELLE SNEED, U.S. Geological Survey, Sacramento, CA

ISABELLA VELICOGNA, University of California, Irvine

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

ANNE LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
×

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES

ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, Chair, University of California, Davis

ESTELLA A. ATEKWANA, University of Delaware, Newark

BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City

CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, Geological Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas

NELIA W. DUNBAR, New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Socorro

RODNEY C. EWING (NAE), Stanford University, California

CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

ROBERT L. KLEINBERG (NAE), Institute for Sustainable Energy, Boston University, Massachusetts

THORNE LAY (NAS), University of California, Santa Cruz

ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland

MICHAEL MANGA (NAS), University of California, Berkeley

MARTIN W. McCANN, Stanford University, California

JEFFREY N. RUBIN

JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, District of Columbia

SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

ELIZABETH EIDE, Director

ANNE LINN, Scholar

DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Staff Officer

SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Staff Officer

NICHOLAS ROGERS, Financial Business Partner

COURTNEY DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator

ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator

RAYMOND (REMY) CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant/Research Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

ZUHEIR ALTAMIMI, University of Paris

LAURA BOURGEAU-CHAVEZ, Michigan Tech Research Institute

DON CHAMBERS, University of South Florida

CLARA CHEW, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

SHIN-CHAN HAN, University of Newcastle

SEAN HEALY, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

TOM HERRING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

GEORGE HILLEY, Stanford University

MARTIN HORWATH, University of Dresden

PAUL SEGALL, Stanford University

YOLANDE SERRA, University of Washington

JOHN VIDALE, University of Southern California

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by DANNY REIBLE, Texas Tech University, and KEITH CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25579.
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Satellite remote sensing is the primary tool for measuring global changes in the land, ocean, biosphere, and atmosphere. Over the past three decades, active remote sensing technologies have enabled increasingly precise measurements of Earth processes, allowing new science questions to be asked and answered. As this measurement precision increases, so does the need for a precise geodetic infrastructure.

Evolving the Geodetic Infrastructure to Meet New Scientific Needs summarizes progress in maintaining and improving the geodetic infrastructure and identifies improvements to meet new science needs that were laid out in the 2018 report Thriving on Our Changing Planet: A Decadal Strategy for Earth Observation from Space. Focusing on sea-level change, the terrestrial water cycle, geological hazards, weather and climate, and ecosystems, this study examines the specific aspects of the geodetic infrastructure that need to be maintained or improved to help answer the science questions being considered.

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