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Page 46
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25741.
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25741.
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25741.
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25741.

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46 Adya, M., and K. M. Kaiser. (2005). Early Determinants of Women in the IT Workforce: A Model of Girls’ Career Choices. Information Technology & People, 18 (3), 230–259. Agrawal, A. W., and J. Dill. (2008). To Be a Transportation Engineer or Not? How Civil Engineering Students Choose a Specialization. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2046: 76–84. Amaratunga, D., R. Haigh, M. Shanmugam, A. J. Lee, and G. Elvitigala. (2006). Construction Industry and Women: A Review of the Barriers. In Proceedings of the Third International SCRI Research Symposium, Delft University, Netherlands. Badal, S. (2014). The Business Benefits of Gender Diversity. Gallup. Retrieved from workplace/236543/business-benefits-gender-diversity.aspx. Batac, T., J. Chan, M. DiFrancia, S. Hartshorn, L. Isaac, C. Leary, E. Robinson, and S. Sitaraman. (2012). Women in the San Francisco Bay Area Transportation Industry: A Baseline Study for Future Benchmarking of Women in Leadership Roles. Retrieved from %e2%80%9cwomen-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area-transportation-industry-a-baseline-study-for- future-benchmarking-of-women-in-leadership-roles%e2%80%9d/. Bolotnyy, V., and N. Emanuel. (2018). Why Do Women Earn Less Than Men? Evidence from Bus and Train Operators. Retrieved from Buse, K., D. Bilimoria, and S. Perelli. (2013). Why They Stay: Women Persisting in U.S. Engineering Careers. The Career Development International, 18(2), 139–154. Chanland, D. E., and W. M. Murphy. (2018). Propelling Diverse Leaders to the Top: A Developmental Network Approach. Human Resource Management, 57, 111–126. Chesler, N. C., and M. A. Chesler. (2002). Gender-Informed Mentoring Strategies for Women Engineering Scholars: On Establishing a Caring Community. Journal of Engineering Education, 91(1), 49–55. Chicago Women in Trades. (2017). Moving Forward Toward Women’s Equity and Inclusion in the Rail and Transit Sector: A Toolkit for Increasing Women’s Employment in Traditionally Male-Dominated High-Wage, High-Skill Occupations on the Railroad and in Public Transit Agencies. Retrieved from http:// Cronin, B., L. Anderson, B. Heinen, C. Blair Cronin, D. Fien-Helfman, and M. Venner. (2011). NCHRP Report 685: Strategies to Attract and Retain a Capable Transportation Workforce. Transportation Research Board, Washing- ton, D.C. Retrieved from Dainty, A. R., B. M. Bagilhole, K. H. Ansari, and J. Jackson. (2004). Creating Equality in the Construction Industry: An Agenda for Change for Women and Ethnic Minorities. Journal of Construction Research, 5(01), 75–86. Files, J. A., J. E. Blair, A. P. Mayer, and M. G. Ko. (2008). Facilitated Peer Mentorship: A Pilot Program for Academic Advancement of Female Medical Faculty. Journal of Women’s Health, 17(6), 1009–1015. Florentine, S. (2014). 6 Ways to Attract and Retain Female IT Talent. Retrieved from article/2841636/6-ways-to-attract-and-retain-female-it-talent.html. Fouad, N. A., and R. Singh. (2011). Stemming the Tide: Why Women Leave Engineering. Retrieved from http:// French, E., and G. Strachan. (2009). Evaluating Equal Employment Opportunity and Its Impact on the Increased Participation of Men and Women in the Transport Industry. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 43(1), 78–89. Gilbert, J. A., and J. M. Ivancevich. (2000). Valuing Diversity: A Tale of Two Organizations. Academy of Management Perspectives, 14, 93–105. Gill, J., R. Sharp, J. Mills, and S. Franzway. (2008). I Still Wanna be an Engineer! Women, Education and the Engineering Profession. European Journal of Engineering Education, 33(4), 391–402. References

References 47 Godfrey, J., and M. R. L. Bertini. (2019). Attracting and Retaining Women in the Transportation Industry (No. WP 19-01). Retrieved from Women-Transportation.pdf. Greenways. (Dec. 2014). Women in the Construction Workplace: Providing Equitable Health and Safety Protection. In The Pink to Green Toolkit: Adding a Gender Lens to Green Jobs Training Programs. Retrieved from https:// Hanson, S., and E. Murakami. (2010). Women in Transportation. Public Roads, 73(5). Retrieved from http:// Hegewisch, A. (2017). Bridging the Gender Gap: Creating a National Pre-apprenticeship Program to Prepare Women for the Ironworking Industry. National Center for Women’s Equity in Apprenticeship and Employ- ment. Retrieved from Practice_Revision1.pdf. Herring, C. (2009). Does Diversity Pay? Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity. American Sociological Review, 74(2), 208–224. Hewlett, S. A., M. Marshall, and L. Sherbin. (2013). How Diversity Can Drive Innovation. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from Hubbard, B. J., and S. M. Hubbard. (2009). Activities to Enhance Civil Engineering Recruitment and Coordination with Industry. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2109: 22–30. Huber, R., and R. Maddell. (2018). Diversity and Inclusion Initiatives Thrive with Maximum Leadership Support. Transform Your Performance. Retrieved from Hunt, V., D. Layton, and S. Prince. (2014). Diversity Matters. Retrieved from diversity/41-ISDGBD/GBDExternal/upload/McKinseyDivmatters201411.pdf. Ivey, S. S., M. M. Golias, P. Palazolo, S. Edwards, and P. Thomas. (2013). Attracting Students to Transpor- tation Engineering: Gender Differences and Implications of Student Perceptions of Transportation Engineering Careers. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2320: 90–96. Jauhari, H., and S. Singh. (2013). Perceived Diversity Climate and Employees’ Organizational Loyalty. Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, 32(3), 262–276. Jones, S. J., and E. M. Palmer. (2011). Glass Ceilings and Catfights: Career Barriers for Professional Women in Academia. Advancing Women in Leadership, 31(1), 189–198. Kermanshachi, S., and H. Sadatsafavi. (2018). Predictive Modeling of U.S. Transportation Workforce Diversity Trends: A Study of Human Capital Recruitment and Retention in Complex Environments. International Conference on Transportation and Development. Retrieved from profile/Sharareh_Kermanshachi/publication/321731623_Predictive_Modeling_of_US_Transportation_ Workforce_Diversity_Trends_A_Study_of_Human_Capital_Recruitment_and_Retention_in_Complex_ Environments/links/5b60cd1f0f7e9bc79a72c022/Predictive-Modeling-of-US-Transportation- Workforce-Diversity-Trends-A-Study-of-Human-Capital-Recruitment-and-Retention-in-Complex- Environments.pdf. Kurshitashvili, N. (April 25, 2018). Promoting Women’s Employment in the Transport Sector. Presented at ADB Conference: Gender in Urban Governance and Transport, Tbilisi, Georgia. Loukaitou-Sideris, A., A. Bornstein, C. Fink, L. Samuels, and S. Gerami. (2009). How to Ease Women’s Fear of Transportation Environments: Case Studies and Best Practices. Retrieved from sites/default/files/2611-women-transportation.pdf. Mansfield, P. K., P. B. Koch, J. Henderson, J. R. Vicary, M. Cohn, and E. W. Young. (1991). The Job Climate for Women in Traditionally Male Blue-Collar Occupations. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 25(1–2), 63–79. Mattis, M. C. (2005). Best Practices for Supporting Women Engineers’ Career Development in U.S. Corpora- tions. In R. J. Burke and M. C. Mattis (Eds.), Supporting Women’s Career Advancement: Challenges and Opportunities, Edward Elgar Publishing, United Kingdom, pp. 243–265. Medina, S. (2019). HR: A Key to Diversity and Inclusion Success. Journal of Financial Planning, 32(5), 16. Michie, S., and D. L. Nelson. (2006). Barriers Women Face in Information Technology Careers: Self-Efficacy, Passion and Gender Biases. Women in Management Review, 21(1), 10–27. National Center for Education and Statistics. (2019). Degrees Conferred by Race and Sex. Retrieved from National Transportation Institute. (2017). Women in Trucking (WIT) Index. Retrieved from https:// Packard, B. W. L. (2003). Web-based Mentoring: Challenging Traditional Models to Increase Women’s Access. Mentoring and Tutoring, 11(1), 53–65.

48 Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit Parker, K. (Sept. 2018). Many Americans Say Women Are Better than Men at Creating Safe, Respectful Workplaces. FACTTANK, Pew Research Center. Retrieved from 2018/09/25/many-americans-say-women-are-better-than-men-at-creating-safe-respectful-workplaces/. Payne, S. C., and A. H. Huffman. (2005). A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Mentoring on Organi- zational Commitment and Turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 158–168. Pinarowicz, J., J. Cade, R. Lange, B. Hedman, A. Bondanza, and P. Sherry. (2011). Identification of Barriers to the Recruitment and Retention of Women Intermodal Transportation Workers. National Center for Intermodal Transportation. Retrieved from Powell, A., B. Bagilhole, and A. Dainty. (2009). How Women Engineers Do and Undo Gender: Consequences for Gender Equality. Gender, Work & Organization, 16(4), 411–428. Sax, L. J., and A. N. Bryant. (2005). The Impact of College on Sex-Atypical Career Choices of Men and Women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 52–63. Shaw, E., and A. Hegewisch. (2017). Women’s Committees: A Key to Recruiting and Retaining Women Apprentices. National Center for Women’s Equity in Apprenticeship and Employment. Retrieved from revision1.pdf. Sherry, P., R. Chao, B. Hedman, and J. Mantia. (2016). Workforce Development, Recruitment and Retention, and Promotion of Women and Other Underrepresented Groups in the Intermodal Trucking Industry. Retrieved from Sneider, J. (2012). Narrowing the Gender Gap: Class I Diversity Strategies Help Women Break Through the Glass Ceiling. Progressive Railroading, 55, 22–25. Sullivan, S. E., and L. Mainiero. (2008). Using the Kaleidoscope Career Model to Understand the Changing Patterns of Women’s Careers: Designing HRD Programs That Attract and Retain Women. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(1), 3–49. Transformative Urban Mobility Initiative. (2019). Remarkable women in transport: Female change-makers trans- forming mobility. Retrieved from WomeninTransport_Series1.pdf. TransitCenter. (2018). Want to Improve Transit? Hire (and Promote!) More Women. Retrieved from TransitCenter. (2019). Women Changing Transportation: Danielle Wallace Creates Apprenticeship Programs at King County Metro. Retrieved from danielle/. Turnbull, P. (2013). Promoting the Employment of Women in the Transport Sector—Obstacles and Policy Options. Working Paper No. 298, International Labour Organization. Retrieved from sector/Resources/publications. UITP and ETF (2014). Joint Recommendations: Strengthening Women Employment in Urban Public Trans- port. Retrieved from employment%20in%20urban%20public%20transport.pdf. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2018). Employed Persons by Detailed Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity. Retrieved from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (Jan. 2019). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2019). Employment of Women on Nonfarm Payrolls by Industry Sector. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Labor (2016). 2016 Current Population Survey and 2024 Employment Projections. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Transportation (2011a). Dialogue for Women in Blue-Collar Transportation Careers. Final Report. Retrieved from fall-2011.pdf. U.S. Department of Transportation. (2011b). Women and Skilled Careers in Transportation. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Transportation. (2018). U.S. DOT’s Women & Girls in Transportation Initiative (WITI). Retrieved from Voie, E. (2016). Gender Diversity Makes Good Business Sense. CIO Review: The Navigator for Enterprise Solutions. Retrieved from Watts, J. H. (2007). Porn, Pride and Pessimism: Experiences of Women Working in Professional Construction Roles. Work, Employment & Society, 21(2), 299–316. Watts, J. H. (2009). “Allowed into a Man’s World” Meanings of Work–Life Balance: Perspectives of Women Civil Engineers as “Minority” Workers in Construction. Gender, Work and Organization, 16, 37–57.

References 49 Wilson, J., K. Meyer, and L. McNeal. (2012). Mission and Diversity Statements: What They Do and Do Not Say. Innovative Higher Education, 37(2), 125–139. Women in Trucking. (2019a). Top Strategies for Attracting and Retaining Qualified Drivers. Redefining the Road, 1, 8–10. Women in Trucking. (2019b). WIT Home: Bringing Gender Diversity to Transportation. Retrieved from https:// Women’s Transportation Seminar. (2011). WTS Home: Advancing Women in Transportation. Retrieved from Zhang, L. (forthcoming). An Institutional Approach to Gender Diversity and Firm Performance. Organiza- tion Science. Retrieved from Approach%20to%20Gender%20Diversity%20and%20Firm%20Performance_4c0479f3-9d13-4af8-82da- 7f1713af940d.pdf.

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Women have traditionally been underrepresented within the transit workforce. However, the percentage of women within transit agencies appears to be increasing, and many transit agencies report that the percentage of women advancing into management and leadership positions has also been increasing over the past 5 years.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Synthesis 147: Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit explores the strategies that have been deployed in transit and other related industries in order to attract, retain, and advance women in a variety of roles.

A critical first step to ensure success in these areas is to remove barriers to entry and address challenges women face once employed.

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