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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 215 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Terminals and Facilities • Passenger Transportation Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations— Reference Guide Craig Leiner Ricondo Alexandria, VA Thomas Adler RSG White River Junction, VT

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 215 Project 01-35 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48116-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2020932061 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 215 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Megan A. Chamberlain, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 01-35 PANEL Field of Administration Eva Maria Cheong, San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, CA (Chair) Bakari Brock, Lyft, San Francisco, CA Tracy R. Harrison, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, Atlanta, GA Kiran S. Limaye, KSL LLC, Portland, OR Geoff Morrison, The Cadmus Group, LLC, Washington, DC Gary L. Myers, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (retired), VA Laurie Noyes, Tampa International Airport, Tampa, FL Susan A. Shaheen, University of California - Berkeley, Berkeley, CA Kathleen Brockman, FAA Liaison Rodney Clark, FAA Liaison Aneil Patel, Airports Council International - North America Liaison Sarah Pilli, American Association of Airport Executives Liaison Katherine A. Kortum, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research team would like to express its gratitude to the mem- bers of the panel for their support, insights, and advice throughout the duration of the project. Theresia Schatz, Senior Program Officer, supported the work at critical stages and guided the research team through the various tasks and panel meetings. Craig Leiner was the Principal Investigator from Ricondo, and Thomas J. Adler, Ph.D., from RSG was the Co-Principal Investi- gator. Ricondo led the research on best operational practices and revenue impacts. Other contributors from Ricondo included James Jarvis, Caldwell Kerr, Trevor Klatko, Darrin McKenna, and Mark Taylor. RSG led the research related to the survey of airports, model development, and programming of the simulation tool. RSG con- tributors included Alex Levin, Greg Spitz, and Matthew Coogan. Other subconsultants who contributed were Megan S. Ryerson, Ph.D., and Bruce Schaller, Schaller Consulting. The research team is grateful for the data, perspectives, and materials shared by airport operators, particularly the following airport staff who participated in telephone or on-site interviews: Ben Carpenter, Manager of Landside Operations, Reno-Tahoe International Airport; Angus Davol, Senior Transportation Planner, San Francisco International Airport; David S. Galloway, Ground Transportation Manager, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport; Herald Hensley, Acting Senior Vice President of Parking and Trans- portation Systems, Denver International Airport; Steven J. Holes, Manager of Commercial Vehicle Operations, Metropolitan Airports Commission; Jason Miles, Planning Manager, Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport; Dawn Romitz, Manager of Terminal Operations, Pittsburgh International Airport; Houssam Sleiman, P.E., Director of Capital Programs and Environmental Affairs, Massachu- setts Port Authority; Shirlene Sue, Manager, Landside Management & Airport Permits, Los Angeles World Airports; and Jeffrey Wolf, Senior Manager, Aviation Business Development, Port of Seattle. Industry stakeholders who contributed to the effort included Bakari Brock, Senior Director, City Partnerships, Lyft; Rob Mitchell, Airports Business Development Lead, Uber; and Ray Mundy, Executive Director, Airport Ground Transportation Association.

ACRP Research Report 215 is a Reference Guide for airport practitioners that identifies strategies and practical tools for adapting airport landside access programs to reflect the evolution of ground transportation modes [e.g., transportation network companies (TNCs) and autonomous vehicles]. This Reference Guide also identifies impacts on other airport revenues and operations (e.g., parking and rental cars) for both a current timeframe and a projected 5- to 10-year outlook. This Reference Guide addresses strategies for creating long-term sustainable revenue models, managing curbside and roadway vehicle congestion, assessing customer service impacts (i.e., location of drop-off/pick-up areas, wayfinding terminology), as well as presenting strategies to forecast shifts of customer preferences and demand, including the impact of technology and socioeconomic factors on customer choices and the use of technology and access to data. There is consideration of how the shift in ground trans- portation access, started by TNCs, affects long-range facility design and capital planning. Additionally, this Guide addresses operational considerations and business terms related to enforcement, staffing, and audits that should be considered as new ground transpor- tation agreements are developed. Other considerations include making progress toward airport sustainability initiatives such as the use of fuel-efficient vehicles or alternative- fuel vehicles and achievement of community or accessibility standards or initiatives, in particular, compliance with ADA regulations. Extensive supporting documentation, including a searchable statistical database of the airport survey and the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Simulator Template (an Excel-based simulation template) that shows how the mode-choice model is applied to estimate revenue impact, is available on the TRB website by searching on “ACRP Research Report 215”. Transportation network companies (TNCs) have become an increasingly popular form of transportation since initially permitted at some airports in 2014. While many airports receive significant revenue from TNCs, others have recorded declines in parking revenue and rental car transactions that are perceived to be a direct result of TNC operations. There is also a common perception among airports that TNCs are contributing to the increased conges- tion on terminal curbsides and roadways. Since the introduction of TNCs, airports have also recorded impacts to other ground transportation modes, resulting in a need to adapt airport landside access programs. Now airports are considering the potential impacts of the next wave of mobility innovation such as the development of connected autonomous vehicles. ACRP Synthesis 84: Transportation Network Companies: Challenges and Opportunities for Airport Operators supported the airport perceptions described above. The report also found F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

that TNCs are causing declines in the use of taxicabs and shared-ride vans at surveyed airports. These findings were based on a limited amount of data because at the time the synthesis project was conducted, only a few airports had more than 12 months of experi- ence with TNC operations. Thus, the amount of data available before and after the TNC operations began was limited. The synthesis study recommended further investigation regarding the impact of TNCs on airport revenues and operations. This research, led by Ricondo in association with RSG, includes best operational practices and revenue impacts. The results of a survey of large-, medium-, and small- hub airports were used to develop a disaggregate mode-choice model and a simula- tion tool that estimates revenue impacts of TNCs. The research also compiled park- ing and rental car transaction data from the FAA Certification Activity Tracking System (CATS) as well as from individual airport financial statements in order to assess the trends and impacts of TNCs on airport ground access revenue. Other contribu- tors included Megan S. Ryerson, Ph.D., and Schaller Consulting. Nearly a dozen airport operators contributed in telephone or on-site interviews including Boston Logan Interna- tional Airport (BOS), Denver International Airport (DEN), San Francisco International Airport (SFO), Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP), Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), Dallas Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), and Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT).

1 Summary 3 Section 1 Introduction 3 1.1 Problem Statement 4 1.2 Purpose of the Reference Guide 4 1.3 Approach to Developing the Reference Guide 6 1.4 Audience 6 1.5 How to Use the Reference Guide: Overview and Organization 7 Section 2 Transportation Network Companies—Overview 7 2.1 Emergence and Development of Transportation Network Companies 11 2.2 Outlook 12 2.3 Evolving Transportation Network Company Business Models 18 Section 3 Impact on Airport Operations 22 3.1 Curb Management 22 3.2 Staging Areas 23 3.3 Balancing Changes in Mode Share 23 3.4 Reassigning Pick-Up and Drop-Off Locations Due to Major Terminal Renovations/Capital Improvements 24 3.5 Safe and Secure Customer Service: Driver Background Checks, Driver Training, and Passenger Wayfinding 24 3.6 Developing Constructive Relationships with Transportation Network Companies 24 3.7 Ensuring the Accuracy of Trip Reporting and Program Audits 25 Section 4 Impacts on Airport Revenues 25 4.1 Survey Data 27 4.2 FAA Revenue Data 31 4.3 Public Airport Data 33 4.4 Proprietary Airport Data 34 4.5 Funding Airport Operations and Capital Programs 44 Section 5 Best Practices 44 5.1 Introduction 52 5.2 Summary Tables of Practices 57 5.3 Policy Development, Regulations, and Permits 62 5.4 Transportation Network Company and Ground Access Management, Operations, and Analysis 68 5.5 Business and Revenue Analysis and Capital Programming 73 5.6 Technology C O N T E N T S

79 Section 6 Conclusion 79 6.1 Regulations, Taxes, and Fees 80 6.2 Financial Trends and Impacts 80 6.3 Business Models 81 6.4 Technology 82 6.5 Industry Associations 82 6.6 Airport or Passenger Surveys A-1 Appendix A Annotated Bibliography B-1 Appendix B State-Enabling Legislation, City Ordinances, and Airport Transportation Network Company Trip Fees C-1 Appendix C Updated FAA Certification Activity Tracking System Revenue D-1 Appendix D Acronyms/Abbreviations E-1 Appendix E Glossary Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Transportation network companies (TNCs) have become an increasingly popular form of transportation since initially permitted at some airports in 2014. While many airports receive significant revenue from TNCs, others have recorded declines in parking revenue and rental car transactions that are perceived to be a direct result of TNC operations.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide identifies strategies and practical tools for adapting airport landside access programs to reflect the evolution of ground transportation modes such as TNCs and autonomous vehicles.

A searchable statistical database of the airport survey and the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Simulator Template (an Excel-based simulation template), which shows how the mode-choice model is applied to estimate revenue impact, supplement the report.

In July 2020, an errata for this publication was issued.

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