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Page 107
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Page 109
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Page 110
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25759.
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Page 110

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

E-1 Airport Capital Plan: The document that defines the financial and programmatic expenditures for the capital programs and projects proposed to meet facility needs, as well as agency mission and goals, for a multiyear period. The airport capital plan includes the scope, cost, and schedule data for the programs and projects. Application or App: A self-contained program or piece of software designed to fulfill a particu- lar purpose, especially one that can be downloaded to a smartphone or mobile device. Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI): A long-range radio-frequency identification or micro- wave identification system that automatically identifies vehicles having vehicle-mounted tran- sponders (or tags) as they enter and pass through the range of the AVI system reader (the read zone) without any action by the driver. The term can also be used to refer to the system that records the time the vehicle enters and exits the read zone and summarizes the number of trips made by each operator. Autonomous Vehicles: These are defined by U.S. DOT (2013, ITS Strategic Plan, 2015–2019) as “those vehicles in which at least some aspect of a safety-critical control function (e.g., steering, throttle, braking) occurs without direct driver input.” Autonomous vehicles may be autonomous or self-driving (i.e., use only vehicle sensors) or may be connected (i.e., use communication systems, such as connected vehicle technology, in which cars and roadside infrastructure com- municate wirelessly) (ITS Joint Program Office, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, 2019, How Connected Vehicles Work). Best Practice: As used in this report, those innovative and creative practices that, if implemented, help achieve or support the relevant goals of airport management related to commercial ground transportation services. These include a broad range of standards, strategies, rules and regula- tions, business practices, fees, operational models or methods, facility configurations, support- ing technologies, and other programs used by airport operators to provide, monitor, control, regulate, and enforce commercial ground transportation services. Commercial Ground Transportation: Ground transportation services that require customers to pay a fare for transportation to or from an airport directly (e.g., taxicabs or shared-ride vans). The cost of the transportation may otherwise be included in another service provided (e.g., hotel/motel or off-airport parking courtesy vans). Deadhead Trip: A nonrevenue trip that occurs before picking up a customer or after dropping off a passenger. A P P E N D I X E Glossary

E-2 Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide Geofence: A virtual barrier around some portion of the airport defined by GPS coordinates. Typically used to manage staging area operations. A geofence is used to track all entry, exit, pick-up, and drop-off activity on airport property. Hold Area: An area designated for use by commercial vehicles, such as TNCs, taxicabs, limousines, shared-ride vans, and buses, to wait in (or stage) until they are called to the curbside. Large-, Medium-, and Small-Hub Airport: The FAA’s National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems classifies airports by size, defining four categories of airports by their activity (i.e., the percentage of U.S. annual passenger boardings), with a large hub serving 1.0 percent or more of the boardings, a medium hub serving at least 0.25 percent but less than 1.0 percent, a small hub serving at least 0.05 percent but less than 0.25 percent, and a non-hub serving more than 10,000 boardings but less than 0.05 percent. Placard: An airport-issued sign displayed behind the passenger’s side front windshield or other location specified in airport rules, indicating the name of the TNC, vehicle license plate number, driver identification number, or other required information. Platform: Any hardware or software used to host an application or service. Rematch: Within a defined number of minutes following a customer drop-off on the airport property, the TNC driver/vehicle is dispatched for a customer pick-up. The driver bypasses the staging. A rematch program is an effort to reduce customer wait times for pick-ups and to reduce deadheading and congestion on airport terminal area roads and curbs. Shared-Ride Van/Service: Door-to-door transportation, typically provided to and from an airport, for which the customer shares a vehicle with other parties (as opposed to family members or friends), with fares charged per passenger (as opposed to a fare for the use of an entire vehicle, as is the case with a limousine or chartered bus or van). Staging Area/Holding Area: A parking area, provided by an airport operator, for use by TNC drivers (or the drivers of taxicabs, limousines, and shared-ride vans) waiting to be assigned a customer; this is frequently the only airport location where drivers can receive a customer request. Trade Dress: With regard to TNCs, trade dress refers to the trademarked logos that must be displayed on or affixed to the front or rear windshield as required by local or airport regulations. Transportation Network Company: A ground transportation corporation, partnership, sole proprietorship, or other entity, authorized by a statutory regulatory body, under which an operator provides prearranged, for-hire services for compensation through mobile device application technology that connects drivers of personal vehicles to passengers for transporta- tion to and from an airport. Trip Fee: User fee charged to commercial ground transportation providers (for passenger pick- up, drop-off, or both) so the airport operator can recover costs related to managing ground access services and providing adequate supporting facilities.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 Transportation N etw ork Com panies (TN Cs): Im pacts to A irport Revenues and O perations— Reference G uide A CR P Research Report 215 TR B ISBN 978-0-309-48116-8 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 1 1 6 8 9 0 0 0 0

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Transportation network companies (TNCs) have become an increasingly popular form of transportation since initially permitted at some airports in 2014. While many airports receive significant revenue from TNCs, others have recorded declines in parking revenue and rental car transactions that are perceived to be a direct result of TNC operations.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 215: Transportation Network Companies (TNCs): Impacts to Airport Revenues and Operations—Reference Guide identifies strategies and practical tools for adapting airport landside access programs to reflect the evolution of ground transportation modes such as TNCs and autonomous vehicles.

A searchable statistical database of the airport survey and the Airport Mode Choice and Ground Simulator Template (an Excel-based simulation template), which shows how the mode-choice model is applied to estimate revenue impact, supplement the report.

In July 2020, an errata for this publication was issued.

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