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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25781.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Highways • Planning and Forecasting Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies Michael D. Meyer WSP USA, Inc. Atlanta, GA Simon M. Mosbah Louis D. Wolinetz WSP USA, Inc. Washington, D.C.

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 Project 03-43 ISSN 2572-3731 (Print) ISSN 2572-374X (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48128-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2020935074 © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 216 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Doug English, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-43 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Daniel P. Bartholomew, Troutdale, OR (Chair) Craig Leiner, Ricondo & Associates, Natick, MA Walt Stringer, Mineta Transportation Institute Researcher, Carlsbad, CA Kofi O.T. Wakhisi, Atlanta Regional Commission, Atlanta, GA Keith B. Wilschetz, Los Angeles World Airports, El Cajon, CA Jessica Wyatt, HNTB Corporation, Oakland, CA Michael Lawrance, FAA Liaison Danielle J. Rinsler, FAA Liaison Bill Keyrouze, Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

This ACRP research report offers guidance for enhancing collaboration between airports and metropolitan surface transportation planning agencies. It addresses four key challenges to collaboration: resource constraints, differing priorities/missions, frequent misunder- standing of responsibilities, and differing process issues and planning assumptions. The guidebook’s audience includes planning and executive staff at airports and regional/local planning agencies. Public-use airports, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and local land-use/ transportation planning agencies all have independent yet interrelated planning processes bound by legal and policy requirements to ensure compatibility. This means that they should work cooperatively to solve joint transportation challenges in the most effective and efficient manner. While efforts have been made to improve modal planning coordination, there are limited examples of success with respect to aligning airport ground access plan- ning and MPO surface transportation planning processes. Research was needed to develop guidance for fostering and encouraging meaningful cooperation between airports and these agencies. The research, led by WSP USA, Inc., began with an assessment of current practice through a literature review and an extensive survey effort that was done in cooperation with the Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, the American Association of Airport Executives, and Airports Council International–North America. Detailed case studies were also undertaken to identify patterns of successful airport-planning agency interactions. Based on these research steps, the team developed the guidelines contained in this report. The guidebook provides a self-assessment tool to help airports and agencies assess the maturity of relationships with other planning stakeholders. Key factors include the degree to which collaboration is promoted in the agency’s culture (e.g., interagency collaboration exemplified by leadership, knowledge of its benefits); the extent and depth of collabora- tion (e.g., data sharing, previous collaborative efforts, relationships with staff counterparts at other agencies); and institutional structure (e.g., existence and use of committees and task forces, memoranda of understanding). Once the level of maturity has been identi- fied, readers can then match strategies and tools offered in the guidebook to advance to the next level of collaboration. The contractor’s accompanying final report, available at www.TRB.org by searching for “ACRP Research Report 216,” provides additional detail regarding research results, case study examples, and ideas for education and outreach. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Context 2 1.2 Before Using the Guidebook 3 1.3 Guidebook Organization 4 Chapter 2 Factors Influencing Airports and Public Planning Agencies as Part of Surface Transportation Planning 4 2.1 Enabling Mandates and Purpose 6 2.2 Decision-Making Structure and Governance 6 2.3 Federal and State Laws and Regulations 9 2.4 Financing and Funding 11 2.5 Planning Processes 11 2.6 Challenges and Issues 14 Chapter 3 Collaboration in Transportation Planning: The Benefits 14 3.1 Joint Benefits for the Region 14 3.2 What Does the Airport Gain? 16 3.3 What Do Public Planning Agencies/MPOs Gain? 18 Chapter 4 Self-Assessment Tool 18 4.1 Introduction 18 4.2 Capability Maturity 19 4.3 Levels of Maturity for Collaborative Airport/Public Planning Efforts 20 4.4 Assessing Your Current Level of Maturity 25 4.5 Identifying Strategies to Improve Collaboration 25 4.6 Example Airport Ground Access Applications of the Self-Assessment Tool 37 Chapter 5 Conclusions 39 Appendix Self-Assessment Tool Template 41 Acronyms and Abbreviations 42 References 43 Bibliography C O N T E N T S

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Public-use airports, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), and local land-use/ transportation planning agencies all have independent yet interrelated planning processes bound by legal and policy requirements to ensure compatibility. This means that they should work cooperatively to solve joint transportation challenges in the most effective and efficient manner.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 216: Guidebook for Assessing Collaborative Planning Efforts Among Airport and Public Planning Agencies offers guidance for enhancing collaboration between airports and metropolitan surface transportation planning agencies.

An additional resource is the contractor's final report.

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