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Page 51
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Procedures and Guidelines for Validating Contractor Test Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25823.
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Page51
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Procedures and Guidelines for Validating Contractor Test Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25823.
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Page52
Page 53
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Procedures and Guidelines for Validating Contractor Test Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25823.
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Page53

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51 References 1. Runkle, R. N., and C. S. Hughes. Monitoring Program for Pugmill Mixed Aggregates and Bituminous Concrete, Final Report. Virginia Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, VA., August, 1977. 2. Transportation Research Circular Number E-C235: Glossary of Transportation Construction Quality Assurance Terms, 7th ed. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2018. 3. U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA. Quality Assurance Procedures for Construction. 23 CFR, Part 637B. July 1995. 4. U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA. Subpart B - Quality Assurance Procedures for Construction, 23 CFR, Part 637, April 2003. 5. Implementation Manual for Quality Assurance. AASHTO Quality Construction Task Force, February 1996. 6. Quality Assurance Guide Specification. AASHTO Quality Construction Task Force, February 1996. 7. Rafalowski, M., J. Withee, and D. Dvorak. 2014 Quality Assurance Assessment Report. FHWA, Washington, D.C., December 2015. 8. Rafalowski, M., J. Withee, D. Dvorak, and J. Dietz. Materials Quality Assurance (QA) Assessment, PowerPoint Presentation. FHWA, Washington, D.C., December 2015. 9. Weed, R. M. Quality Assurance Software for the Personal Computer, Demonstration Project 89. FHWA, Washington, D.C., May 1996. 10. Wani, S. S., and G. Gharaibeh. Evaluating the Use of Contractor-Performed Test Results in Highway Construction and Materials Acceptance Decisions. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 19(1), pp. 67–73, March 2013. 11. Killingsworth, B. M., and C. S. Hughes. Issues Related to Use of Contractor Quality Control Data in Acceptance Decision and Payment: Benefits and Pitfalls. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1813, 2002, pp. 247–252. 12. Parker, F., and R. E. Turochy. NCHRP Web-Only Document 115: Using the Results of Contractor-Performed Tests in Quality Assurance. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2006. 13. Turochy, R. E., and F. Parker. Comparisons of Contractor and State Transportation Agency Quality Assurance Test Results on Mat Density of Hot-Mix Asphalt Concrete: Findings of Multistate Analysis. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2040, 2007, pp. 41–47. 14. Reports. U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General. https://oig.justice.gov/reports/. 15. Schmidt, R., A. Hanna, J. Russell, and E. Nordheim. Statistically Based Methods for Verification Testing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1761, 2001, pp. 86–92. 16. LaVassar, C. J., J. P. Mahoney, and K. A. Willoughby. Statistical Assessment of Quality Assurance-Quality Control Data for Hot Mix Asphalt. Report No. WA-RD 686.1, Washington State Department of Trans- portation, Olympia, 2009. 17. Gharaibeh, N. G., S. I. Garber, and L. Liu. Determining Optimum Sample Size for Percent-Within-Limits Specifications. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2151, 2010, pp. 77–83. 18. Arambula, E., and N. Gharaibeh. Methods for Accumulating Construction and Material Quality Test Results and Their Effect on Acceptance Decisions. Journal of Construction and Engineering Management, 140(8), 2014. 19. Cleveland, G. S., W. O. Tam, J. J. Seiders, and J. Travis. Texas Department of Transportation Design-Build Quality Assurance Program (QAP): Lessons Learned and Development of an FHWA-Approved Statewide Program. TRB 90th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2011. 20. Tam, W. O., J. Bowen, D. A. Smith, and T. J. Weight. State Highway 130 Exclusive Development Agreement Construction Quality Assurance Program. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 72, pp. 656–664, Minneapolis, Minn., 2003.

52 Procedures and Guidelines for Validating Contractor Test Data 21. Satterthwaite, F. E. An Approximate Distribution of Estimates of Variance Components. Biometrics Bulletin, 2: 110–114, 1946. 22. LaMorte, W. W. When to Use a Nonparametric Test. Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., 2017, http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/bs/bs704_nonparametric/bs704_nonpara- metric2.html, Retrieved Dec 28, 2017. 23. Levene, H. Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling. (I. Olkin et al. eds.), Stanford University Press, pp. 278–292, 1960. 24. Fligner, M. A., and T. J. Killeen. Distribution-free Two-sample Tests for Scale. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 71(353), pp. 210–213, 1976. 25. Wilcoxon, F. Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics Bulletin, 1 (6): 80–83, 1945. 26. Ludbrook, J., and H. Dudley. Why Permutation Tests Are Superior to t and F Tests in Biomedical Research. The American Statistician, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 127–132, May 1998. 27. Eudey, T. L., J. D. Kerr, and B. E. Trumbo. Using R to Simulate Permutation Distributions for Some Elementary Experimental Designs. Journal of Statistics Education, Vol. 18, Number 1, 2010. 28. Good, P. I. Permutation, Parametric and Bootstrap Tests of Hypotheses. Springer Series in Statistics, 3rd ed. Springer, 2005. 29. Efron, B. Bootstrap Methods: Another Look at the Jackknife. The Annals of Statistics, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1–26, 1979. 30. Derryberry, D. R., S. B. Schou, and W. J. Conover. Teaching Rank-Based Tests by Emphasizing Structural Similarities to Corresponding Parametric Tests. Journal of Statistics Education, Vol. 18, Number 1, 2010. 31. Callaert, H. Nonparametric Hypotheses for the Two-Sample Location Problem. Journal of Statistics Education, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1999. 32. O’Gorman, T. W. A Comparison of the F-test, Friedman’s Test, and Several Aligned Rank Tests for the Analysis of Randomized Complete Blocks. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 367–378, September, 2001. 33. Fay, M. P., and M. A. Proschan. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney or t-Test? On Assumptions for Hypothesis Tests and Multiple Interpretations of Decision Rules. U.S. National Library of Medicine, HHS author manu- script, 4: pp. 1–39, 2010. 34. Kahler, D. L. Why Statistical Validation of Materials Can Be Misleading. 2012. 35. Ruxton, G. D. The Unequal Variance t-test Is an Underused Alternative to Student’s t-test and the Mann– Whitney U Test. Behavioral Ecology, pp. 688–690, 2006. 36. Markowski, C. A., and E. P. Markowski. Conditions for the Effectiveness of a Preliminary Test of Variance. 1990. 37. Zimmerman, D. W., and B. D. Zumbo. Hazards in Choosing Between Pooled and Separate Variances t-Tests. Psicológica, 2009. 38. Moser, B. K., and Stevens, G. R. Homogeneity of Variance in the Two-Sample Means Test. The American Statistician, 1992. 39. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_I_and_type_II_errors#cite_note-Peck-3, Retrieved 2017-09-30. 40. Shuttleworth, M., and L. T. Wilson. Type I Error and Type II Error - Experimental Errors. https:// explorable.com/type-i-error. Retrieved Oct 01, 2016. 41. Peck, R., and J. L. Devore. Statistics: The Exploration and Analysis of Data. Cengage Learning, pp. 464–465, 2011. 42. FHWA. Materials Quality Assurance website. http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/quality.cfm. Accessed on November 5, 2016. 43. Standard Practice for Developing Performance Engineered Concrete Pavement Mixtures. AASHTO PP-84. 44. Ley, M. T., D. Welchel, J. Peery, and J. LeFlore. Determining the Air-Void Distribution in Fresh Concrete with the Sequential Air Method. Construction and Building Materials, 150, pp. 723–737, 2017. 45. Burati, J. L., R. M. Weed, C. S. Hughes, and H. S. Hill. Optimal Procedures for Quality Assurance Specifications. FHWA, Report FHWA-RD-02-095, McLean, VA, 2003. 46. Use of Contractor Test Results in the Acceptance Decision, Recommended Quality Measures, and the Identification of Contractor/Department Risks. Technical Advisory T 6120.3, FHWA, Washington, D.C., August 9, 2004. 47. MATLAB. MathWorks, Natick, Mass. https://www.mathworks.com/products/matlab.html?s_tid=hp_ products_matlab, last accessed April 21, 2019. 48. ASTM E178: Standard Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations. American Society for Testing and Materials, 2016. 49. Burati, J. L., R. M. Weed, C. S. Hughes, and H. S. Hill. Evaluation Procedures for Quality Assurance Specifica- tions. FHWA, Report FHWA-HRT-04-046, McLean, VA., October 2004. 50. Coenen, A. R., J. E. Pforr, S. A. Hefel, and B. C. Paye. State DOT Implementation of Statistical Analysis and Percent Within Limits. 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References 53 52. Standard Specifications for Highway and Structure Construction. State of Wisconsin Department of Transportation, 2018. https://wisconsindot.gov/Pages/doing-bus/eng-consultants/cnslt-rsrces/rdwy/ stndspec.aspx, Accessed April 16, 2019. 53. Quality Management Program—Project Special Provisions and Support—HMA Percent within Limits. State of Wisconsin Department of Transportation, https://wisconsindot.gov/Pages/doing-bus/eng-consultants/ cnslt-rsrces/qmp/default.aspx, Accessed April 16, 2019. 54. Standard Specifications for State Road and Bridge Construction. Kansas Department of Transportation, 2015. https://www.ksdot.org/burconsmain/specprov/2015specprov.asp, Accessed April 16, 2019. 55. Construction Manual. Kansas Department of Transportation, 2015. https://www.ksdot.org/bureaus/ burconsmain/Connections/ConstManual/index.asp, Accessed April 16, 2019. 56. Fisher, R. A. “The Coefficient of Racial Likeness” and the Future of Craniometry. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society, Vol. 66, pp. 57 –63, 1936. 57. Pitman, E. J. G. Significance Tests Which May be Applied to Samples from Any Population. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 4, 119–130, 1937. 58. Improving Specifications to Resist Frost Damage in Modern Concrete Mixtures. Transportation Pooled Fund Program (TPF), Study number TPF-5(297), Start Date May 1, 2014, estimated completion date Sep 1, 2019, https://www.pooledfund.org/Details/Study/541, Accessed June 26, 2019. 59. Quality Assurance Program for CDA/Design-Build Projects with a Capital Maintenance Agreement with Three Optional 5-Year Terms. Texas Department of Transportation, August 29, 2017.

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In the development of a quality assurance program, a state highway agency (SHA) incorporates policies and procedures for assessing how well the materials and construction used by a contractor on a construction project satisfy the agency's specifications.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 946: Procedures and Guidelines for Validating Contractor Test Data reviews and evaluates the procedures and practices used in the acceptance of construction materials. The report also proposes a related practice for incorporation into AASHTO Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing.

Supplemental files to the report include Appendices A through E, available as a single PDF file, a State Highway Agency Survey (Appendix A), Survey Responses (Appendix B), Numerical Simulations (Appendix C), State Highway Agency Date Analysis (Appendix D), and Statistical Tables (Appendix E).

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