Aagaard, K., K. Riehle, J. Ma, N. Segata, T. A. Mistretta, C. Coarfa, S. Raza, S. Rosenbaum, I. Van den Veyver, A. Milosavljevic, D. Gevers, C. Huttenhower, J. Petrosino, and J. Versalovic. 2012. A metagenomic approach to characterization of the vaginal microbiome signature in pregnancy. PLoS One 7(6):e36466.
Aagaard, K., J. Ma, K. M. Antony, R. Ganu, J. Petrosino, and J. Versalovic. 2014. The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Science Translational Medicine 6(237):237–265.
Aagaard-Tillery, K. M., K. Grove, J. Bishop, X. Ke, Q. Fu, R. McKnight, and R. H. Lane. 2008. Developmental origins of disease and determinants of chromatin structure: Maternal diet modifies the primate fetal epigenome. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 41(2):91–102.
Abel, M. H., E. Ystrom, I. H. Caspersen, H. M. Meltzer, H. Aase, L. E. Torheim, R. B. Askeland, T. Reichborn-Kjennerud, and A. L. Brantsæter. 2017a. Maternal iodine intake and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a large prospective cohort study. Nutrients 9(11):1239.
Abel, M. H., I. H. Caspersen, H. M. Meltzer, M. Haugen, R. E. Brandlistuen, H. Aase, J. Alexander, L. E. Torheim, and A. L. Brantsæter. 2017b. Suboptimal maternal iodine intake is associated with impaired child neurodevelopment at 3 years of age in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study. Journal of Nutrition 147(7):1314–1324.
Abramovici, A., R. E. Gandley, R. G. Clifton, K. J. Leveno, L. Myatt, R. J. Wapner, J. M. Thorp, Jr., B. M. Mercer, A. M. Peaceman, P. Samuels, A. Sciscione, M. Harper, G. Saade, and Y. Sorokin. 2015. Prenatal vitamin C and E supplementation in smokers is associated with reduced placental abruption and preterm birth: A secondary analysis. BJOG 122(13):1740–1747.
Allen, L. H., J. A. Donohue, and D. K. Dror. 2018. Limitations of the evidence base used to set recommended nutrient intakes for infants and lactating women. Advances in Nutrition 9(Supplement 1):295s–312s.
Al-Nimr, R. I., R. Hakeem, J. M. Moreschi, S. Gallo, J. M. McDermid, M. Pari-Keener, B. Stahnke, C. Papoutsakis, D. Handu, and F. W. Cheng. 2019. Effects of bariatric surgery on maternal and infant outcomes of pregnancy—An evidence analysis center systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 119(11):1921–1943.
Als, C., A. Helbling, K. Peter, M. Haldimann, B. Zimmerli, and H. Gerber. 2000. Urinary iodine concentration follows a circadian rhythm: A study with 3023 spot urine samples in adults and children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(4):1367–1369.
Andrews, K., P. Gusev, S. Savarala, P.-T. Tey, L. Oh, R. Bautista, P. Pehrsson, J. Dwyer, J. Betz, A. Kuszak, R. Costello, and L. Saldanha. 2019. How accurate is the labeled content of prescription prenatal multivitamin/mineral (MVM)? An analytical pilot study for the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). Current Developments in Nutrition 3(Suppl 1):1515.
Auchincloss, A. H., R. L. Riolo, D. G. Brown, J. Cook, and A. V. Diez Roux. 2011. An agent-based model of income inequalities in diet in the context of residential segregation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 40(3):303–311.
Aydin, S., H. Geckil, F. Karatas, E. Donder, S. Kumru, E. C. Kavak, R. Colak, Y. Ozkan, and I. Sahin. 2007. Milk and blood ghrelin level in diabetics. Nutrition 23(11–12):807–811.
Azad, M. B., A. K. Sharma, R. J. de Souza, V. W. Dolinsky, A. B. Becker, P. J. Mandhane, S. E. Turvey, P. Subbarao, D. L. Lefebvre, and M. R. Sears. 2016. Association between artificially sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy and infant body mass index. JAMA Pediatrics 170(7):662–670.
Azad, M. B., B. Robertson, F. Atakora, A. B. Becker, P. Subbarao, T. J. Moraes, P. J. Mandhane, S. E. Turvey, D. L. Lefebvre, M. R. Sears, and L. Bode. 2018. Human milk oligosaccharide concentrations are associated with multiple fixed and modifiable maternal characteristics, environmental factors, and feeding practices. Journal of Nutrition 148(11):1733–1742.
Bahnfleth, C., R. Canfield, J. Nevins, M. Caudill, and B. Strupp. 2019. Prenatal choline supplementation improves child color-location memory task performance at 7 y of age. Current Developments in Nutrition 3(Suppl 1):936.
Bailey, R. L., S. G. Pac, V. L. Fulgoni, 3rd, K. C. Reidy, and P. M. Catalano. 2019. Estimation of total usual dietary intakes of pregnant women in the United States. JAMA Network Open 2(6):e195967.
Bao, W., K. Bowers, D. K. Tobias, S. F. Olsen, J. Chavarro, A. Vaag, M. Kiely, and C. Zhang. 2014. Prepregnancy low-carbohydrate dietary pattern and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99(6):1378–1384.
Bath, S. C., C. D. Steer, J. Golding, P. Emmett, and M. P. Rayman. 2013. Effect of inadequate iodine status in UK pregnant women on cognitive outcomes in their children: Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Lancet 382(9889):331–337.
Beckhaus, A. A., L. Garcia-Marcos, E. Forno, R. M. Pacheco-Gonzalez, J. C. Celedón, and J. A. Castro-Rodriguez. 2015. Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and risk of asthma, wheeze, and atopic diseases during childhood: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Allergy 70(12):1588–1604.
Bellamy, L., J. P. Casas, A. D. Hingorani, and D. Williams. 2009. Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 373(9677):1773–1779.
Berger, P. K., D. A. Fields, E. W. Demerath, H. Fujiwara, and M. I. Goran. 2018. High-fructose corn-syrup-sweetened beverage intake increases 5-hour breast milk fructose concentrations in lactating women. Nutrients 10(6):669.
Berger, P. K., J. F. Plows, R. B. Jones, T. L. Alderete, C. Yonemitsu, M. Poulsen, J. H. Ryoo, B. S. Peterson, L. Bode, and M. I. Goran. 2020. Human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose links feedings at 1 month to cognitive development at 24 months in infants of normal and overweight mothers. PLoS One 15(2):e0228323.
Berry, R. J., Z. Li, J. D. Erickson, S. Li, C. A. Moore, H. Wang, J. Mulinare, P. Zhao, L. Y. Wong, J. Gindler, S. X. Hong, and A. Correa. 1999. Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. collaborative project for neural tube defect prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 341(20):1485–1490.
Best, K. P., T. Sullivan, D. Palmer, M. Gold, D. J. Kennedy, J. Martin, and M. Makrides. 2016. Prenatal fish oil supplementation and allergy: 6-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 137(6).
Bisgaard, H., J. Stokholm, B. L. Chawes, N. H. Vissing, E. Bjarnadóttir, A. M. Schoos, H. M. Wolsk, T. M. Pedersen, R. K. Vinding, S. Thorsteinsdóttir, N. V. Følsgaard, N. R. Fink, J. Thorsen, A. G. Pedersen, J. Waage, M. A. Rasmussen, K. D. Stark, S. F. Olsen, and K. Bønnelykke. 2016. Fish oil-derived fatty acids in pregnancy and wheeze and asthma in offspring. New England Journal of Medicine 375(26):2530–2539.
Blumfield, M. L., A. J. Hure, L. Macdonald-Wicks, R. Smith, and C. E. Collins. 2012. Systematic review and meta-analysis of energy and macronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries. Nutrition Reviews 70(6):322–336.
Blumfield, M. L., A. J. Hure, L. Macdonald-Wicks, R. Smith, and C. E. Collins. 2013. A systematic review and meta-analysis of micronutrient intakes during pregnancy in developed countries. Nutrition Reviews 71(2):118–132.
Bougma, K., F. E. Aboud, K. B. Harding, and G. S. Marquis. 2013. Iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrients 5(4):1384–1416.
Buonfiglio, D. C., A. M. Ramos-Lobo, V. M. Freitas, T. T. Zampieri, V. S. Nagaishi, M. Magalhães, J. Cipolla-Neto, N. Cella, and J. Donato, Jr. 2016. Obesity impairs lactation performance in mice by inducing prolactin resistance. Scientific Reports 6:22421.
Caffrey, A., R. E. Irwin, H. McNulty, J. J. Strain, D. J. Lees-Murdock, B. A. McNulty, M. Ward, C. P. Walsh, and K. Pentieva. 2018. Gene-specific DNA methylation in newborns in response to folic acid supplementation during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: Epigenetic analysis from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 107(4):566–575.
Carmichael, S. L., W. Yang, and G. M. Shaw. 2013. Maternal dietary nutrient intake and risk of preterm delivery. American Journal of Perinatology 30(7):579–588.
Catalano, P. M. and K. Shankar. 2017. Obesity and pregnancy: Mechanisms of short term and long term adverse consequences for mother and child. BMJ 356:j1.
Catena, A., J. A. Muñoz-Machicao, F. J. Torres-Espínola, C. Martínez-Zaldívar, C. DiazPiedra, A. Gil, G. Haile, E. Györei, A. M. Molloy, T. Decsi, B. Koletzko, and C. Campoy. 2016. Folate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy has long-term effects on the attention system of 8.5-y-old offspring: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 103(1):115–127.
Caudill, M. A., B. J. Strupp, L. Muscalu, J. E. H. Nevins, and R. L. Canfield. 2018. Maternal choline supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy improves infant information processing speed: A randomized, double-blind, controlled feeding study. The FASEB Journal 32(4):2172–2180.
Ceesay, S. M., A. M. Prentice, T. J. Cole, F. Foord, L. T. Weaver, E. M. Poskitt, and R. G. Whitehead. 1997. Effects on birth weight and perinatal mortality of maternal dietary supplements in rural Gambia: 5 year randomised controlled trial. BMJ 315(7111):786–790.
Chalmers, B., S. Dzakpasu, M. Heaman, and J. Kaczorowski. 2008. The Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey: An overview of findings. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 30(3):217–228.
Chan, D., S. Goruk, A. B. Becker, P. Subbarao, P. J. Mandhane, S. E. Turvey, D. Lefebvre, M. R. Sears, C. J. Field, and M. B. Azad. 2018. Adiponectin, leptin and insulin in breast milk: Associations with maternal characteristics and infant body composition in the first year of life. International Journal of Obesity (London) 42(1):36–43.
Chang, N., J. A. Jung, H. Kim, A. Jo, S. Kang, S. W. Lee, H. Yi, J. Kim, J. G. Yim, and B. M. Jung. 2015. Macronutrient composition of human milk from Korean mothers of full term infants born at 37–42 gestational weeks. Nutrition Research and Practice 9(4):433–438.
Chu, D. M., J. Ma, A. L. Prince, K. M. Antony, M. D. Seferovic, and K. M. Aagaard. 2017. Maturation of the infant microbiome community structure and function across multiple body sites and in relation to mode of delivery. Nature Medicine 23(3):314–326.
Cioffi, C. E., J. Figueroa, and J. A. Welsh. 2018. Added sugar intake among pregnant women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2012. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 118(5):886–895.
Cockell, K. A., D. C. Miller, and H. Lowell. 2009. Application of the Dietary Reference Intakes in developing a recommendation for pregnancy iron supplements in Canada. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90(4):1023–1028.
Colapinto, C. K., D. L. O’Connor, and M. S. Tremblay. 2011. Folate status of the population in the Canadian Health Measures Survey. CMAJ 183(2):E100–E106.
Collado, M. C., K. Laitinen, S. Salminen, and E. Isolauri. 2012. Maternal weight and excessive weight gain during pregnancy modify the immunomodulatory potential of breast milk. Pediatric Research 72(1):77–85.
Cordero, A. M., K. S. Crider, L. M. Rogers, M. J. Cannon, and R. J. Berry. 2015. Optimal serum and red blood cell folate concentrations in women of reproductive age for prevention of neural tube defects: World Health Organization guidelines. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 64(15):421–423.
Crider, K. S., A. M. Cordero, Y. P. Qi, J. Mulinare, N. F. Dowling, and R. J. Berry. 2013. Prenatal folic acid and risk of asthma in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98(5):1272–1281.
Crume, T. L., L. Ogden, M. Maligie, S. Sheffield, K. J. Bischoff, R. McDuffie, S. Daniels, R. F. Hamman, J. M. Norris, and D. Dabelea. 2011. Long-term impact of neonatal breastfeeding on childhood adiposity and fat distribution among children exposed to diabetes in utero. Diabetes Care 34(3):641–645.
Czeizel, A. E. 2009. Periconceptional folic acid and multivitamin supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects and other congenital abnormalities. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 85(4):260–268.
Davenport, C., J. Yan, S. Taesuwan, K. Shields, A. A. West, X. Jiang, C. A. Perry, O. V. Malysheva, S. P. Stabler, R. H. Allen, and M. A. Caudill. 2015. Choline intakes exceeding recommendations during human lactation improve breast milk choline content by increasing PEMT pathway metabolites. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 26(9):903–911.
Davis, J. N., S. E. Whaley, and M. I. Goran. 2012. Effects of breastfeeding and low sugar-sweetened beverage intake on obesity prevalence in Hispanic toddlers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95(1):3–8.
De Wals, P., F. Tairou, M. I. Van Allen, S. H. Uh, R. B. Lowry, B. Sibbald, J. A. Evans, M. C. Van den Hof, P. Zimmer, M. Crowley, B. Fernandez, N. S. Lee, and T. Niyonsenga. 2007. Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada. New England Journal of Medicine 357(2):135–142.
Deegan, K. L., K. M. Jones, C. Zuleta, M. Ramirez-Zea, D. L. Lildballe, E. Nexo, and L. H. Allen. 2012. Breast milk vitamin B-12 concentrations in Guatemalan women are correlated with maternal but not infant vitamin B-12 status at 12 months postpartum. Journal of Nutrition 142(1):112–116.
DeSalvo, K., C. A. Stamm, and L. M. Borgelt. 2018. Evaluation of reported contents in prescription and over-the-counter prenatal multivitamins. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (2003) 58(3):258–267.
Dold, S., M. B. Zimmermann, A. Aboussad, M. Cherkaoui, Q. Jia, T. Jukic, Z. Kusic, A. Quirino, Z. Sang, T. O. San Luis, E. Vandea, and M. Andersson. 2017. Breast milk iodine concentration is a more accurate biomarker of iodine status than urinary iodine concentration in exclusively breastfeeding women. Journal of Nutrition 147(4):528–537.
Dror, D. K., and L. H. Allen. 2018. Vitamin B-12 in human milk: A systematic review. Advances in Nutrition 9(Suppl 1):358s–366s.
Elango, R., R. O. Ball, and P. B. Pencharz. 2008. Indicator amino acid oxidation: Concept and application. Journal of Nutrition 138(2):243–246.
Ennis, M. A., B. F. Rasmussen, K. Lim, R. O. Ball, P. B. Pencharz, G. Courtney-Martin, and R. Elango. 2019. Dietary phenylalanine requirements during early and late gestation in healthy pregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 111(2):351–359.
Erliana, U. D., and A. D. Fly. 2019. The function and alteration of immunological properties in human milk of obese mothers. Nutrients 11(6):1284.
Evans, L., and L. Myatt. 2017. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of maternal obesity on antioxidant defense mechanisms in the human placenta. Placenta 51:64–69.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization). 2013. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
FAO/WHO/UNU (United Nations University). 2007. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition: Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Fields, D. A., and E. W. Demerath. 2012. Relationship of insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α in human breast-milk with infant growth and body composition. Pediatric Obesity 7(4):304–312.
Fields, D. A., C. R. Schneider, and G. Pavela. 2016. A narrative review of the associations between six bioactive components in breast milk and infant adiposity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 24(6):1213–1221.
Fields, D. A., B. George, M. Williams, K. Whitaker, D. B. Allison, A. Teague, and E. W. Demerath. 2017. Associations between human breast milk hormones and adipocytokines and infant growth and body composition in the first 6 months of life. Pediatric Obesity 12(Suppl 1):78–85.
Finer, L. B., and M. R. Zolna. 2016. Declines in unintended pregnancy in the United States, 2008–2011. New England Journal of Medicine 374(9):843–852.
Flegal, K. M., D. Kruszon-Moran, M. D. Carroll, C. D. Fryar, and C. L. Ogden. 2016. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA 315(21):2284–2291.
Fowles, E. R., and M. Gabrielson. 2005. First trimester predictors of diet and birth outcomes in low-income pregnant women. Journal of Community Health Nursing 22(2):117–130.
Gamba, R., C. W. Leung, S. Guendelman, M. Lahiff, and B. A. Laraia. 2016. Household food insecurity is not associated with overall diet quality among pregnant women in NHANES 1999–2008. Maternal Child Health Journal 20(11):2348–2356.
Ganz, A. B., K. Shields, V. G. Fomin, Y. S. Lopez, S. Mohan, J. Lovesky, J. C. Chuang, A. Ganti, B. Carrier, J. Yan, S. Taeswuan, V. V. Cohen, C. C. Swersky, J. A. Stover, G. A. Vitiello, O. V. Malysheva, E. Mudrak, and M. A. Caudill. 2016. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis. The FASEB Journal 30(10):3321–3333.
Ganz, A. B., V. V. Cohen, C. C. Swersky, J. Stover, G. A. Vitiello, J. Lovesky, J. C. Chuang, K. Shields, V. G. Fomin, Y. S. Lopez, S. Mohan, A. Ganti, B. Carrier, O. V. Malysheva, and M. A. Caudill. 2017. Genetic variation in choline-metabolizing enzymes alters choline metabolism in young women consuming choline intakes meeting current recommendations. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18(2):252.
Gao, Y., C. Sheng, R. H. Xie, W. Sun, E. Asztalos, D. Moddemann, L. Zwaigenbaum, M. Walker, and S. W. Wen. 2016. New perspective on impact of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy on neurodevelopment/autism in the offspring children—a systematic review. PLoS One 11(11):e0165626.
García-Ravelo, S., N. M. Díaz-Gómez, M. V. Martín, R. Dorta-Guerra, M. Murray, D. Escuder, and C. Rodríguez. 2018. Fatty acid composition and eicosanoid levels LTE4 and PGE2 of human milk from normal weight and overweight mothers. Breastfeed Medicine 13(10):702–710.
Gillman, M. W., S. L. Rifas-Shiman, S. Fernandez-Barres, K. Kleinman, E. M. Taveras, and E. Oken. 2017. Beverage intake during pregnancy and childhood adiposity. Pediatrics 140(2):e20170031.
Giscombé, C. L., and M. Lobel. 2005. Explaining disproportionately high rates of adverse birth outcomes among African Americans: The impact of stress, racism, and related factors in pregnancy. Psychological Bulletin 131(5):662–683.
Goran, M. I., A. A. Martin, T. L. Alderete, H. Fujiwara, and D. A. Fields. 2017. Fructose in breast milk is positively associated with infant body composition at 6 months of age. Nutrients 9(2):146.
Gould, J. F., K. Treyvaud, L. N. Yelland, P. J. Anderson, L. G. Smithers, A. J. McPhee, and M. Makrides. 2017. Seven-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. JAMA 317(11):1173–1175.
Gowachirapant, S., N. Jaiswal, A. Melse-Boonstra, V. Galetti, S. Stinca, I. Mackenzie, S. Thomas, T. Thomas, P. Winichagoon, K. Srinivasan, and M. B. Zimmermann. 2017. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology 5(11):853–863.
Gunderson, E. P., D. R. Jacobs, Jr., V. Chiang, C. E. Lewis, J. Feng, C. P. Quesenberry, Jr., and S. Sidney. 2010. Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: A 20-year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults). Diabetes 59(2):495–504.
Gunderson, E. P., M. M. Hedderson, V. Chiang, Y. Crites, D. Walton, R. A. Azevedo, G. Fox, C. Elmasian, S. Young, N. Salvador, M. Lum, C. P. Quesenberry, J. C. Lo, B. Sternfeld, A. Ferrara, and J. V. Selby. 2012. Lactation intensity and postpartum maternal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in women with recent GDM: The SWIFT cohort. Diabetes Care 35(1):50–56.
Gunderson, E. P., C. Kim, C. P. Quesenberry, Jr., S. Marcovina, D. Walton, R. A. Azevedo, G. Fox, C. Elmasian, S. Young, N. Salvador, M. Lum, Y. Crites, J. C. Lo, X. Ning, and K. G. Dewey. 2014. Lactation intensity and fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin in postpartum women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: The SWIFT cohort. Metabolism 63(7):941–950.
Gunderson, E. P., S. R. Hurston, X. Ning, J. C. Lo, Y. Crites, D. Walton, K. G. Dewey, R. A. Azevedo, S. Young, G. Fox, C. C. Elmasian, N. Salvador, M. Lum, B. Sternfeld, and C. P. Quesenberry, Jr. 2015. Lactation and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. Annals of Internal Medicine 163(12):889–898.
Gunderson, E. P., L. C. Greenspan, M. S. Faith, S. R. Hurston, and C. P. Quesenberry, Jr. 2018. Breastfeeding and growth during infancy among offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus: A prospective cohort study. Pediatric Obesity 13(8):492–504.
Gungorduk, K., O. Asicioglu, O. C. Gungorduk, G. Yildirim, B. Besimoğlu, and C. Ark. 2014. Does vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation prolong the latency period before delivery following the preterm premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled study. American Journal of Perinatology 31(3):195–202.
Gupta, P. M., H. C. Hamner, P. S. Suchdev, R. Flores-Ayala, and Z. Mei. 2017. Iron status of toddlers, nonpregnant females, and pregnant females in the United States. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 106(Suppl 6):1640s–1646s.
Gupta, P. M., J. J. Gahche, K. A. Herrick, A. G. Ershow, N. Potischman, and C. G. Perrine. 2018. Use of iodine-containing dietary supplements remains low among women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 2011–2014. Nutrients 10(4).
Harris, R. A., C. E. Alcott, E. L. Sullivan, D. Takahashi, C. E. McCurdy, S. Comstock, K. Baquero, P. Blundell, A. E. Frias, M. Kahr, M. Suter, S. Wesolowski, J. E. Friedman, K. L. Grove, and K. M. Aagaard. 2016. Genomic variants associated with resistance to high fat diet induced obesity in a primate model. Scientific Reports 6:36123.
Hernandez, T. L., R. E. Van Pelt, M. A. Anderson, M. S. Reece, R. M. Reynolds, B. A. de la Houssaye, M. Heerwagen, W. T. Donahoo, L. J. Daniels, C. Chartier-Logan, R. C. Janssen, J. E. Friedman, and L. A. Barbour. 2016. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus randomized to a higher-complex carbohydrate/low-fat diet manifest lower adipose tissue insulin resistance, inflammation, glucose, and free fatty acids: A pilot study. Diabetes Care 39(1):39–42.
Herrick, K. A., R. J. Storandt, J. Afful, C. M. Pfeiffer, R. L. Schleicher, J. J. Gahche, and N. Potischman. 2019. Vitamin D status in the United States, 2011-2014. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110(1):150–157.
HHS and USDA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture). 2015. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: HHS.
Higgins, A. C., J. E. Moxley, P. B. Pencharz, D. Mikolainis, and S. Dubois. 1989. Impact of the Higgins nutrition intervention program on birth weight: A within-mother analysis. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 89(8):1097–1103.
Hod, M., A. Kapur, and H. D. McIntyre. 2019. Evidence in support of the International Association of Diabetes in pregnancy study groups’ criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus worldwide in 2019. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 221(2):109–116.
Hollis, B. W., C. L. Wagner, C. R. Howard, M. Ebeling, J. R. Shary, P. G. Smith, S. N. Taylor, K. Morella, R. A. Lawrence, and T. C. Hulsey. 2015. Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 136(4):625–634.
Humayun, M. A., R. Elango, R. O. Ball, and P. B. Pencharz. 2007. Reevaluation of the protein requirement in young men with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86(4):995–1002.
Hynes, K. L., P. Otahal, I. Hay, and J. R. Burgess. 2013. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is associated with reduced educational outcomes in the offspring: 9-year followup of the gestational iodine cohort. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 98(5):1954–1962.
IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation. 2018. 2018 Food & Health. https://foodinsight.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018-FHS-infographic-2.jpg (accessed June 19, 2020).
Ilcol, Y. O., R. Ozbek, E. Hamurtekin, and I. H. Ulus. 2005. Choline status in newborns, infants, children, breast-feeding women, breast-fed infants and human breast milk. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 16(8):489–499.
Imdad, A., and Z. A. Bhutta. 2012. Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes: Effect of balanced protein-energy supplementation. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 26(Suppl 1):178–190.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990. Nutrition during pregnancy: Part I: Weight gain, Part II: Nutrient supplements. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 1991. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
IOM. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM. 2006. Dietary Reference Intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM. 2014. Caffeine in food and dietary supplements: Examining safety: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
IOM and NRC (National Research Council). 2009. Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Isganaitis, E., S. Venditti, T. J. Matthews, C. Lerin, E. W. Demerath, and D. A. Fields. 2019. Maternal obesity and the human milk metabolome: Associations with infant body composition and postnatal weight gain. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110(1):111–120.
Jäger, S., S. Jacobs, J. Kröger, A. Fritsche, A. Schienkiewitz, D. Rubin, H. Boeing, and M. B. Schulze. 2014. Breast-feeding and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective study and meta-analysis. Diabetologia 57(7):1355–1365.
Jiang, X., J. Yan, A. A. West, C. A. Perry, O. V. Malysheva, S. Devapatla, E. Pressman, F. Vermeylen, and M. A. Caudill. 2012. Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans. The FASEB Journal 26(8):3563–3574.
Jiang, X., H. Y. Bar, J. Yan, S. Jones, P. M. Brannon, A. A. West, C. A. Perry, A. Ganti, E. Pressman, S. Devapatla, F. Vermeylen, M. T. Wells, and M. A. Caudill. 2013. A higher maternal choline intake among third-trimester pregnant women lowers placental and circulating concentrations of the antiangiogenic factor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). The FASEB Journal 27(3):1245–1253.
Jost, T., C. Lacroix, C. P. Braegger, and C. Chassard. 2012. New insights in gut microbiota establishment in healthy breastfed neonates. PLoS One 7(8):e44595.
Jovanovic-Peterson, L., K. Fuhrmann, K. Hedden, L. Walker, and C. M. Peterson. 1989. Maternal milk and plasma glucose and insulin levels: Studies in normal and diabetic subjects. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 8(2):125–131.
Jun, S., J. J. Gahche, N. Potischman, J. T. Dwyer, P. M. Guenther, K. A. Sauder, and R. L. Bailey. 2020. Dietary supplement use and its micronutrient contribution during pregnancy and lactation in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology 135(3):623–633.
Kachoria, R., J. J. Moreland, L. Cordero, and R. Oza-Frank. 2015. Trends in breastfeeding initiation, continuation, and exclusivity by maternal prepregnancy weight: 2004–2011. Obesity (Silver Spring) 23(9):1895–1902.
Keenan, K., A. E. Hipwell, J. Bortner, A. Hoffmann, and R. McAloon. 2014. Association between fatty acid supplementation and prenatal stress in African Americans: A randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 124(6):1080–1087.
King, J. C. 2000. Physiology of pregnancy and nutrient metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(5 Suppl):1218s–1225s.
Korsmo, H. W., X. Jiang, and M. A. Caudill. 2019. Choline: Exploring the growing science on its benefits for moms and babies. Nutrients 11(8).
Kramer, M. S., S. R. Kahn, R. W. Platt, J. Genest, R. Rozen, M. F. Chen, L. Goulet, L. Séguin, C. Dassa, J. Lydon, H. McNamara, M. Dahhou, J. Lamoureux, and R. W. Evans. 2009. Antioxidant vitamins, long-chain fatty acids, and spontaneous preterm birth. Epidemiology 20(5):707–713.
Kulie, T., A. Slattengren, J. Redmer, H. Counts, A. Eglash, and S. Schrager. 2011. Obesity and women’s health: An evidence-based review. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 24(1):75–85.
Kumanyika, S., W. C. Taylor, S. A. Grier, V. Lassiter, K. J. Lancaster, C. B. Morssink, and A. M. Renzaho. 2012. Community energy balance: A framework for contextualizing cultural influences on high risk of obesity in ethnic minority populations. Preventive Medicine 55(5):371–381.
Lahti-Pulkkinen, M., S. Bhattacharya, S. H. Wild, R. S. Lindsay, K. Räikkönen, J. E. Norman, S. Bhattacharya, and R. M. Reynolds. 2019. Consequences of being overweight or obese during pregnancy on diabetes in the offspring: A record linkage study in Aberdeen, Scotland. Diabetologia 62(8):1412–1419.
Lamers, Y., A. J. MacFarlane, D. L. O’Connor, and B. Fontaine-Bisson. 2018. Periconceptional intake of folic acid among low-risk women in Canada: Summary of a workshop aiming to align prenatal folic acid supplement composition with current expert guidelines. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 108(6):1357–1368.
Lassi, Z. S., R. A. Salam, B. A. Haider, and Z. A. Bhutta. 2013. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3):CD006896.
Lee, S. Y., A. Stagnaro-Green, D. MacKay, A. W. Wong, and E. N. Pearce. 2017. Iodine contents in prenatal vitamins in the United States. Thyroid 27(8):1101–1102.
Lemay, D. G., O. A. Ballard, M. A. Hughes, A. L. Morrow, N. D. Horseman, and L. A. Nommsen-Rivers. 2013. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation. PLoS One 8(7):e67531.
Leung, A. M., A. Lamar, X. He, L. E. Braverman, and E. N. Pearce. 2011. Iodine status and thyroid function of Boston-area vegetarians and vegans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 96(8):E1303–E1307.
Ley, S. H., A. J. Hanley, M. Sermer, B. Zinman, and D. L. O’Connor. 2012. Associations of prenatal metabolic abnormalities with insulin and adiponectin concentrations in human milk. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95(4):867–874.
Li, C., H. Kaur, W. S. Choi, T. T. Huang, R. E. Lee, and J. S. Ahluwalia. 2005. Additive interactions of maternal prepregnancy BMI and breast-feeding on childhood overweight. Obesity Research 13(2):362–371.
Li, R., C. G. Perrine, E. H. Anstey, J. Chen, C. A. MacGowan, and L. D. Elam-Evans. 2019. Breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity among US children born from 2009 to 2015. JAMA Pediatrics 173(12):e193319.
Locksmith, G. J., and P. Duff. 1998. Preventing neural tube defects: The importance of periconceptional folic acid supplements. Obstetrics and Gynecology 91(6):1027–1034.
Looker, A. C., C. L. Johnson, D. A. Lacher, C. M. Pfeiffer, R. L. Schleicher, and C. T. Sempos. 2011. Vitamin D status: United States, 2001–2006. NCHS Data Brief 59:1–8.
Lozoff, B. 2007. Iron deficiency and child development. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 28(4 Suppl):S560–S571.
Ma, J., C. Coarfa, X. Qin, P. E. Bonnen, A. Milosavljevic, J. Versalovic, and K. Aagaard. 2014. MtDNA haplogroup and single nucleotide polymorphisms structure human microbiome communities. BMC Genomics 15:257.
Makrides, M., R. A. Gibson, A. J. McPhee, L. Yelland, J. Quinlivan, and P. Ryan. 2010. Effect of DHA supplementation during pregnancy on maternal depression and neurodevelopment of young children: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 304(15):1675–1683.
Makrides, M., K. Best, L. Yelland, A. McPhee, S. Zhou, J. Quinlivan, J. Dodd, E. Atkinson, H. Safa, J. van Dam, N. Khot, G. Dekker, M. Skubisz, A. Anderson, B. Kean, A. Bowman, C. McCallum, K. Cashman, and R. Gibson. 2019. A randomized trial of prenatal n-3 fatty acid supplementation and preterm delivery. New England Journal of Medicine 381(11):1035–1045.
Markhus, M. W., L. Dahl, V. Moe, M. H. Abel, A. L. Brantsæter, J. Øyen, H. M. Meltzer, K. M. Stormark, I. E. Graff, L. Smith, and M. Kjellevold. 2018. Maternal iodine status is associated with offspring language skills in infancy and toddlerhood. Nutrients 10(9):1270.
Masih, S. P., L. Plumptre, A. Ly, H. Berger, A. Y. Lausman, R. Croxford, Y. I. Kim, and D. L. O’Connor. 2015. Pregnant Canadian women achieve recommended intakes of one-carbon nutrients through prenatal supplementation but the supplement composition, including choline, requires reconsideration. Journal of Nutrition 145(8):1824–1834.
Mayer-Davis, E. J., S. L. Rifas-Shiman, L. Zhou, F. B. Hu, G. A. Colditz, and M. W. Gillman. 2006. Breast-feeding and risk for childhood obesity: Does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter? Diabetes Care 29(10):2231–2237.
McCreedy, A., S. Bird, L. J. Brown, J. Shaw-Stewart, and Y. F. Chen. 2018. Effects of maternal caffeine consumption on the breastfed child: A systematic review. Swiss Medical Weekly 148:w14665.
McCurdy, C. E., J. M. Bishop, S. M. Williams, B. E. Grayson, M. S. Smith, J. E. Friedman, and K. L. Grove. 2009. Maternal high-fat diet triggers lipotoxicity in the fetal livers of nonhuman primates. Journal of Clinical Investigation 119(2):323–335.
McDonagh, M., A. Cantor, C. Bougatsos, T. Dana, and I. Blazina. 2015. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force evidence syntheses, formerly systematic evidence reviews. In Routine iron supplementation and screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women: A systematic review to update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
McNulty, B., K. Pentieva, B. Marshall, M. Ward, A. M. Molloy, J. M. Scott, and H. McNulty. 2011. Women’s compliance with current folic acid recommendations and achievement of optimal vitamin status for preventing neural tube defects. Human Reproduction 26(6):1530–1536.
McNulty, H., M. Rollins, T. Cassidy, A. Caffrey, B. Marshall, J. Dornan, M. McLaughlin, B. A. McNulty, M. Ward, J. J. Strain, A. M. Molloy, D. J. Lees-Murdock, C. P. Walsh, and K. Pentieva. 2019. Effect of continued folic acid supplementation beyond the first trimester of pregnancy on cognitive performance in the child: A follow-up study from a randomized controlled trial (FASSTT Offspring Trial). BMC Medicine 17(1):196.
Meck, W. H., and C. L. Williams. 2003. Metabolic imprinting of choline by its availability during gestation: Implications for memory and attentional processing across the life span. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 27(4):385–399.
Mei, Z., M. E. Cogswell, A. C. Looker, C. M. Pfeiffer, S. E. Cusick, D. A. Lacher, and L. M. Grummer-Strawn. 2011. Assessment of iron status in US pregnant women from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93(6):1312–1320.
Menke, A., S. Casagrande, and C. C. Cowie. 2018. Contributions of A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-hour plasma glucose to prediabetes prevalence: NHANES 2011–2014. Annals of Epidemiology 28(10):681–685.
Merewood, A., K. Bugg, L. Burnham, K. Krane, N. Nickel, S. Broom, R. Edwards, and L. Feldman-Winter. 2019. Addressing racial inequities in breastfeeding in the southern United States. Pediatrics 143(2):e20181897.
Michaelsen, K. F., P. S. Larsen, B. L. Thomsen, and G. Samuelson. 1994. The Copenhagen Cohort Study on Infant Nutrition and Growth: Breast-milk intake, human milk macronutrient content, and influencing factors. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59(3):600–611.
Micromedex Solutions. 2020. IBM Micromedex. https://www.micromedexsolutions.com/home/dispatch/ssl/true (accessed June 19, 2020).
Middleton, P., J. C. Gomersall, J. F. Gould, E. Shepard, S. F. Olsen, and M. Makrides. 2018. Omega-3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020(11):CD003402.
Mitsuya, K., A. N. Parker, L. Liu, J. Ruan, M. C. M. Vissers, and L. Myatt. 2017. Alterations in the placental methylome with maternal obesity and evidence for metabolic regulation. PLoS One 12(10):e0186115.
Mohammad, M. A., A. L. Sunehag, L. A. Rodriguez, and M. W. Haymond. 2011. Galactose promotes fat mobilization in obese lactating and nonlactating women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 93(2):374–381.
Most, J., S. Dervis, F. Haman, K. B. Adamo, and L. M. Redman. 2019. Energy intake requirements in pregnancy. Nutrients 11(8):1812.
Moynihan, A. T., M. P. Hehir, S. V. Glavey, T. J. Smith, and J. J. Morrison. 2006. Inhibitory effect of leptin on human uterine contractility in vitro. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 195(2):504–509.
Munch, E. M., R. A. Harris, M. Mohammad, A. L. Benham, S. M. Pejerrey, L. Showalter, M. Hu, C. D. Shope, P. D. Maningat, P. H. Gunaratne, M. Haymond, and K. Aagaard. 2013. Transcriptome profiling of microRNA by next-gen deep sequencing reveals known and novel miRNA species in the lipid fraction of human breast milk. PLoS One 8(2):e50564.
Nguyen, B., J. Gale, N. Nassar, A. Bauman, G. Joshy, and D. Ding. 2019. Breastfeeding and cardiovascular disease hospitalization and mortality in parous women: Evidence from a large Australian cohort study. Journal of the American Heart Association 8(6):e011056.
NIH (National Institutes of Health) Consensus Development Panel. 2001. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: Phenylketonuria: Screening and management, October 16–18, 2000. Pediatrics 108(4):972–982.
NIH Consensus Development Panel. 2013. National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus, March 4–6, 2013. Obstetrics and Gynecology 122(2 Pt 1):358–369.
NIH ODS (Office of Dietary Supplements). 2020. Dietary supplement ingredient database. Bethesda, MD: Office of Dietary Supplements.
Nilsen, R. M., S. E. Vollset, H. K. Gjessing, P. Magnus, H. M. Meltzer, M. Haugen, and P. M. Ueland. 2006. Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(5):1134–1141.
Nommsen, L. A., C. A. Lovelady, M. J. Heinig, B. Lönnerdal, and K. G. Dewey. 1991. Determinants of energy, protein, lipid, and lactose concentrations in human milk during the first 12 mo of lactation: The DARLING Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53(2):457–465.
O’Brien, K. O., N. Zavaleta, L. E. Caulfield, D. X. Yang, and S. A. Abrams. 1999. Influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplements on supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation, and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69(3):509–515.
Ogundipe, E., N. Tusor, Y. Wang, M. R. Johnson, A. D. Edwards, and M. A. Crawford. 2018. Randomized controlled trial of brain specific fatty acid supplementation in pregnant women increases brain volumes on MRI scans of their newborn infants. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 138:6–13.
O’Neill, K., J. Alexander, R. Azuma, R. Xiao, N. W. Snyder, C. A. Mesaros, I. A. Blair, and S. E. Pinney. 2018. Gestational diabetes alters the metabolomic profile in 2nd trimester amniotic fluid in a sex-specific manner. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19(9):2696.
Pace, R. M., A. L. Prince, J. Ma, B. D. W. Belfort, A. S. Harvey, M. Hu, K. Baquero, P. Blundell, D. Takahashi, T. Dean, P. Kievit, E. L. Sullivan, J. E. Friedman, K. Grove, and K. M. Aagaard. 2018. Modulations in the offspring gut microbiome are refractory to postnatal synbiotic supplementation among juvenile primates. BMC Microbiology 18(1):28.
Palmer, D. J., T. Sullivan, M. S. Gold, S. L. Prescott, R. Heddle, R. A. Gibson, and M. Makrides. 2012. Effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on infants’ allergies in first year of life: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ 344:e184.
Palmer, D. J., T. Sullivan, M. S. Gold, S. L. Prescott, R. Heddle, R. A. Gibson, and M. Makrides. 2013. Randomized controlled trial of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on childhood allergies. Allergy 68(11):1370–1376.
Panagos, P. G., R. Vishwanathan, A. Penfield-Cyr, N. R. Matthan, N. Shivappa, M. D. Wirth, J. R. Hebert, and S. Sen. 2016. Breastmilk from obese mothers has pro-inflammatory properties and decreased neuroprotective factors. Journal of Perinatology 36(4):284–290.
Pari-Keener, M., S. Gallo, B. Stahnke, J. M. McDermid, R. I. Al-Nimr, J. M. Moreschi, R. Hakeem, D. Handu, and F. W. Cheng. 2020. Maternal and infant health outcomes associated with medical nutrition therapy by registered dietitian nutritionists in pregnant women with malnutrition: An evidence analysis center systematic review. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics S2212–S2672(19):31583–31587.
Payne, M., T. Stephens, K. Lim, R. O. Ball, P. B. Pencharz, and R. Elango. 2018. Lysine requirements of healthy pregnant women are higher during late stages of gestation compared to early gestation. Journal of Nutrition 148(1):94–99.
Peña-Rosas, J. P., L. M. De-Regil, T. Dowswell, and F. E. Viteri. 2012. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews 12:CD004736.
Peña-Rosas, J. P., L. M. De-Regil, M. N. Garcia-Casal, and T. Dowswell. 2015. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews (7):CD004736.
Pérez-Escamilla, R., L. Curry, D. Minhas, L. Taylor, and E. Bradley. 2012. Scaling up of breastfeeding promotion programs in low- and middle-income countries: The “breastfeeding gear” model. Advances in Nutrition 3(6):790–800.
Perrine, C. G., K. A. Herrick, P. M. Gupta, and K. L. Caldwell. 2019. Iodine status of pregnant women and women of reproductive age in the United States. Thyroid 29(1):153–154.
Peters, S. A., Y. T. van der Schouw, A. M. Wood, M. J. Sweeting, K. G. Moons, E. Weiderpass, L. Arriola, V. Benetou, H. Boeing, F. Bonnet, S. T. Butt, F. Clavel-Chapelon, I. Drake, D. Gavrila, T. J. Key, E. Klinaki, V. Krogh, T. Kühn, C. Lassale, G. Masala, G. Matullo, M. Merritt, E. Molina-Portillo, C. Moreno-Iribas, T. H. Nøst, A. Olsen, N. C. Onland-Moret, K. Overvad, S. Panico, M. L. Redondo, A. Tjønneland, A. Trichopoulou, R. Tumino, R. Turzanski-Fortner, I. Tzoulaki, P. Wennberg, A. Winkvist, S. G. Thompson, E. Di Angelantonio, E. Riboli, N. J. Wareham, J. Danesh, and A. S. Butterworth. 2016. Parity, breastfeeding and risk of coronary heart disease: A pan-European case-cohort study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 23(16):1755–1765.
Pfeiffer, C. M., M. R. Sternberg, M. Zhang, Z. Fazili, R. J. Storandt, K. S. Crider, S. Yamini, J. J. Gahche, W. Juan, C. Y. Wang, N. Potischman, J. Williams, and D. J. LaVoie. 2019. Folate status in the US population 20 y after the introduction of folic acid fortification. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 110(5):1088–1097.
Piccoli, G. B., R. Clari, F. N. Vigotti, F. Leone, R. Attini, G. Cabiddu, G. Mauro, N. Castelluccia, N. Colombi, I. Capizzi, A. Pani, T. Todros, and P. Avagnina. 2015. Vegan-vegetarian diets in pregnancy: Danger or panacea? A systematic narrative review. BJOG 122(5):623–633.
Prince, A. L., J. Ma, P. S. Kannan, M. Alvarez, T. Gisslen, R. A. Harris, E. L. Sweeney, C. L. Knox, D. S. Lambers, A. H. Jobe, C. A. Chougnet, S. G. Kallapur, and K. M. Aagaard. 2016. The placental membrane microbiome is altered among subjects with spontaneous preterm birth with and without chorioamnionitis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 214(5):627.e1–627.e16.
Prince, A. L., R. M. Pace, T. Dean, D. Takahashi, P. Kievit, J. E. Friedman, and K. M. Aagaard. 2019. The development and ecology of the Japanese macaque gut microbiome from weaning to early adolescence in association with diet. American Journal of Primatology 81(10–11):e22980.
Procter, S. B., and C. G. Campbell. 2014. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114(7):1099–1103.
Qu, G., L. Wang, X. Tang, W. Wu, and Y. Sun. 2018. Association between duration of breastfeeding and maternal hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Breastfeeding and Medicine 13(5):318–326.
Quinn, E. A., F. Largado, M. Power, and C. W. Kuzawa. 2012. Predictors of breast milk macronutrient composition in Filipino mothers. American Journal of Human Biology 24(4):533–540.
Rand, W. M., P. L. Pellett, and V. R. Young. 2003. Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(1):109–127.
Rayman, M. P., E. Searle, L. Kelly, S. Johnsen, K. Bodman-Smith, S. C. Bath, J. Mao, and C. W. Redman. 2014. Effect of selenium on markers of risk of pre-eclampsia in UK pregnant women: A randomised, controlled pilot trial. British Journal of Nutrition 112(1):99–111.
Retnakaran, R., and B. R. Shah. 2017. Role of type 2 diabetes in determining retinal, renal, and cardiovascular outcomes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 40(1):101–108.
Rother, K. I., E. M. Conway, and A. C. Sylvetsky. 2018. How non-nutritive sweeteners influence hormones and health. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 29(7):455–467.
Rumbold, A. R., C. A. Crowther, R. R. Haslam, G. A. Dekker, and J. S. Robinson. 2006. Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. New England Journal of Medicine 354(17):1796–1806.
Rush, D., Z. Stein, and M. Susser. 1980. A randomized controlled trial of prenatal nutritional supplementation in New York City. Pediatrics 65(4):683–697.
Sadr Dadres, G., K. M. Whitaker, J. L. Haapala, L. Foster, K. D. Smith, A. M. Teague, D. R. Jacobs, Jr., E. O. Kharbanda, P. M. McGovern, T. C. Schoenfuss, L. J. Le, L. Harnack, D. A. Fields, and E. W. Demerath. 2019. Relationship of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with breast milk hormone concentrations. Obesity (Silver Spring) 27(4):621–628.
Saldanha, L. G., J. T. Dwyer, K. W. Andrews, L. L. Brown, R. B. Costello, A. G. Ershow, P. A. Gusev, C. J. Hardy, and P. R. Pehrsson. 2017. Is nutrient content and other label information for prescription prenatal supplements different from nonprescription products? Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 117(9):1429–1436.
Saldanha, L., J. Dwyer, N. Potischman, and K. Andrews. 2019a. Folic acid in prenatal supplements: Labeled amounts compared to recommendations. Current Developments in Nutrition 3(Suppl 1):983.
Saldanha, L. G., J. T. Dwyer, K. W. Andrews, and L. L. Brown. 2019b. The chemical forms of iron in commercial prenatal supplements are not always the same as those tested in clinical trials. Journal of Nutrition 149(6):890–893.
Sangkhae, V., A. L. Fisher, S. Wong, M. D. Koenig, L. Tussing-Humphreys, A. Chu, M. Lelić, T. Ganz, and E. Nemeth. 2020. Effects of maternal iron status on placental and fetal iron homeostasis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 130(2):625–640.
Sasaki, S., M. Limpar, F. Sata, S. Kobayashi, and R. Kishi. 2017. Interaction between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and CYP1A2 C164A polymorphism affects infant birth size in the Hokkaido study. Pediatric Research 82(1):19–28.
Schaefer-Graf, U. M., R. Hartmann, J. Pawliczak, D. Passow, M. Abou-Dakn, K. Vetter, and O. Kordonouri. 2006. Association of breast-feeding and early childhood overweight in children from mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 29(5):1105–1107.
Schleicher, R. L., M. R. Sternberg, D. A. Lacher, C. T. Sempos, A. C. Looker, R. A. Durazo-Arvizu, E. A. Yetley, M. Chaudhary-Webb, K. L. Maw, C. M. Pfeiffer, and C. L. Johnson. 2016. The vitamin D status of the US population from 1988 to 2010 using standardized serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D shows recent modest increases. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 104(2):454–461.
Schroder, T. H., G. Sinclair, A. Mattman, B. Jung, S. I. Barr, H. D. Vallance, and Y. Lamers. 2017. Pregnant women of south Asian ethnicity in Canada have substantially lower vitamin B12 status compared with pregnant women of European ethnicity. British Journal of Nutrition 118(6):454–462.
Schroder, T. H., A. Tan, A. Mattman, G. Sinclair, S. I. Barr, H. D. Vallance, and Y. Lamers. 2019. Reference intervals for serum total vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin concentrations and their change points with methylmalonic acid concentration to assess vitamin B12 status during early and mid-pregnancy. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 57(11):1790–1798.
Schwalfenberg, G., I. Rodushkin, and S. J. Genuis. 2018. Heavy metal contamination of prenatal vitamins. Toxicology Reports 5:390–395.
Seferovic, M. D., R. M. Pace, M. Carroll, B. Belfort, A. M. Major, D. M. Chu, D. A. Racusin, E. C. C. Castro, K. L. Muldrew, J. Versalovic, and K. M. Aagaard. 2019. Visualization of microbes by 16s in situ hybridization in term and preterm placentas without intraamniotic infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 221(2):146.e1–146.e23.
Shaw, G. M., S. L. Carmichael, W. Yang, S. Selvin, and D. M. Schaffer. 2004. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. American Journal of Epidemiology 160(2):102–109.
Shepherd, P. R., L. Gnudi, E. Tozzo, H. Yang, F. Leach, and B. B. Kahn. 1993. Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268(30):22243–22246.
Shi, X., C. Han, C. Li, J. Mao, W. Wang, X. Xie, C. Li, B. Xu, T. Meng, J. Du, S. Zhang, Z. Gao, X. Zhang, C. Fan, Z. Shan, and W. Teng. 2015. Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: A cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 100(4):1630–1638.
Siega-Riz, A. M., L. M. Bodnar, and D. A. Savitz. 2002. What are pregnant women eating? Nutrient and food group differences by race. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186(3):480–486.
Simmonds, L., T. Sullivan, M. Skubisz, P. Middleton, K. Best, L. Yelland, J. Quinlivan, S. Zhou, G. Liu, A. McPhee, R. Gibson, and M. Makrides. 2020. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy—baseline omega-3 status and early preterm birth: Exploratory analysis of a randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 127(8):975–981.
Singh, G. K., and J. N. DiBari. 2019. Marked disparities in pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight prevalence among US women by race/ethnicity, nativity/immigrant status, and sociodemographic characteristics, 2012-2014. Journal of Obesity 2019:2419263.
Smedts, H. P., J. H. de Vries, M. Rakhshandehroo, M. F. Wildhagen, A. C. Verkleij-Hagoort, E. A. Steegers, and R. P. Steegers-Theunissen. 2009. High maternal vitamin E intake by diet or supplements is associated with congenital heart defects in the offspring. BJOG 116(3):416–423.
Stephens, T. V., H. Woo, S. M. Innis, and R. Elango. 2014. Healthy pregnant women in Canada are consuming more dietary protein at 16- and 36-week gestation than currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes, primarily from dairy food sources. Nutrition Research 34(7):569–576.
Stephens, T. V., M. Payne, R. O. Ball, P. B. Pencharz, and R. Elango. 2015. Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations. Journal of Nutrition 145(1):73–78.
Stuebe, A. M., B. J. Horton, E. Chetwynd, S. Watkins, K. Grewen, and S. Meltzer-Brody. 2014. Prevalence and risk factors for early, undesired weaning attributed to lactation dysfunction. Journal of Women’s Health (Larchmt) 23(5):404–412.
Suter, M., P. Bocock, L. Showalter, M. Hu, C. Shope, R. McKnight, K. Grove, R. Lane, and K. Aagaard-Tillery. 2011. Epigenomics: Maternal high-fat diet exposure in utero disrupts peripheral circadian gene expression in nonhuman primates. The FASEB Journal 25(2):714–726.
Suter, M. A., A. Chen, M. S. Burdine, M. Choudhury, R. A. Harris, R. H. Lane, J. E. Friedman, K. L. Grove, A. J. Tackett, and K. M. Aagaard. 2012. A maternal high-fat diet modulates fetal sirt1 histone and protein deacetylase activity in nonhuman primates. The FASEB Journal 26(12):5106–5114.
Sylvetsky, A. C., J. Figueroa, K. I. Rother, M. I. Goran, and J. A. Welsh. 2019. Trends in low-calorie sweetener consumption among pregnant women in the United States. Current Developments in Nutrition 3(4):nzz004.
Tan, C., Y. Zhao, and S. Wang. 2019. Is a vegetarian diet safe to follow during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 59(16):2586–2596.
Taylor, P. N., O. E. Okosieme, C. M. Dayan, and J. H. Lazarus. 2014. Therapy of endocrine disease: Impact of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Endocrinology 170(1):R1–R15.
Temple, J. L., C. Bernard, S. E. Lipshultz, J. D. Czachor, J. A. Westphal, and M. A. Mestre. 2017. The safety of ingested caffeine: A comprehensive review. Frontiers in Psychiatry 8:80.
Thompson, M., N. Hein, C. Hanson, L. M. Smith, A. Anderson-Berry, C. K. Richter, K. Stessy Bisselou, A. Kusi Appiah, P. Kris-Etherton, A. C. Skulas-Ray, and T. M. Nordgren. 2019. Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2014. Nutrients 11(1):177.
Tieu, J., A. J. McPhee, C. A. Crowther, P. Middleton, and E. Shepherd. 2017. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus based on different risk profiles and settings for improving maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8(8):CD007222.
Tobias, D. K., J. J. Stuart, S. Li, J. Chavarro, E. B. Rimm, J. Rich-Edwards, F. B. Hu, J. E. Manson, and C. Zhang. 2017. Association of history of gestational diabetes with long-term cardiovascular disease risk in a large prospective cohort of US women. JAMA Internal Medicine 177(12):1735–1742.
USDA ERS (U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service). 2019. Key statistics & graphics. https://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-inthe-us/key-statistics-graphics.aspx#foodsecure (accessed June 22, 2020).
Visentin, C. E., S. P. Masih, L. Plumptre, T. H. Schroder, K.-J. Sohn, A. Ly, A. Y. Lausman, H. Berger, R. Croxford, Y. Lamers, Y.-I. Kim, and D. L. O’Connor. 2016. Low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations are prevalent in a cohort of pregnant Canadian women. Journal of Nutrition 146(5):1035–1042.
Vogt, M. C., L. Paeger, S. Hess, S. M. Steculorum, M. Awazawa, B. Hampel, S. Neupert, H. T. Nicholls, J. Mauer, A. C. Hausen, R. Predel, P. Kloppenburg, T. L. Horvath, and J. C. Brüning. 2014. Neonatal insulin action impairs hypothalamic neurocircuit formation in response to maternal high-fat feeding. Cell 156(3):495–509.
Wallenborn, J. T., R. A. Perera, and S. W. Masho. 2017. Breastfeeding after gestational diabetes: Does perceived benefits mediate the relationship? Journal of Pregnancy 2017:9581796.
Wang, Y., M. Bucher, and L. Myatt. 2019. Use of glucose, glutamine and fatty acids for trophoblast respiration in lean, obese and gestational diabetic women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 104(9):4178–4187.
West, A. A., J. Yan, X. Jiang, C. A. Perry, S. M. Innis, and M. A. Caudill. 2013. Choline intake influences phosphatidylcholine DHA enrichment in nonpregnant women but not in pregnant women in the third trimester. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 97(4):718–727.
Whitaker, K. M., R. C. Marino, J. L. Haapala, L. Foster, K. D. Smith, A. M. Teague, D. R. Jacobs, P. L. Fontaine, P. M. McGovern, T. C. Schoenfuss, L. Harnack, D. A. Fields, and E. W. Demerath. 2017. Associations of maternal weight status before, during, and after pregnancy with inflammatory markers in breast milk. Obesity (Silver Spring) 25(12):2092–2099.
Whitmore, T. J., N. J. Trengove, D. F. Graham, and P. E. Hartmann. 2012. Analysis of insulin in human breast milk in mothers with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Endocrinology 2012:296368.
WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund), and ICCIDD (International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders). 2007. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: A guide for programme managers. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595827_eng.pdf (accessed June 19, 2020).
WHO Secretariat, M. Andersson, B. de Benoist, F. Delange, and J. Zupan. 2007. Prevention and control of iodine deficiency in pregnant and lactating women and in children less than 2-years-old: Conclusions and recommendations of the technical consultation. Public Health Nutrition 10(12a):1606–1611.
Wikoff, D., B. T. Welsh, R. Henderson, G. P. Brorby, J. Britt, E. Myers, J. Goldberger, H. R. Lieberman, C. O’Brien, J. Peck, M. Tenenbein, C. Weaver, S. Harvey, J. Urban, and C. Doepker. 2017. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food and Chemical Toxicology 109(Pt 1):585–648.
Williams, L. J., C. T. Mai, L. D. Edmonds, G. M. Shaw, R. S. Kirby, C. A. Hobbs, L. E. Sever, L. A. Miller, F. J. Meaney, and M. Levitt. 2002. Prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly during the transition to mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States. Teratology 66(1):33–39.
Wu, B. T., S. M. Innis, K. A. Mulder, R. A. Dyer, and D. J. King. 2013. Low plasma vitamin B-12 is associated with a lower pregnancy-associated rise in plasma free choline in Canadian pregnant women and lower postnatal growth rates in their male infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98(5):1209–1217.
Xie, R. H., Y. J. Liu, R. Retnakaran, A. J. MacFarlane, J. Hamilton, G. Smith, M. C. Walker, and S. W. Wen. 2016. Maternal folate status and obesity/insulin resistance in the offspring: A systematic review. International Journal of Obesity (London) 40(1):1–9.
Yamamoto, J. M., J. E. Kellett, M. Balsells, A. García-Patterson, E. Hadar, I. Solà, I. Gich, E. M. van der Beek, E. Castañeda-Gutiérrez, S. Heinonen, M. Hod, K. Laitinen, S. F. Olsen, L. Poston, R. Rueda, P. Rust, L. van Lieshout, B. Schelkle, H. R. Murphy, and R. Corcoy. 2018. Gestational diabetes mellitus and diet: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials examining the impact of modified dietary interventions on maternal glucose control and neonatal birth weight. Diabetes Care 41(7):1346–1361.
Yan, J., X. Jiang, A. A. West, C. A. Perry, O. V. Malysheva, S. Devapatla, E. Pressman, F. Vermeylen, S. P. Stabler, R. H. Allen, and M. A. Caudill. 2012. Maternal choline intake modulates maternal and fetal biomarkers of choline metabolism in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95(5):1060–1071.
Yan, J., X. Jiang, A. A. West, C. A. Perry, O. V. Malysheva, J. T. Brenna, S. P. Stabler, R. H. Allen, J. F. Gregory, 3rd, and M. A. Caudill. 2013. Pregnancy alters choline dynamics: Results of a randomized trial using stable isotope methodology in pregnant and nonpregnant women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98(6):1459–1467.
Young, B. E., Z. Patinkin, C. Palmer, B. de la Houssaye, L. A. Barbour, T. Hernandez, J. E. Friedman, and N. F. Krebs. 2017. Human milk insulin is related to maternal plasma insulin and BMI: But other components of human milk do not differ by BMI. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(9):1094–1100.
Young, M. F., I. Griffin, E. Pressman, A. W. McIntyre, E. Cooper, T. McNanley, Z. L. Harris, M. Westerman, and K. O. O’Brien. 2010. Utilization of iron from an animal-based iron source is greater than that of ferrous sulfate in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Journal of Nutrition 140(12):2162–2166.
This page intentionally left blank.