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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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A Research Strategy to
Examine the Taxonomy of the
RED WOLF

Committee on Assistance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on
Taxonomic Studies of the Red Wolf: A Review of Applications to Carry Out Research
and Development of a Research Strategy

Board on Life Sciences

Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Consensus Study Report of

Image

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Contract No. 140F0918C0005. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68147-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68147-2
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25891

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25891.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

COMMITTEE ON ASSISTANCE TO THE U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE ON TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE RED WOLF: A REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS TO CARRY OUT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH STRATEGY

Members

JOSEPH TRAVIS, Chair, Florida State University

FRED W. ALLENDORF, University of Montana

LILIANA CORTÉS ORTIZ, University of Michigan

MELANIE CULVER, U.S. Geological Survey and University of Arizona

DIANE P. GENEREUX, Broad Institute

KELLEY HARRIS, University of Washington

ELAINE A. OSTRANDER (NAS), National Institutes of Health

P. DAVID POLLY, Indiana University Bloomington

ANNE C. STONE (NAS), Arizona State University

Staff

KEEGAN SAWYER, Study Co-Director

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Study Co-Director

JESSICA DE MOUY, Senior Program Assistant

Consultant

ROBERT POOL, Editor

Sponsor

U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

BOARD ON LIFE SCIENCES

Chair

BARBARA A. SCHAAL (NAS), Washington University in St. Louis

Members

A. ALONSO AGUIRRE, George Mason University

VALERIE H. BONHAM, Ropes & Gray LLP

DOMINIQUE BROSSARD, University of Wisconsin–Madison

NANCY D. CONNELL, Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security

SEAN M. DECATUR, Kenyon College

SCOTT V. EDWARDS (NAS), Harvard University

GERALD L. EPSTEIN, National Defense University

ROBERT J. FULL, University of California, Berkeley

ROBERT NEWMAN, The Aspen Institute

STEPHEN J. O’BRIEN (NAS), Nova Southeastern University

LUCILA OHNO-MACHADO (NAM), University of California, San Diego

CLAIRE POMEROY (NAM), Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation

SUSAN RUNDELL SINGER, Rollins College

DAVID R. WALT (NAE, NAM), Harvard Medical School

PHYLLIS M. WISE (NAM), University of Colorado

Staff

KAVITA BERGER, Director

FRAN SHARPLES, Advisor

JO HUSBANDS, Scholar and Senior Project Director

KATHERINE BOWMAN, Senior Program Officer

ANDREA HODGSON, Senior Program Officer

KEEGAN SAWYER, Senior Program Officer

STEVEN MOSS, Program Officer

AUDREY THÉVENON, Program Officer

MATTHEW ANDERSON, Financial Business Partner

JESSICA DE MOUY, Senior Program Assistant

KOSSANA YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Chair

CHARLES W. RICE, Kansas State University

Members

ARISTOS ARISTIDOU (NAE), Cargill, Inc.

SHANE C. BURGESS, University of Arizona

SUSAN CAPALBO, Oregon State University

GAIL CZARNECKI-MAULDEN, Nestlé Purina PetCare

BERNADETTE DUNHAM, The George Washington University

GEBISA EJETA, Purdue University

JAMES S. FAMIGLIETTI, University of Saskatchewan

FRED GOULD (NAS), North Carolina State University

JOHN HAMER, Data Collective DCVC

DOUGLAS B. JACKSON-SMITH, The Ohio State University

JAMES W. JONES (NAE), University of Florida

ERMIAS KEBREAB, University of California, Davis

STEPHEN S. KELLEY, North Carolina State University

JAN E. LEACH, Colorado State University

ROBIN LOUGEE, Independent Consultant

JILL J. McCLUSKEY, Washington State University

KAREN I. PLAUT, Purdue University

RICARDO SALVADOR, Union of Concerned Scientists

V. ALARIC SAMPLE, George Mason University

Staff

ROBIN A. SCHOEN, Director

CAMILLA YANDOC ABLES, Senior Program Officer

KARA N. LANEY, Senior Program Officer

JENNA BRISCOE, Research Associate

SARAH KWON, Senior Program Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

Preface

This report draws from a large scientific literature, not only the literature on red wolves, but also the general literature on species formation, hybridization and introgression, morphology, and tracing ancestry with population genomics. The answers to difficult, important questions usually lie at the confluence of many different intellectual streams, and understanding the red wolf is no exception to this rule. The committee’s work stands atop a broad foundation of biological research about the evidence necessary to understand the diversity of the various canid populations that may represent the red wolf lineage. The report is also based on the presentations offered to the committee by many scientific colleagues, the comments of those scientists who did not present to us but who generously answered specific questions addressed to them, and the thoughts of all those who contacted us through the study website.

I thank the members of the committee for their dedication and commitment to every phase of this report, including critically assessing a very large literature and sifting that literature to develop a research strategy for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The committee devoted considerable effort to explaining very complicated genomic and statistical issues and making the logic of the research strategy clear. On behalf of the committee, I thank the study co-director, Keegan Sawyer, for her leadership, insights, and masterful manner of persuading us to work ever harder, and I also thank study co-director, Camilla Yandoc Ables, for her guidance and assistance with many aspects of our work, especially her ability to translate some of our rough-hewn ideas for figures and flow charts into excellent aids for presentation. All of us on the committee are grateful to Jessica De Mouy for her support in organizing and conducting our meetings and for her help with all of the technical aspects of the report’s preparation.

On behalf of the committee, I thank all those who informed us about wolves and about the conceptual issues involved in tracing ancestry and discerning relationships among populations. Some of these scientists gave in-person presentations, others presented webinars, and still others responded to written queries. Appendix A is a list of these scientists and how they helped us. The

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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committee’s knowledge of the critical issues was deepened and broadened by the contributions of so many people, and our thinking was constantly challenged by each increment in our knowledge. Everyone who spoke or wrote to us was unfailingly generous with their time and gracious with their patience. The committee’s gratitude for so much effort cannot be overstated.

Joseph Travis, Chair
Committee on Assistance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Taxonomic Studies of the Red Wolf: A Review of Applications to Carry Out Research and Development of a Research Strategy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspective and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Melissa Hawkins, Smithsonian Museum of Natural History

Jennifer Leonard, Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC

Jonathan Losos (NAS), Washington University in St. Louis

Roland Kays, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences

Julie Meachen, Des Moines University

Michael Schwartz, U.S. Forest Service

Aaron Shafer, Trent University

Lisette Waits, University of Idaho

Jeff Wall, University of California, San Francisco

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report. The review of this report was overseen by Dr. Barbara A. Schaal (NAS) of Washington University in St. Louis and Dr. James A. Estes (NAS) of the University of California, Santa Cruz. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25891.
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A Research Strategy to Examine the Taxonomy of the Red Wolf provides independent guidance about taxonomic research on the red wolf, Canis rufus. Building from the 2019 report Evaluating the Taxonomic Status of the Mexican Gray Wolf and the Red Wolf, this report reviews and ranks research applications to determine the taxonomy of wild canid populations in southern Louisiana and other relevant locations. The report then develops a research strategy to examine the evolutionary relationships between ancient red wolves, the extant managed red wolf populations, and the unidentified canid populations.

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