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Models for Law Enforcement at Airports A Synthesis of Airport Practice Heather Monteiro Hickory ridge group, LLc Las Vegas, NV 2020 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation â¢ Administration and Management â¢ Law A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 107
ACRP SYNTHESIS 107 Project 11-03, Topic S04-21 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-48170-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2020940326 Â© 2020 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. Cover illustration credit: Photo courtesy of Anugrah Lohiya from Pexels (open source image) NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.nationalacademies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
CRP STAFF FOR ACRP SYNTHESIS 107 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Marci A. Greenberger, Manager, Airport Cooperative Research Program Thomas J. Helms, Jr., Senior Program Officer Stephanie L. Campbell, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications ACRP PROJECT 11-03 PANEL Joshua D. Abramson, Easterwood Airport Management, College Station, TX (Chair) Debbie K. Alke, Montana DOT, Helena, MT (retired) Gloria G. Bender, TransSolutions, LLC, Fort Worth, TX David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL David N. Edwards, Jr., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC Brenda L. Enos, Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO Linda Howard, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX Patrick W. Magnotta, FAA Liaison Matthew J. Griffin, Airport Consultants Council Liaison Liying Gu, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Adam Williams, Aircraft Owners & Pilots Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison TOPIC S04-21 PANEL LaPonda J. Fitchpatrick, Los Angeles Airport Police Division, Canon City, CO Duane McGray, Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority, Old Hickory, TN Kevin Murphy, Airport Law Enforcement Agencies Network, Vancouver, WA Ryan Riesinger, Grand Forks Regional Airport Authority, Grand Forks, ND Christopher R. Bidwell, Airport Industry Liaison Colleen Chamberlain, Airport Industry Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ABOUT THE ACRP SYNTHESIS PROGRAM Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which information already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This infor- mation may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowl- edge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD By Thomas J. Helms, Jr. Staff Officer Transportation Research Board The focus of this report is on identifying law enforcement models currently employed by airports in the United States. In this report, law enforcement is considered the protection of persons and property in and around the airport premises through the enforcement of applicable laws. Many factors influence the decision about provision of law enforcement at airports, including state laws, the relationship between the airport authority and surrounding governmental jurisdictions, and financial considerations. The goal of this study is to provide a resource to airport policymakers and operators regarding different airport law enforcement models and practices. This study is based on information acquired through a literature review and survey results from 44 airports participating in the study representing various Transportation Security Administration airport security categories and geographic regions. Results of the literature review and survey are presented in this short report. Examples of law enforcement models currently employed at airports are presented in Chapter 14 of the report. Dr. Heather Monteiro synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand.
1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Objectives 3 Limitations of This Synthesis Study 3 Study Method 4 Literature Review 4 Report Organization 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review 5 Overview of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1542 7 Other Federal Safety and Security Regulations 8 Size and Security Classifications 9 Airport Ownership Types 11 Airport Law Enforcement Models 13 Chapter 3 Method 13 Instrument Design 13 Pretesting Results 13 Respondents 13 Survey Administration Details 13 Data Collection 14 Analysis of Questionnaire 15 Chapter 4 Survey Respondents 15 Security Category 15 Ownership Model 15 Type of Law Enforcement Models 15 Airport Owner or Operator Determination of Equipment Access 17 Integration of Law Enforcement and Operations 17 Airport-Specific Training 17 LEOs at Security Checkpoints 17 LEO Access to Airfield 18 Difference between Airport Police and Security 18 LEO Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources C O N T E N T S
19 Chapter 5 Airport Police Department Model 20 Category 20 Ownership Model 20 Interface between Ownership Agency and/or Airport Operator and the Law Enforcement Model 21 Interface between TSA and Law Enforcement 22 Financial Aspects 22 Jurisdiction 22 Management of LEOs 24 LEO Operations 25 Police versus Airport Security 25 Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources 26 Chapter 6 City Police Department Model 27 Category 27 Ownership Model 27 Interface between Ownership Agency and/or Airport Operator and the Law Enforcement Model 28 Interface between TSA and Law Enforcement 28 Financial Aspects 29 Jurisdiction 29 Management of LEOs 30 LEO Operations 31 Police versus Airport Security 31 Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources 32 Chapter 7 County Sheriff Model 32 Category 33 Ownership Model 33 Interface between Ownership Agency and/or Airport Operator and the Law Enforcement Model 34 Interface between TSA and Law Enforcement 34 Financial Aspects 35 Jurisdiction 35 Management of LEOs 35 LEO Operations 36 Police versus Airport Security 36 Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources 37 Chapter 8 Department of Public Safety Model 37 Category 37 Ownership Model 38 Interface between Ownership Agency and/or Airport Operator and the Law Enforcement Model 38 Interface between TSA and Law Enforcement 38 Financial Aspects 39 Jurisdiction 39 Management of LEOs 40 LEO Operations 40 Police versus Airport Security 40 Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources
41 Chapter 9 State Police Model 41 Category 41 Ownership Model 41 Interface between Ownership Agency and/or Airport Operator and the Law Enforcement Model 42 Interface between TSA and Law Enforcement 42 Financial Aspects 42 Jurisdiction 43 Management of LEOs 43 LEO Operations 44 Police versus Airport Security 44 Access to Ancillary Operations and Resources 45 Chapter 10 Supplementing Law Enforcement Personnel 45 Emergency Response 46 National Agencies 47 Private Security 47 Professional Societies 48 Chapter 11 Fixed-Post Response versus Flexible Response 48 Fixed-Post Positioning 49 Flexible Response 49 Case Example 50 Chapter 12 Considerations for Selecting Models 50 Costs and Benefits 50 Level of Control 50 Response Time 51 Liability 52 Chapter 13 Why Do Airports Change Models? 52 Improvements in Operations 52 Incidents and Responses 53 Politics 53 Revenue and Cost 54 Chapter 14 Case Examples 54 Airport Police 55 City Police 57 County Sheriff 57 Department of Public Safety 58 State Police 60 Chapter 15 Conclusions and Knowledge Gaps 62 References 66 Abbreviations A-1 Appendix A Survey Questionnaire B-1 Appendix B List of Respondents Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.