National Academies Press: OpenBook

Escalator Falls (2020)

Chapter: Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - Survey Results Data Tables." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Escalator Falls. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25899.
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72 Survey Results Data Tables A P P E N D I X C Number of Level Changes 0 1 2 3 On average, how many vertical level changes do departing passengers go through from the departure curb to departure lounge? 6 (42%) 5 (50%) 0% 1 (8%) On average, how many level changes are there before checked baggage drop-off? 8 (67%) 4 (33%) 0% 0% On average, how many level changes are there after checked baggage drop-off? 4 (33%) 8 (67%) 0% 0% In general, how many vertical level changes do domestic arriving passengers go through from arriving gate to baggage-claim level? 2 (17%) 10 (83%) 0% 0% How many vertical level changes do international arriving passengers go through from arriving gate to baggage-claim level? 4 (33%) 6 (50%) 1 (8%) 1 (8%) Table C-2. Summary of co-location. Co-location Yes No Escalators are co-located with stairs 11 (88%) 1 (12%) Escalators are co-located with elevators 10 (83%) 2 (17%) Escalators are co-located with both stairs and elevators 8 (67%) 4 (33%) Escalators are not co-located with either stairs or elevators 1 (8%) 10 (92%) Escalators are located on the main path of travel 11 (92%) 1 (8%) Elevators are located on the main path of travel 8 (67%) 4 (33%) Stairs are located on the main path of travel 8 (67%) 4 (33%) Some arriving passengers arriving at remote curbs or parking garages must use escalators or elevators before ticketing and check-in 9 (75%) 3 (25%) Table C-1. Summary of terminal-level changes.

Survey Results Data Tables 73 Table C-3. Summary of wayfinding and signage. Wayfinding and Signage Yes No Is the location of the elevator clearly visible on the path of travel? 8 (67%) 4 (33%) Are there signs at the entrances to escalators to show where the nearest elevator is located? 7 (58%) 5 (42%) Can the elevator sign be seen by a person using a wheelchair? 12 (100%) 0 (0%) Table C-4. Attractive distractions near the escalator. Attractive Distractors Yes No No Response Advertising 9 (75%) 3 (25%) 0% Loudspeakers 3 (25%) 8 (67%) 1 (8%) Flight Information Display System 2 (17%) 9 (75%) 1 (8%) Sloping areas that can be used as slides 2 (17%) 10 (83%) 0% Other 1 (9%) 4 (33%) 7 (58%) Escalator Condition Yes No No Response Misuse of out-of-service escalators 2 (17%) 4 (33%) 6 (50%) Sudden stops 2 (17%) 3 (25%) 7 (58%) Overloading 3 (25%) 4 (33%) 5 (42%) Table C-5. Summary of escalator condition responses. Maintenance 1 (8%) 5 (42%) 6 (50%) Other 1 (8%) 2 (17%) 9 (75%)

74 Escalator Falls Table C-6. Summary of general incident descriptions. Other (general description of incidents) Yes No No Response Overcrowding 1 (8%) 7 (58%) 4 (33%) Slips and falls 9(75%) 0% 3 (25%) Pushed or bumped 1 (8%) 6 (50%) 5 (42%) Improper use (playing on escalator) 4(33%) 4 (33%) 4 (33%) Distraction 5(42%) 4 (33%) 3 (25%) Service animal 0% 7 (58%) 5 (42%) Animal (companion or other) 2(17%) 6 (50%) 4 (33%) Table C-7. Description of escalator congestion management. Escalator Congestion Management Yes No No Response Does this include changing the speed of the escalator? 0 (0%) 4 (33%) 8 (67%) Does this include providing staff to manage the crowd? 3(25%) 1 (8%) 8 (67%) Are there bollards or other physical measures to manage crowding and escalator entrances and egress? 3 (25%) 1 (8%) 8 (67%) Escalator Maintenance Yes No No Response Table C-8. Questions on escalator maintenance. Is escalator maintenance conducted on a regular schedule? 11 (92%) Is escalator maintenance conducted only as needed? 0 (0%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%) Is escalator maintenance conducted by airport maintenance staff? 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Is escalator maintenance contracted out? 3 (25%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Are passengers permitted to use out-of-service escalators as stairs? 2 (17%) 9 (75%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)0 (0%)

Survey Results Data Tables 75 Table C-9. Questions on airport operations. Questions on Airport Operations Yes No No Response Does the airport have “feet on the ground” or “ambassadors”? 11 (92%) 1 (8%) 0 (0%) Does the airport have an active program to improve the overall safety culture? 10 (83%) 2 (17%) 0 (0%) Does the airport have public service announcements, public outreach or education programs to promote escalator safety? 1 (8%) 10 (83%) 1 (8%) Do you have standard forms for reporting escalator incidents? 12 (100%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Are these forms part of an airport risk-management database? 9 (75%) 3 (25%) 0 (0%) Are escalator incidents included in the airport risk-management databases? 9 (75%) 2 (8%) 1 (17%)

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 ISBN 978-0-309-48173-1 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 8 1 7 3 1 9 0 0 0 0

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Escalator falls are a significant concern for risk management staff at airports and in mass transit systems. The major differences between the airport and transit environments are the amount of baggage carried onto the escalator and the level of unfamiliarity of people with the escalator environment in airports.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Synthesis 109: Escalator Falls identifies and describes methods to mitigate risks associated with escalator usage.

Risk management professionals from both the airport and transit environments have expressed interest in developing common reporting schemes and more robust data analysis to identify common causes of escalator falls.

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