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1 Introduction Airports collect data on their operations, facilities, passengers, and other activities on a daily basis. In addition to statistical analyses and federally mandated reporting requirements, data is essential in risk-based decisionmaking. The analysis of operations data to enhance aviation safety requires access to data along with appropriate application and translation of the data to make informed, risk-based decisions. Risk-based decisionmaking is a proactive approach to address emerging risk by using data-informed approaches to make smarter decisions to address or reduce risk. As airports develop their risk management processes, the collection and sharing of real-time and historic data allows airports to monitor and understand trends and to bench- mark against the industry. The collection of operations and safety data that could be deemed sensitive is a challenge and concern to many airports because of the potential use of data out of context. Nonetheless, analysis of operations- and safety-related data is a necessary component in identifying and mitigating risks and hazards. A key challenge to risk-based decisionmaking is the need for a standardized taxonomy, data standards, and exchange protocols. Developing a common taxonomy requires an under- standing of airport hazards and their associated risks and outcomes to identify key data sets that will consistently allow users (e.g., airports and stakeholders) to conduct analyses of performance metrics and trends to inform the risk assessment process. Other key input includes consideration of legal issues and state Sunshine laws and their impact on collecting and sharing sensitive airport data. C H A P T E R 1 Key Insights â¢ This Guidebook is intended to provide information and assist any size airport with identifying operations and safety data to collect and share for risk-based decision management. â¢ An extensive literature review and outreach to airport operations and safety managers (U.S. and international staff) was conducted to seek input for risk-based decisionmaking data collection and sharing. â¢ This Guidebook does not recreate all operations and safety data that can be collected or that is available but rather serves as a compass to direct airports to the resources pertinent to their needs in managing risk-based decisionmaking and sharing of data. â¢ While the airport industry lacks a sole source of data, this Guidebook provides a potential roadmap to a future safety and operations national database.
2 Collecting and Sharing of Operations and Safety Data For example, the Federal Aviation Administrationâs (FAAâs) Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing System (ASIAS) was established to promote an open platform for collect- ing and sharing aviation safety data (FAA 2019a). By hosting a publicly accessible database for collecting and storing aviation safety data, researchers have a resource for investigating the magnitude and trends involving emerging safety issues. Although ASIAS is a work in progress, it has the potential to allow airports to contribute safety data to the collective database, to analyze recurring events, and to share lessons learned for enhancing aviation safety. This Guidebook is designed to help airport staff identify operations and safety data that airports can and should collect to develop or enhance their systemic approach to risk-based decisionmaking and to allow for benchmark comparisons with other airports and sharing of data with stakeholders. 1.1 How to Use This Guidebook This Guidebook provides airport owners, operators, and staff with recommendations regarding the collection, analysis, and sharing of operations and safety data that can enhance risk-based decisionmaking. The Guidebook user will better understand the types of data avail- able, the sources of the data, and methods by which data can be used to perform benchmarking and performance comparisons internal to the airport and against other airports. Through the use of this Guidebook, airport professionals will better understand the categories of risk they face in operations, availability of information that can be used to assess and mitigate risks, and identify challenges and issues impacting data collection and sharing. The Guidebook provides a view into the role the airport might play in improving the performance of airport processes and of airport tenants and airlines. This Guidebook draws from airport industry experts to provide âhow toâ guidance for the application of operations and safety data from various internal and external sources. Many airports may readily collect data for these data sources but may be inexperienced in how to interpret the data or determine solutions and best practices to identify the issues or challenges for operations and safety. This Guidebook is intended to serve as a resource to fill in data gaps and identify best practices and tools that airports can use to address operations and safety issues. The best practices and tools within this Guidebook include data sources, examples, tables, and graphics to provide guidance and additional resources for data collection and review. This Guidebook provides illustrative examples of airports and air transportation organizations that are pursuing initiatives to provide actionable knowledge to decisionmakers through data collecting, analysis, depiction, and sharing. This Guidebook identifies how airports of various sizes, complexities, and ownership might adopt some of these practices to improve their own performance levels. While most airports will have many common elements, it is recognized that each airport will invariably have unique characteristics, which may result in varying ways to use this Guidebook and collect data. A number of the recommendations are made to provide a wider and improved ability to collect and share standardized formats of data. This Guidebook should be viewed as a starting point, rather than a final destination, when it comes to airport performance improvement strategies. This Guidebook should not be considered the single authoritative source on airport opera- tions and safety data collection and sharing. Users of this Guidebook need to remember that many of the topics addressed may evolve over time.
Introduction 3 1.2 Organization of the Guidebook This Guidebook is organized to allow airport staff to easily collect and access operations and safety data from a variety of data sources. â¢ Chapter 1, Introduction, provides an overview of this Guidebook and use strategies. â¢ Chapter 2, Stakeholders, identifies the various airport stakeholders within the aviation system and their roles and relationships with the airport. â¢ Chapter 3, Operations and Safety Data and Their Uses, describes data sources for a variety of aviation operations and safety data and related information, such as types of accidents, incidents, near misses, and other event data that airports commonly track or may want to track as well as other sources of data that provide actionable operational insight. Chapter 3 also includes examples of how to leverage operations and safety data for data analysis, such as benchmarking, trend analysis, hazard identification, and situational awareness. â¢ Chapter 4, Developing an Operations and Safety Database, describes several challenges airport operators face in collecting and sharing data. In addition, this chapter reviews how to collect meaningful data specific to each component of the airport (e.g., airfield, ramp, terminal, curb); the means for storing data in a standardized format; and sharing data across a variety of platforms and databases. â¢ Chapter 5, The Path Forward, provides insight into data collection needs to support future visualization and analysis, particularly a national database to allow sharing and comparisons among airports. 1.3 Benefits of Effective Data Usage There are many benefits of collecting and using operations and safety data. From a practical standpoint, data collection provides airport owners and operators with current or real-time data and the ability to predict how their airport will perform in the future relative to safety and operations. The most practical benefit of reviewing historical data is the ability to begin to predict and proactively manage safety. Safety data by itself does not enable this ability; however, combining it with operations data provides context for safety data, making it more compelling. In addition, collecting operations data provides the means to propose improvements that may result in reduced operations and maintenance costs. Reviewing data and using available data enables proactive risk-based decisionmaking by airport management. The airport can offer services to passengers and tenants where and when necessary. Proactive management can help control costs, minimize duplicative efforts, and foster efficient operations and cost models. This is attractive to airlines because they are keen on controlling airport costs (although on average, airport service costs comprise less than 10% of total airline operating costs) (FAA Office of Aviation Policy and Plans 2007). Because airlines operate on tight margins, the ability to control airport costs (to the extent practicable) is important. An airport that demonstrates proactive management and efficient operations becomes a partner with the airlines and not necessarily a business adversary.