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143 Questions for each interviewee were selected from a question bank that covered a variety of topics for this research. Not every transit agency or organization interviewee was asked the same questions, but rather was asked a subset of the questions listed as follows: â¢ Transit Network Redesigns: How and why are transit agencies conducting them and what benefits are resulting? â What were the goals of the redesign process (or comprehensive transit plan), and why did the transit agency conduct one. What was the driving force? ï¿½ Were there findings from an existing analysis that lead decisionmakers to pursue a redesign? ï¿½ Who were the stakeholders involved in pursuing a redesign? ï¿½ When was the decision made to pursue a redesign? Was there any relationship with this decision to the arrival of new mobility services? â Was there any single overarching philosophy or goal of the redesign (e.g., change balance between frequency and coverage, increase access to job centers, etc.)? â What were the major barriers encountered in the redesign process (e.g., political and public support, funding, consideration of trade-offs in various service design approaches, such as frequency versus coverage), and were they overcome? â How were the needs of specific populations (e.g., disability community, Title VI protected populations) analyzed and incorporated in the process? â What process did you utilize to identify any Title VI impacts of the network redesign? How did you analyze the potential Title VI impacts for the use of TNCs or micromobility? â Were there any specific considerations given to the potential impacts on affordable housing? â How were stakeholders and the public engaged; how did you involve the operator/union in the redesign process, and what were there key concerns? ï¿½ How did you create âbuy-inâ for the process from both internal and external stakeholders? â How did the transit agency address other areas, such as integration with other regional transit providers, and whether the redesign went beyond the bus network? â How did the transit agency deal with related capital improvements, such as bus-priority treatments as part of the redesign? â What metrics did you use to describe costs and benefits of the redesign? â What were the successes or failures of the redesign, both in terms of the process and expected versus actual outcomes? ï¿½ How has the public perceived the redesign? â¢ Transit Network Redesigns and Service Planning: How has transit service planning responded to new mobility options and changing customer expectations and preferences? â How were customer expectations and preferences explored during the transit network redesign process? A P P E N D I X Question Bank for Interviews
144 Redesigning Transit Networks for the New Mobility Future â In your redesign, how did you weigh the needs of high- and low-density areas? How did you measure impacts to service in low-density areas? â If new mobility options, such as TNCs, micromobility, microtransit, and autonomous vehicles (AVs), were incorporated or considered in a redesign, how were the impacts of these options analyzed in terms of current and potential impacts on system ridership and travel patterns? ï¿½ How were the impacts of these options considered in the context of developing transit network redesigns and service planning? â¢ Transit Agency Partnerships with TNCs, Micromobility, On-Demand Microtransit Services, and AV Pilots: How are fixed route transit providers adapting to and leveraging the techno- logical advances and new services in the marketplace? â What has been your experience to date with current or past partnerships with TNCs, micromobility, microtransit, and AVs operators? â What service model does the provider you contracted with use (i.e., DRT, deviated fixed route, etc.)? â Do you feel the private provider(s) you are working with is best suited to providing a certain trip type, or service in a certain type of area, that transit may not be best suited for? â How is the service/partnership integrated with your fixed route service? â How have these partnerships been structured in terms of shared goals? â How are costs and benefits and overall performance measured in your partnership(s)? â Did the outcomes of your partnership differ from what you expected? How was âsuccessâ defined? â What have been the ridership and reliability results of the service? How (if at all) has it impacted the transit agencyâs fixed route service ridership, reliability, or other key metrics? â How did you engage the public in the development of this partnership, if at all? How was the public informed/marketed the service, and what has been the public response to using your partnership with the private provider? â Have you encountered any implications regarding equity and accessibility issues by using private sector partners for the provision of some services? How were the needs of specific communities (e.g., seniors, Title VI protected populations, disability community) consid- ered in the development of the service/partnership? â What type of procurement contract did you enter into with TNCs? How does this compare with what are considered industry âbest practicesâ or your transit agencyâs typical practices? â Broadly, in your view, what types of partnerships with TNCs, micromobility, on-demand transit services, and/or AV shuttle providers are a value-add for transit agencies? â Are there lessons learned for incorporating TNCs, micromobility, microtransit, and AV shuttle providers as vendors or partners for transit agencies, including contractual, liability, procurement, labor, regulatory, and other legal and organizational considerations? â How may the development of new mobility options and AVs change service delivery/design for transit agencies in the mid- to long-term? â How are new mobility options changing customer expectations for public transit? â¢ Questions for Private Sector Providers â What problems have the potential to be solved through partnerships between public transit agencies and private sector partners? What new challenges are created through these partnerships? â Describe your experience to date with public transit agency partnerships. Did the outcomes of your partnership differ from what you expected? How was âsuccessâ defined? â What have been the ridership and reliability results of your experiences partnering with a public transit agency? â How have you used or provided data and other information to better inform the decision- making process?
Question Bank for Interviews 145 â How have these partnerships been structured in terms of shared goals? â How were the needs of specific communities (e.g., seniors, Title VI protected popula- tions, disability community) considered and addressed in the development of the service/ partnership? â How were procurement regulations considered and addressed in the development of the service/partnership? â Describe your experience in navigating public transit agenciesâ procurement processes, including suggestions to improve it. â¢ Questions for Third-Party Experts with professional research or practical experience related to public transportation and/or new mobility options â What do you consider to be the unique challenges facing transit agencies today? What does transit need to be competitive? â What elements should transit agencies evaluate when considering a redesign? How should transit agencies prepare for the start of a system redesign process? â What are some of the political challenges associated with bus network redesigns, and how might transit agencies overcome these institutional and political barriers? â Are private providers best suited to providing a certain trip type or service that transit agencies may not be best suited for? â What are some guidelines for establishing performance-based incentives in contracts with private contractors to achieve public sector goals? â What are the legal considerations associated with partnering with the private sector? What are the labor considerations? â Which regions offer examples of best practices for partnerships between public transit agencies and private sector partners? â How can transit agencies work with other levels of government or governmental depart- ments to create a level playing field with new mobility services? â How should the public be engaged in the development of transit agency/private sector partnerships, if at all? â How can partnerships with TNCs, micromobility, on-demand transit services, and/or AV shuttle providers be a value-add for transit agencies? â How might the development of new mobility options and AVs change service delivery/ design for transit agencies in the mid- to long-term? ï¿½ We are interested in not just how these services can be utilized by public transit pro- viders but also how their availability may impact transit choice? Do you expect certain types of trips to no longer be taken by transit? Do these services compete or complement traditional public transit? â How are new mobility options changing customer expectations? What are the kinds of changes transit agencies should be making to remain competitive?
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation
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