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Committee on Lead Emissions from Piston-Powered General Aviation Aircraft A Consensus Study Report of
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COMMITTEE ON LEAD EMISSIONS FROM PISTON-POWERED GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT AMY R. PRITCHETT, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Chair BRIAN J. GERMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta JACK D. GRIFFITH (NAS), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill KIMBERLY A. KENVILLE, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks MARIE LYNN MIRANDA, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN ROBERT (BOB) A. K. MITCHELL (NAE), Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (retired), Alpine, CA GLENN W. PASSAVANT, Ingevity Corporation (retired), Tecumseh, MI BERNARD I. ROBERTSON (NAE), Daimler Chrysler Corporation (retired), Bloomfield Hills, MI JAY R. TURNER, Washington University in St. Louis, MO ASCIATU J. WHITESIDE, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, Arlington, TX Staff RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies THOMAS R. MENZIES, JR., Director, Consensus and Advisory Studies, Transportation Research Board MICAH HIMMEL, Senior Program Officer, Consensus and Advisory Studies, Transportation Research Board CLAUDIA SAULS, Program Coordinator, Consensus and Advisory Studies, Transportation Research Board v
Preface In Section 177 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (P.L. 115-254), Congress called on the Secretary of Transportation to arrange for a study of aviation gasoline by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). Congress indicated that the study should include assessment of: 1. Existing non-leaded fuel alternatives to the aviation gasoline used by piston-powered general aviation aircraft; 2. Ambient lead concentrations at and around airports where piston- powered general aviation aircraft are used; and 3. Mitigation measures to reduce ambient lead concentrations, in- cluding increasing the size of run-up areas, relocating run-up ar- eas, imposing restrictions on aircraft using aviation gasoline, and increasing the use of motor gasoline in piston-powered general aviation aircraft. Chapter 1 of this report provides additional information about the committeeâs Statement of Task. To carry out that congressional request, the National Academies formed a committee of 10 members providing expertise in air pollution modeling and monitoring, airport planning and operations, regulation of aviation fuels and emissions, exposure and health risk assessment, statis- tics, mechanical and aviation engineering, transportation systems analysis, aviation fuel performance, and general aviation piloting. Six members are currently affiliated with academic institutions; four are currently with or vii
viii PREFACE retired from the private sector; and two have held positions in government agencies. Several members are or have been active pilots. (The committee biographical information is provided in Appendix A.) In the course of preparing its report, the committee held public infor- mation-gathering sessions on November 19â20, 2019, and February 18â19, 2020, to hear presentations from and have discussions with Raymond Best, Textron Aviation; Elliott Black, Warren Gillette, Monica Merritt, Boyd Rodeman, and Mark Rumizen, Federal Aviation Administration; Christo- pher Cooper, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Chris DâAcosta, Swift Fuels; Walter Desrosier and Lowell Foster, General Aviation Manufacturers Association; Megan Eisenstein, National Air Transportation Association; Philip Fine, South Coast Air Quality Management District, California; Amanda Giang, The University of British Columbia; Marion Hoyer, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Jeffrey Knutson, Cirrus Aircraft; Mike Kraft and Jennifer Miller, Lycoming Engines; Doug Macnair, Experimental Aircraft Association; Ryan Manor, Phillips 66; Jeremy Roesler, University of North Dakota; and Tim Shea, Shell. (See Appendix B for the meeting agendas.) In addition, the committee is grateful to the other individuals who provided written materials to the committee. Amy R. Pritchett, Chair Committee on Lead Emissions from Piston-Powered General Aviation Aircraft
Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manu- script remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: FRED CORNFORTH, ConocoPhillips (retired) SHANETTA GRIFFIN, Columbus Regional Airport Authority BRUCE LANPHEAR, Simon Fraser University LOURDES MAURICE, DLM Global Solutions ROBERT OLISLAGERS, Centennial Airport NEIL PATON (NAE), Howmet Corporation (retired) ANN RICHART, Nebraska Department of Transportation NOELLE ECKLEY SELIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN WASHBURN (NAE), U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (retired) RON WILKINSON, AvSouth LLC Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or ix
x REVIEWERS recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by DAVID ALLEN (NAE), The University of Texas at Austin, and CHRIS HENDRICKSON (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.
Contents Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii Summary 1 1 Introduction 15 2 Background on the Piston-Engine Aircraft Fleet and Airports 29 3 General Aviation Lead Emissions and Their Potential Health Impacts 43 4 Changing Operations and Practices at Airports to Reduce Aviation Lead 71 5 Existing Fuel Options for Piston-Engine Aircraft to Reduce Lead 87 6 Potential Future Lead-Free Fuels and Propulsion Systems 105 7 Conclusion 125 Appendixes A Committee Member Biographies 139 B Open-Session Meeting Agendas 145 C Statutory Provisions 149 D Ethylene Dibromide 153 E Occupational Health 155 xi
Acronyms and Abbreviations 100LL 100 octane low lead aviation gasoline 100VLL 100 octane very low lead aviation gasoline AC Advisory Circular ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADI anti-detonation injection AKI anti-knock index AOPA Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association avgas aviation gasoline BLL blood lead level BMEP brake mean effective pressure CAA Clean Air Act CBOB conventional gasoline for oxygenate blending CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CO carbon monoxide CRC Coordinating Research Council CWA Clean Water Act dL deciliter EAA Experimental Aircraft Association EDB ethylene dibromide xiii
xiv ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS EIA U.S. Energy Information Administration EM electron microscope EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FBO fixed base operator GA general aviation GAMA General Aviation Manufacturers Association GAMI General Aviation Modifications, Inc. GHG greenhouse gas HC hydrocarbon LTO landing and takeoff Mg megagram MOGAS motor gasoline MON lean motor octane number MSL mean sea level NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NATA National Air Transportation Association NEI EPAâs National Emissions Inventory NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health nm nanometer NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPIAS National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PAFI Piston Aviation Fuels Initiative PEL permissible exposure limit PEM proton exchange membrane PPE personal protective equipment psi pounds per square inch RBOB reformulated gasoline for oxygenate blending RFS Renewable Fuel Standard RVP Reid Vapor Pressure
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xv SAE sampling and analysis error SAIB Special Airworthiness Information Bulletin STC supplemental type certificate TC type certificate TEL tetraethyl lead TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TWA time-weighted average UAT ARC Unleaded Avgas Transition Aviation Rulemaking Committee UL unleaded VOC volatile organic compound