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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Planning." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26064.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

8 Planning 2.1 Drivers and Goals Over the last couple of decades, complaints to airports about restrooms have been mounting. The most frequent comments from travelers are that restrooms are filthy and look outdated, and travelers always seem to experience a long line to use the facilities. Other comments mention that bathroom tiles are either chipped or cracked; tile grout looks mop-water gray; and the toilet stalls are so small that passengers with carry-on baggage have difficulty getting the door closed, and then end up using their bags to keep the door closed because the latch doesn’t work. More recently, travelers’ expectations have been broadening, and they now sometimes expect certain amenities. Newer needs include spaces for lactation and nursing mothers and restrooms with changing tables for older children and adults. Passengers are asking for rest- room space for service animals, and not just space outdoors by the parking lot, but also indoors on the secure airside so they have time to stop for Fido during a brief layover instead of dealing with a potentially long walk and time-consuming re-screening procedures afterward. To meet these customer expectations, airports are having to make significant changes to their facilities. However, with the prospect of big changes come opinions, and then studies followed by regulatory considerations, and options. Updating restrooms has become extremely complicated. Agencies such as the FAA and National Council on Disabilities, creator of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), are stakeholders in the process, and there are many regulations to be addressed in the process. To help bring about this change, airport managers, planners, and designers need to navigate the first step of any restroom or amenities project: planning. As with every capital improvement at an airport, there are needs that drive a project’s initiation. These drivers might include the following: • A change in airport vision/mission • Customer service complaints • A related project, either new construction or renovation • A change in operation (e.g., increased passengers) • Security/safety issues • Building code/accessibility compliance • Sustainability master planning • Aesthetics (typically dated finishes) • Failing materials/products • Standardization Restroom projects are often incorporated into a larger renovation, expansion, or new building. Occasionally, however, an airport will decide to focus only on restrooms, ensuring C H A P T E R 2

Planning 9 they all reach a consistent standard. Depending on the type of space, either amenities are added to a restroom-related scope or they become a standalone project. Regardless, goals need to be developed to generate an architectural program. This guidebook details the various elements that can become part of an architectural program, including the types and sizes of spaces, the quantity of each space and approximate locations, level of material quality, schedule, and budget. To develop a program, however, the existing facility requires assessments to under- stand its current state. Two independent efforts are required to assess an airport’s existing restrooms. One is a physical survey of each restroom space to determine its age, condition, number of fixtures, critical dimensions, and so forth. This effort will document what the airport currently has. A parallel effort calculates what the airport needs. This effort looks at the airport’s passenger flow, which determines how many fixtures are needed (and their distribution throughout the airport) to accommodate the calculated passenger load. Comparing these calculated quantities with the physically surveyed quantities and considering any increases in scoping under current federal, state, and local ADA regulations will determine the number of fixtures and restroom locations that will need to be added and/or relocated. Before either of these efforts is launched, however, a group of stakeholders needs to be assembled: the restroom and amenities team. 2.2 The Restroom and Amenities Team There is one attribute every member of this group will need for the process to succeed— a sense of humor. Besides the inevitable bathroom jokes, the process of designing airport restrooms brings a barrage of regulations that often conflict, various must-have lists, and goals. Team members need to be resilient and open to compromise, and then support the final program while staying up to date on potential improvements and refinements for the future. From day one, the team should include every manager with a vested interest in the planning, implementation, and maintenance of a restroom or amenity space. From within an airport, this should include representatives from the following groups: • Facilities/planning • Customer service • ADA coordinator • Carpentry • Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) • Plumbing • Electrical • Information systems • Cleaners • Airport police Consulting experts should include the following: • Aviation planners • Architects • Interior designers • Mechanical engineers • Electrical engineers • Technology systems designers • Accessibility design specialists

10 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Everyone on the team should be committed to the success of the project from planning through construction and beyond. Ideally, a core group of members should meet periodically after the project’s completion to assess customer service and maintenance as well as operational issues and opportunities for improvement. Continued group participation is recommended because challenges continually arise, circumstances change as the travel market fluctuates, restrooms and amenity spaces experience wear and tear, and new products and services are introduced. A key benefit for team members committing to this type of project is the broadening of their expertise. They develop an awareness of initiatives in restrooms at other airports as well as other public facilities, and they become familiar with the range of products and systems available while monitoring new developments through relationships with manufacturers and while serving in relevant professional and industry organizations and conferences. Eventually, cost and schedule estimates of various design options will be needed, so one or more of the following (depending on the airport’s procurement requirements) also should be invited to the team: • Cost estimator • Construction manager • General contractor • Primary subcontractors 2.3 Existing Restroom Evaluation With the restroom and amenities team in place, the easiest task to initiate, but also the most time intensive, is determining the current state of an airport’s restrooms and amenity spaces. This process involves visiting each of these spaces in an airport as well as associated spaces (e.g., janitor’s closets, pipe chases, and related storage rooms) and documenting existing conditions. Restrooms documented for this guidebook can serve as models for an airport’s space evaluation. Evaluation forms provided in Appendix B: Existing Restroom Evaluation Forms include the components specific to each amenity space (see Chapter 4). For restrooms, the following types of components are listed in the Appendix B evaluation forms: • Proximity to other airport functions • Signage • Surfaces • Hardware • Accessories • Amenities • Plumbing • HVAC • Power • Lighting • Technology • Accessibility The Appendix B evaluation forms can be edited to create a list specific to an airport’s unique restroom features. Ideally, a representative from each of the departments responsible for the management or maintenance of restrooms will fill out these forms. Forms should be updated as modifications are made to any space to keep inventory current. In addition to surveying

Planning 11 the existing restroom facilities, it is suggested that maintenance data from the last 5 years be compared with customer service data, as described in the next section. 2.3.1 Customer Service Process An important means of understanding how well restrooms and amenities are operating and being received by the public is to offer travelers a way to communicate their comments. This can be as simple as setting up a rack with comment cards and a deposit box near or in airport restrooms. Technologies, however, provide more streamlined and sustainable methods for obtaining this type of information. For instance, numerous airports provide a number for texting or tweeting comments, and the new restrooms at Singapore’s Changi Airport provide a touch screen with a five-button scale that goes from happy (excellent) to sad (very poor) to rate a passenger’s restroom experience. Some airports even ask for feedback when connecting to an airport’s Wi-Fi. The brief survey questions are often tailored to the person’s location, so if a traveler is standing near a restroom when logging on, the questions relate to the restroom experience. One aspect to consider regarding feedback devices that require a person to touch a button to indicate their satisfaction is hygiene. Data from these sources are typically collected by an airport’s customer service staff for monitoring. It is also beneficial to have digital comments sent directly to the facilities depart- ment so cleaning or maintenance crews can be immediately dispatched to take care of things like empty paper dispensers or clogged sinks. It is important to be timely in the review of comments to minimize recurring issues. There are also airport industry surveys, typically conducted annually, that address customer service issues with restrooms among other aspects of the terminal. Airports Council Inter- national’s (ACI’s) Airport Service Quality (ASQ) is currently the most broadly used survey. Presumably, questions about amenities spaces will soon be included in these surveys as well. If an airport does not implement some form of feedback collection, one or more of these survey options should be considered. When changes to an airport’s restrooms are being contemplated, external feedback is invaluable in confirming customer service issues and evaluating priorities. The research team’s surveys of travelers and airport managers revealed that there is often a disconnect between the perceptions of these two groups. 2.3.2 Maintenance Process The survey of existing restrooms and amenities provides an invaluable opportunity to interview maintenance crews to determine which products have not met expectations in terms of durability and ease of maintenance and which procedures have proved to be inefficient or ineffective, requiring change. The survey can provide an opportunity to ask maintenance- related questions concerning the frequency and procedure for cleaning restrooms, how the trades monitor the need for repairs, and whether there is ample attic stock for quick fixes. Numerous airports, both large and small, report that they periodically walk around with clipboards in hand to note fixtures or surfaces that need attention. Examples of the forms used in this type of process are provided in the case study on Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) (see Appendix C.1). At Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), a full- time cleaner is assigned to each women’s restroom to wipe up spills and keep paper stocked. ATL has found that this full-time attendant, who manages a small number of restrooms, reduces the frequency of completely shutting down a restroom for basic upkeep. Another airport keeps a strike team poised to clean any restroom immediately after a surge.

12 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Regardless of the strategy, the key to an effective maintenance program is to create a standard operating procedure (SOP) for each restroom and amenity space for all maintenance staff to reference. SOPs help ensure that the expected level of quality control is maintained in areas of cleaning and repairs. SOPs should be reviewed annually to confirm that new products are included and that all customer service issues are being addressed. A sample cleaning SOP from LAX is included in Appendix C.1. 2.4 Quantity of Spaces Needed In tandem with evaluating the condition of the restrooms and amenities, the quantity and distribution of these spaces should be analyzed. For restrooms, there are formulas and data available to evaluate the complex attributes of the ebb and flow of traffic through these spaces. Central to this analysis is determining the fixture count in both airside and landside amenities. After this exercise is complete, an airport should determine the distribution of restrooms and amenity spaces throughout the airport. This is determined first by the development of restroom prototypes (as highlighted in Section 2.5) and amenity prototypes (as indicated in Section 2.6), which is followed by test fitting the prototypes to determine the restroom and amenity locations (as noted in Section 2.7). The last step in the process is creating a master plan for current and future restroom and amenity projects. 2.4.1 Restroom Fixtures Something important to consider before delving into calculating the size, locations, and fixture quantities of restrooms is a restroom’s level of service (LoS). The original measure of LoS, as developed by International Air Transport Association (IATA), quantifies passenger flow through an airport, both by space and time. LoS accounts for the capacities of areas such as check-in, security checkpoints, holdrooms, and so forth. ACRP Report 55: Passenger Level of Service and Spatial Planning for Airport Terminals provides an overview of how LoS is applied to airport planning. Restroom sizes and locations, however, are not specifically addressed in ACRP Report 55. It is a subjective exercise to correlate LoS with airport restrooms and is outside the scope of this guidebook. However, some guidelines can be suggested based on general assumptions. ACRP Report 25: Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design states that a passenger’s perception of LoS can be influenced by the availability and cleanliness of restrooms. From this, it can be inferred that an airport striving for LoS A (excellent) versus LoS C (good) should provide well-appointed restrooms that provide most of the amenities recommended here including adequate space for belongings and circulation, accommodations for indi- viduals with additional needs, and highly maintained facilities. The planning principles described in this chapter equate mostly with LoS B (high). LoS B indicates a high level of customer service with room for improvement if an airport strives to provide the highest levels of customer service. In terms of capacity, this means increasing the number of restroom fixtures and the frequency of restroom locations. Airport restroom sizes are typically calculated based on the portion of the terminal they serve and its projected passenger demand. Airside, concourse, or secure (post-security) restroom sizes are calculated based on aircraft seat capacity. Landside, terminal, or non-secure (pre-security) restroom sizes are based on passenger peak hours and the number of expected visitors. Landside and airside restrooms accommodate a different mix of users. While restrooms in both areas are visited by travelers and airport employees, landside locations are also frequented by meeters and greeters, well-wishers, and, in some airports, transportation chauffeurs. Outbound or departing travelers, concerned about making their flights and unsure how long

Planning 13 it will take to pass through security, often wait to use the restroom until they are on the secure side. Likewise, inbound or arriving passengers tend to wait until they’ve landed to avoid the cramped aircraft restrooms. Comments from the research team’s case studies and focus groups suggest that the impact of these scenarios on terminal restrooms is that landside restrooms tend to get more abuse since they are used by a broader spectrum of the non-traveling public. Some comments suggested that these locations are more akin to subway station restrooms. While the durability of the materials used for building restrooms remains paramount, higher-end materials may not be as appreciated on the landside, indicating that more of the overall budget could be diverted to providing extra amenities in airside restrooms, as described later in this chapter. The following sections describe the fixture count calculation process for airside and landside loads. It is important to note that areas within an airport that are not greatly influenced by passenger flow should use local building code requirements to determine the fixture counts. 2.4.2 Airside Calculations Calculations for secure restroom locations are typically based on the types of aircraft serving the adjacent concourse. In order to provide reasonable walking distances from the gates, planning standards use the FAA’s equivalent aircraft (EQA) factor to convert an existing gate size to an EQA: 1 EQA ≈ 145 Seats (typical narrowbody aircraft). Volume 1 of ACRP Report 25 recommends providing one restroom module (one restroom for males and one for females) for every eight EQA. Depending on the fleet mix, this translates to one module located centrally to a reasonable number of gates (approximately four narrowbody gates on each side of a double-loaded concourse) where the farthest a passenger must walk is approximately 450 to 550 ft. This distance should be used as a recommendation only because local building codes may have more stringent guidelines depending on occupancy classifications. Historical observations indicate deplaning (arriving) passengers produce the greatest demand on the concourse restrooms. Because most passengers on short-haul domestic flights wait until arrival to use restroom facilities, it is important to provide adequate capacity to serve these arriving passengers. This is especially important where passengers from flights that simultaneously arrive from adjacent gates produce a surge effect on the restrooms located nearby. Taking surges into account, the peak 20-minute arrival period of the peak arrival hour is a good indicator for calculating peak passenger capacity. Observations also indicate that arriving passengers typically use the first restroom location they pass between their arrival gate and baggage claim or a connecting gate. Passenger behaviors suggest this is true even if queues are present and another location may be only a short distance away. This occurs primarily because passengers are uncertain about the distance to the next restroom. Due to these passenger tendencies, a good planning rule, as stated in ACRP Report 25, is to provide fewer restroom locations with larger capacities. It is also recommended that rest- room modules be placed adjacent to major concession nodes within airside concourses. Today’s restrooms should be designed for at least an equal split between male (toilets/urinals) and female fixtures because the trend of increasing female travelers is expected to continue (refer to Appendix E: Surveys and Appendix H: Bibliography). However, it is recommended that 25 to 50 percent more fixtures should be provided for females than for males. This is due in part to longer utilization time and, as voiced in the restroom focus groups, because female travelers typically bring children into restrooms with them, which can slow them down. Women also do not experience the quick turn-around advantage that urinals provide for men (see Chapter 3). Conducting usage surveys, especially at restrooms known to have lines, can help in understanding passenger loads unique to concourse configurations, and

14 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces airline practices at gates such as high turn frequency, and so forth. Results may even suggest a higher female-to-male ratio at some locations within the airport. It is important to consult local building codes as well as airport authorities, which may mandate specific requirements. Keep in mind that building codes provide minimum require- ments. To provide exceptional customer service, especially in larger hubs, code minimums have proven to be inadequate. A family restroom should also be included in each module to provide a space for individuals, companions, or families with special needs (see Chapter 4). The following four-step process (determine EQA factor, determine number of modules, determine peak passenger capacity, and determine total number of male and female fixtures) can be used to determine the number of airside restroom modules and fixtures needed. Step 1: Determine Equivalent Aircraft Factor Utilize Table 2-1 to determine the concourse EQA factor by multiplying the number of aircraft in each airplane design group (ADG) by the EQA index. Sum all resulting EQA values to calculate the total EQA. As an example, consider a hypothetical concourse that contains eight A320, two B757, and two B767 aircraft. Therefore, based on Table 2-1: 8 (A320) × 1.0 8.0 2 (B757) × 1.3 2.6 2 (B767) × 1.9 3.8 Total EQA 14.4 Potty Parity A report by The Royal Society for Public Health in the UK argued that there should be twice as many female toilets for every one male toilet/urinal because of “time consuming factors related to clothing, menstruation, and anatomical differences.” The argument is that women do not have equal access because of longer wait times, in part due to the inherited male bias in the creation of building code requirements. Females also still tend to have a stroller and/or small children in tow. Source: “Women need twice as many public washrooms as men . . .“ Global News, May 28, 2019. FAA AIRPLANE DESIGN GROUP (ADG) TYPICAL SEATS TYPICAL AIRCRAFT EQA INDEX I Small Regional 25 Metro 0.2 II Medium Regional 50 SF340/CRJ 0.4 III Large Regional 75 DHC8/E175 0.5 III Narrowbody 145 A320/B377/MD80 1.0 IIIa B757 (winglets) 185 B757 1.3 IV Widebody 280 B767/MD11 1.9 V Jumbo 400 B747, 777, 787/A330, 340 2.8 VI Super Jumbo 525 A380/B747-8 3.6 Table 2-1. EQA index.

Planning 15 Note: A general planning rule is to utilize the design aircraft for each gate. However, it is important to understand wingtip adjacency conflicts, if any. Therefore, utilizing the largest aircraft that each gate is capable of accommodating, while producing no impacts to adjacent gates, will provide a good capacity estimate for the concourse. Step 2: Determine Number of Modules To determine the number of modules, divide the EQA factor (value from Step 1) by eight. Generally, rounding up will provide the appropriate number of locations. However, the concourse layout should be carefully considered when determining the number of modules (e.g., single- vs. double-loaded concourses—see Figure 2-1). Step 3: Determine Peak Passenger Capacity Peak passenger capacity (design passengers) is calculated using the following formula: Design Passengers = EQA (value from Step 1) × 145 Seats (1.0 EQA) × 90% (load factor) Note: Utilizing EQA seats will typically produce the greatest capacity scenario (all gates in use). However, this value should be compared and, in some cases, balanced against the design peak hour (typically calculated by the airport’s planning consultant) to gauge effects on total calculated fixtures. It may be appropriate to adjust EQA seat values based on the expected fleet mix in use for each given airport. For example, if the ADG III fleet mix expected to use the terminal is only 737-800 aircraft, seat capacity, depending on class configuration, can range from 160 to 185 seats. Load factor (LF) is based on latest industry planning standards and should be compared with factors unique to each airport. Double-Loaded Concourse 8 EQA 8 737-900W 1 Module Single-Loaded Concourse 8 EQA 8 737-900W 2 Modules Figure 2-1. Locations based on concourse type.

16 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Next, use the design passenger capacity to determine passenger demand: Peak 20-Minute Passenger Demand = Design Passengers × Peak 20-Minute % Note: The following peak 20-minute % values are recommended: • Concourses with hub activity = 60% • Concourses with origin and destination (O&D) activity = 50% In some cases, an O&D airport’s passenger activity may exhibit peaks consistent with hub-type operations. Therefore, the above values should be used as guidelines. It is recommended that peaking characteristics unique to each airport be utilized (typically obtained from the airport’s master plan forecast data) and compared to these values. Note: The general utilization rate planning standard = 50% to 60%. Note: When the passenger gender mix is unknown, assume a 50%/50% ratio (see Potty Parity text box). The peak 20-minute male passenger ratio is based on previous factors (LF, gender split, peak 20-minute percentage, utilization percentage) and includes an average 1.5-minute male and 2-minute female dwell time at a fixture. It should be noted that if known data unique to the airport are used, the ratio will fluctuate as the time is adjusted. For instance, as dwell time at the fixture decreases, the ratio increases and vice versa. Last, calculate the design factor, which will be used to determine the required fixture count: Design Factor = Peak 20-Minute Passenger Demand × % Using Restrooms (utilization) Step 4: Determine Total Number of Male and Female Fixtures Since the number of female fixtures can fluctuate (with a suggested minimum being equal to the number of male fixtures, but potentially increasing the number of female fixtures based on the airport’s customer service philosophy), the count of male fixtures is used for base calculations. The recommended count of male fixtures is determined as follows: Male Fixtures = Design Factor (from Step 3) × Male % ÷ 13 (13 equals peak 20-minute male passengers per fixture ratio) The female recommended fixture count is determined as follows: Female Fixtures = Male Fixtures × Female Increase Factor

Planning 17 Finally, the number of fixtures per module (determined in Step 2) is calculated. Each module is equivalent to a typical restroom set. Fixtures/Module = Total Fixtures ÷ Total # of Locations Table 2-3 lists typical airside male fixture ranges for EQA factors categorized by O&D or hub-type facilities, passenger utilization rates, and peak 20-minute percentage factors. Female increase factors can be utilized with this table to calculate the number of female fixtures. Important: An airside fixture count of six per gender is the minimum recommended for any facility type. For non-hub facilities or concourses with limited activity, the fixture count should be compared to local building codes. 2.4.3 Landside Calculations Landside restrooms are typically located within the major terminal areas such as check-in, baggage claim, and concession areas. Calculations are based on the total O&D peak-hour passenger (PHP) demand and the visitors of those passengers. One approach, as described in ACRP Report 25, is to provide one fixture per gender for every 100 individuals; however, many variables, such as the terminal layout, can influence this factor. Local building codes should be consulted as should airport authorities, which may mandate specific requirements. Note: Table 2-2 illustrates the resulting male/female ratios for typical female increase factors. For facilities where the known gender mix is higher for females, the actual calculated female fixture ratio should be utilized, which is based on dwell time at the fixture. Example: 55% female @ 2 min/person and 45% male @1.5 min/person = (2.0 × 0.55) / (1.5 × 0.45) = 1.6 FEMALE INCREASE FACTOR 1.25 (25%) 1.50 (50%) 2.00 (100%) FEMALE/MALE FIXTURE % RATIO 56%/44% 60%/40% 67%/33% Table 2-2. Female increase factors for fixtures. Pax Utilization Peak 20 min % 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0* 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 TOTAL MALE FIXTURES BY EQA O&D Hub E Q A 50% 33% to 50% 6 13-20 12-18 11-17 11-16 10-15 9-14 8-12 7-11 7-10 6-9 6-7 6 6 60% 33% to 50% 6 6 6-7 6-9 7-10 8-12 9-13 10-15 11-16 12-18 13-19 14-21 15-22 16-24 60% 60%+ 16-21 18-24 19-26 6-7 7-9 9-12 11-14 12-16 14-19 21-28 23-31 25-33 26-35 28-38 50% 60%+ 6 6-8 7-10 9-12 10-14 12-16 13-18 15-20 16-22 18-24 24-31 19-25 21-27 22-29 *The EQA of 8.0 relates to the 8.0 used in the Figure 2-1 example. Table 2-3. Total number of male fixtures per EQA based on 50%/50% gender mix, 1.5-minute dwell (male), 2.0-minute dwell (female), and 90% LF. Minimum six male fixtures for all airport classifications. Number of fixtures rounded.

18 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Visitor ratios are typically provided with airport survey data or are compiled by an airport or its planning consultant and should be used to calculate the total visitor demand, when available. However, if this information is unknown, an increase factor of 20% for well-wishers (WWs—those sending off travelers) and 30% for meeters and greeters (M&Gs—those welcoming travelers) is a typical industry-wide planning standard. For terminal facilities with enplaning/deplaning passenger processing functions (such as check-in and baggage claim, respectively) on separate levels, utilizing the associated visitor ratios with their respective passenger processing functions is appropriate: WW + enplaning passengers and M&G + deplaning passengers For terminal facilities with both check-in and baggage claim functions on a single level, a visitor ratio that is the average of the WW and M&G ratios may be more appropriate. The following two-step process (determine design passenger demand and determine number of fixtures) can be used to determine the number of landside restroom modules and fixtures needed. Step 1: Determine Design Passenger Demand For a multi-level facility: Check-in: Design Demand = Total Enplaning (departing) Peak-Hour O&D Passengers × WW Ratio (e.g., 1.20) Baggage Claim: Design Demand = Total Deplaning (arriving) Peak-Hour O&D Passengers × M&G Ratio (e.g., 1.30) For a single-level facility: Design Demand = Total O&D (enplaning/deplaning) PHPs × Visitor Ratio (e.g., 1.25) Step 2: Determine Number of Fixtures Once the number of fixtures for males is determined, use the female increase factor used in the airside calculations. Total Male Fixtures = Design Demand (based on gender percentage) ÷ Ratio Note: Ratio = 1 fixture per 70 PHP for first 400 passengers + 1 fixture per 200 PHP in excess of 400 passengers. Total Female Fixtures = Total Male Fixtures × Female Increase Factor

Planning 19 Additional Considerations Following completion of Steps 1 and 2, fixtures per location per level should be distributed. One method is to distribute the required fixtures in direct proportion to each existing location’s percentage of the total terminal fixture count (for a single-level facility) or each level’s total fixture count (for a multi-level facility). However, this should be studied carefully as some locations may exhibit lines during peak passenger demand. As a result, a higher percentage distribution for those areas may be required. For terminals with integrated multimodal ground transportation centers (GTCs) including taxi, limousine, rental car, and rail, a ground-access or curb-front survey can provide valu- able information on passenger modal splits. This information can then be used to identify the appropriate passenger demand for those enplaning passengers that are dropped off at the curb, thereby reducing the actual demand placed on the restroom facilities located in the check-in area. Enplaning passengers utilizing GTCs, depending on location, should have access to rest- room facilities prior to arriving in the check-in area. Restrooms should be in proximity to the major passenger processing functions such as check-in, baggage claim, and security screening and to locations such as the meeter/greeter area, GTC, and major landside concessions nodes. Locations should also be visible from major passenger flow areas. 2.5 Restroom Prototypes Whether for new construction or renovation, prototypes provide building blocks that allow the airport’s restroom and amenities team to develop a master plan for locating public restrooms and amenity spaces throughout an airport terminal over a long-term timeframe. In the previously described process of evaluating an airport’s restroom needs, the planning formulas provide the number of fixtures needed to accommodate anticipated passenger demand. However, it is important to understand how those numbers translate into actual physical space requirements. In traditional airport planning, restroom blocks are assigned a square footage based on broad planning formulas and rules of thumb. Also, traditionally, restrooms have been placed near the bottom of the priority list. Thus, a 1,500-square-ft rectangular-shaped restroom block might be stretched, compressed, or hacked to fit the odd-sized spaces left over from the primary terminal planning design. As airport designers and managers routinely discover during their renovation projects, these spaces rarely function well with today’s toilet stall or circulation space requirements. The result is often cramped restroom spaces that have inconvenient columns, impractical utility chases, and so forth. Sections 2.5.3 and 2.5.4 provide not just a base square footage for two common prototype restroom plans, but also appropriate dimensions to efficiently streamline the planning process. Through case studies and professional experience, the research team has observed that nearly all public airport restrooms are based on one of these two layout plans—the room plan (see Section 2.5.3), which has the sink and toilet areas distinctly separated, or the galley plan (see Section 2.5.4), which lines up toilets and urinals on one side of the circulation aisle and sinks on the other. These two plans are relatively equal in size, although each has advantages and dis- advantages that will be highlighted in the discussion that follows. These two prototypes work for a hub or O&D airport of any size and can be modified to accommodate any airport’s unique terminal layouts, although space proportions may dictate one prototype plan over the other. It is not uncommon for a restroom team to develop two or three basic prototype variations for their airport. See Chapter 3 for an alternate prototype of the restroom layout.

20 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces It should also be noted that concourse restrooms are typically in the same block as holdrooms. These usually range from 30 to 45 ft deep. Holdrooms serving international flights tend toward the larger depths. Sections 2.5.3 and 2.5.4 show basic plan layouts of the room and galley prototypes, respec- tively, with three-dimensional images to illustrate how proposed components might appear in practice. To provide a complete understanding of the restroom component space requirements, in Section 2.5.1 recommended sizing and configurations for each of the following spatial notes are provided: • Entry • Sink • Baby diaper changing • Toilet stall • Accessible stall • Urinal • Grooming • Chase • Janitor/storage In Section 2.5.6, additional diagrams that indicate locations of the following restroom elements are presented: • Spatial nodes • External restroom components • Internal restroom components • Signage • Accessories • HVAC • Lighting • Power • Technology A final consideration when developing prototype layouts pertains to the landside restrooms found in the ticketing area, baggage claim, GTC, remote parking structures, and so forth. For continuity and ease of maintenance, these restrooms will have the same fixtures, finish pallet, and so forth as the airside locations. However, given the behavior noted in Section 2.4.1— travelers typically using airside restrooms—the landside restrooms might be scaled back to the less burdened needs (no baggage) of M&Gs, WWs, and employees. This can save money and space that can be used to provide a greater value in the airside restrooms. 2.5.1 Spatial Nodes Spatial nodes are stations of activity found in restrooms and some amenities. For example, the sink node is where there’s a sink to wash up, paper towels for drying, trash, a shelf, mirror, coat hooks, a convenience outlet, and task lighting. The following spatial nodes are discussed in this section: entry, sink, baby diaper changing, toilet stall, accessible stall, urinal, grooming, chase, and janitor/storage. Entry The entry, as with other areas of circulation within a restroom, needs to accommodate two-way traffic for passengers with luggage, in wheelchairs, pushing strollers, and so forth.

Planning 21 A clear width of 6 ft and 6 inches is a reasonable minimum; 7 ft is preferred. Avoid locating anything in the entry corridor that will cause a bottleneck such as information signs and drink- ing fountains. Designers should ensure that there are no sightlines into the restroom from the external public spaces, paying special attention to reflective surfaces and materials. A tensile barrier strap should be provided to close the restroom for maintenance. Artwork or some other element is useful to identify the entry, draw people into the restroom, and enhance the calming aspect of the restroom experience. Entry nodes should be consistent throughout the airport to serve as a macro-wayfinding element. Sink The most desirable arrangement of sinks is a pair with a drying station at each end that consists of a paper towel dispenser, a hand dryer (if used), and a trash receptacle. This locates each sink position next to a drying station (see Figure 2-2), thus eliminating water dripping on the floor as users access a remote station. While a drying station may be located between two sink nodes, drying time is shorter than washing, so conflicts should be minimal. It is desirable to have a shelf behind the sink on which to place belongings while washing and drying hands. The shelf should be slightly higher than the sink top to remain dry, but not higher than the bottom of the mirror (ANSI A117.1 requires 40 inches from the floor to the reflective surface). The shelf should be 8 to 12 inches deep for purses, bags, hats, folders, and so forth. Traditionally, sinks and sink tops have been approximately 24 inches deep. This seems to be a standard based on residential kitchen counters and commercial break room millwork, but it uses up valuable floor space without benefit. If a shelf is provided, as recommended previously, reaching beyond the 24-inch sink depth is not possible for persons with mobility impairments. Reaching a faucet with this sink depth can be difficult for children and even harder for travelers with impaired reach. ANSI A117.1 requires that in restrooms with six or more sinks at least one sink is to have an “enhanced reach range.” This means that the location where controls or sensors for water and soap are activated cannot be more than 11 inches back from the front edge of the counter and/or sink. The recommended sink depth to accommodate these requirements is 20 inches from the face of the raised shelf. From a universal design perspective, every sink should have these provisions, so everyone always has equal access. The drying station should have a paper towel dispenser and trash receptacle. For the time being, paper towels are needed to clean up spills and messes. Hand dryers are an optional add-on, although their desirability is currently in question (see the text box on paper towels vs. hand dryers). If hand dryers are used, they should also be located next to a sink. This presents a design challenge in that paper towels, trash, and hand dryers all vie for the same space. The recent innovation of providing a hand dryer on a sink, either as part of the faucet or as a standalone device alongside a faucet and soap dispenser, is promising in that it simplifies the dispenser–hand, dryer–trash configuration. It also puts washing and drying in one location, speeding up the throughput. D R Y SHELF SINK SINK D R Y Figure 2-2. Sink node.

22 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Locating sink stations throughout the airport would hopefully encourage more frequent handwashing and thus, from a hygiene viewpoint, would seem beneficial. However, the reality of overflowing sinks, wadded up paper towels, and so forth would increase maintenance needs as well as look unsightly. The placement of attractive, high-capacity, commercial-grade, hand-sanitizing stations can mitigate those issues as well as add to the perception of a clean terminal. If trash is collected in containers hidden from view, allow space for access to empty the trash. While it may seem desirable to empty trash from the pipe chase, cleaners do not favor this since it requires entry into an additional space, which reduces their efficiency. Baby Diaper Changing A baby diaper changing table should be in a private corner of the restroom, out of the primary circulation path if possible. Locating a changing table in the entry area is to be avoided so the person changing the infant is not on display and to reduce unpleasant odors for those entering the restroom. Also, a changing table should not be in an accessible stall as the use of the changing table precludes use of the toilet and vice versa. In fact, building codes typically no longer allow this arrangement. It is recommended that a changing station have its own sink or be within easy reach of one (see Figure 2-3). Toilet Stall With an in-swinging door at the toilet stall, travelers must maneuver around their carry-on, the open door, and the toilet to enter the stall and then try to close the door. While there is a risk of out-swinging stall doors opening onto passersby, the benefits of these doors outweigh this potential hazard by providing a clear space for individuals to maneuver themselves and their Paper Towels vs. Hand Dryers Results from the focus groups and surveys undertaken in this research (see Appendices D.1, D.2, and E) suggest that people are not enamored with hand dryers because they are loud (especially in a restroom where there are multiple dryers) and have the potential to cause issues with bacteria and dripping water. In addition, some users are reluctant to insert their hands into the narrow slot. For persons using wheelchairs or scooters, it can be awkward to reach hand dryers, and the noise of hand dryers has been known to seize hearing aids at certain frequencies, leaving the user “deaf” for several minutes afterward. Hand dryers are also an issue for persons with autism or other heightened sensory sensitivity. Because of this, hand dryers are especially not recommended in companion care and changing table restrooms. It was observed in our research that the “green” advantage of hand dryers vs. paper towels tended to focus on the positive attributes of the sponsoring industry. A current trend is the development of a variety of hand dryer styles that are attempting to address customer concerns with lower sound levels, more open hand access, easier maintenance, and other features. Clearly, this is a technology in transition. Whether hand dryers are at a stage of development that meets customer and maintenance needs is something the restroom and amenities team will have to evaluate.

Planning 23 belongings with the door in any position. Also, the open position of out-swinging stall doors, which can be a few inches out from a stall, can allow travelers to readily see if a stall is occupied. Numerous new products are coming on the market that use a red or green light to indicate whether a stall is occupied. These are problematic because they use the colors red and green, which prohibit those who are color blind from deciphering the indicator. However, these lights typically have a communication interface so that airports can potentially connect them to their facilities management system and monitor restroom usage. Such practices eliminate the need for “occupied/vacant” indicators (which also have the red/green issue) and reduce violations of the ANSI A117.1 rule that doors must be operable with one hand. With the growth of our aging population, it is recommended that every typical stall is set up as an ambulatory stall (see Figure 2-4). The current International Building Code requires that in any restroom with six or more toilets/urinals (both prototypes discussed herein fall under this requirement), one shall be an ambulatory stall in addition to the required wheelchair- accessible compartment. An ambulatory stall has grab bars on both sides to aid those with limited mobility such as older adults, someone with a broken leg, stroke survivors, etc. It is also recommended that a vertical grab bar, like that required in an accessible stall, be provided on both sides to help people pull themselves up or ease themselves down. ANSI A117.1 requires an ambulatory stall to have a clear width of 3 ft and a clear length of 5 ft. With an extra foot in length for a carry-on, this is a perfect size for airport stalls. In addition, this is the same depth as the accessible stall (see Figure 2-5), which simplifies restroom layouts. Accessible Stall The current International Building Code requires every public restroom to have a wheelchair- accessible compartment. This compartment requires a space large enough for a person in a wheelchair to turn completely around, which is typically a 60-inch-diameter circle. Note that the next version of ANSI A117.1 will increase the diameter to 67 inches. This will provide more space for powered wheelchairs. The code has allowances for overlap with fixtures (but usually not doors), and some jurisdictions offer a modification if there is an open gap below the stall partition versus a partition to the floor. D R Y SHELF SINK BABY CHANGING Figure 2-3. Baby diaper changing node. 6’-0” 3’ -0 ” C LE A R BAG Figure 2-4. Typical (ambulatory) stall layout.

24 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces The prototypes show a sink node within the wheelchair-accessible stall. In the prevalent arrangement, where people must leave an accessible stall to wash and dry their hands, wheel- chair users must touch their wheels and the door hardware on the way. This creates a potentially humiliating experience that is unhygienic for the user and future occupants of the stall, especially for those with a leg ostomy bag. Urinal Security and privacy are primary considerations for urinals. It is recommended to provide a space 3-ft wide at the urinal to match the width of the recommended toilet stall. This provides a common fixture module for laying out restrooms. More importantly, it provides floor space for travelers’ carry-ons, so they can be put to the side rather than behind a person (see Figure 2-6). For wall-hung urinal screens, the maximum depth recommended by partition manufacturers is 18 inches. However, a minimum 24-inch depth is recommended to keep carry-ons within a user’s peripheral view. Deeper screens are also more private. End support pilasters that match the stall pilasters can be provided to support this depth. The height of a urinal screen should match the height of stall side panels, both for aesthetic continuity and for additional privacy. Grooming There are two fixtures for grooming that should be considered: (1) a small shelf with a mirror above it that provides a remote place to put on make-up, fix up hair, and so forth and (2) a full-height mirror for checking that a traveler’s clothes are in place. The latter should be placed near the exit, but should not be in heavily trafficked areas. Also, placement of the mirror should avoid creating unintended sightlines into the restroom from outside the rest- room. Some airports are placing a sign above the exit from the restroom that reads, “EXIT,” because some people with dementia can be confused by the full-height mirror reflection, thinking it’s a hallway. The grooming node can be placed anywhere, although ideally in an alcove. The bottom of the full-height mirror should not be placed below the wall base to prevent water from floor cleaning leaching up behind the mirror and damaging the silvering. Chase For a plumbing chase to be usable, it needs to be at least wide enough for a person to comfortably move around and work. It is recommended that the chase (and access door) 6’-0” 5’ -0 ” C LE A R DRY SINK Figure 2-5. Wheelchair-accessible stall layout. BAG 3’ -0 ” C LE A R 2’-0” Figure 2-6. Typical urinal layout.

Planning 25 be wide enough to wheel in a plumber’s tool cart as the TSA does not permit tools to be left unsupervised in public areas. With narrow plumbing chases, additional maintenance staff is required to watch the tools while another works within the chase. Larger chases should be considered when piping is located on both sides of the pipe chase. It is important to place piping and conduits in the chase as close to walls as possible. A 1-ft pipe zone is recom- mended. Access to pipe chases should be provided from public corridors or concourses so that maintenance staff members of the opposite gender of the restroom do not have to close the restroom for most toilet, urinal, and sink maintenance. Janitor/Storage A janitor’s closet should provide space for a mop sink, hose bibb, and related tools. A hose bibb can be used both for the mop sink and for a hose to run into the restrooms for periodic deep cleaning efforts. This is also a good location for soap reservoirs if this type of soap-dispensing system is utilized. Some airports provide a central storage space for paper stock and cleaning supplies. In larger airports, the travel distance can make this kind of storage inefficient, so verify with cleaning managers preferred locations as well as the recommended size and quantity of shelving required for storage if it is located within a restroom block. If janitorial and storage functions are co-located, verify also with the plumbing and cleaning managers whether there is a need to provide a segregated and locked space for each trade. This is typically done with chain-link fencing. The door to the space may also need to be wider to accommodate the wheeled “whales” used for collecting trash. 2.5.2 External Restroom Components There are several components that are recommended for the area outside restrooms: • Drinking fountain. Building codes typically require a drinking fountain, and it’s logical to locate these with other plumbing (and this colocation is often required). Each fountain location should have a high and low fountain to accommodate those in wheelchairs and those with different heights. It is common to provide a water-bottle filling station at the drinking fountains since liquids cannot be brought through security. A single water-bottle filling station can be used on a high-low fountain if the station is mounted on the low, wheelchair-accessible fountain. If the high-low fountains are separate units, each will require a water-bottle filler. • Automated external defibrillator (AED)/fire extinguisher/courtesy phone. These com- ponents are often scattered throughout the airport, and it can be difficult for travelers to remember their location when they are in an emergency. Grouping them at each restroom block makes it particularly easy for airport employees, who are most likely to respond first, to remember where to go for help. • Waiting area. Many travelers fly with a companion or family. Providing seating by the restroom for those finished early or waiting is a welcome accommodation, especially for aging adults or those traveling with children. It can be as simple as a bench, a small sitting group, and/or a leaning rail. A variety of seating types is ideal for people with reduced mobility, e.g., those who may need a higher seat or armrests to sit or stand. Regardless of the seating provided, space for a wheelchair should also be provided. • Power/charging station. It is debatable whether to provide power and USB. This is becoming commonplace in most new airport seating areas. The drawback is that it invites people to camp out with their laptops, thus negating the waiting area. • Flight information display system (FIDS). A restroom block is a great location for an adjacent FIDS. It can be checked by travelers while waiting for companions. Overhead

26 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces directional signage is also important outside restrooms since travelers may lose orientation and need a reminder as they exit of which direction leads to baggage claim or their gate. This is especially the case where the restroom has exits to two concourses. • Art display. Space permitting, a spot where either permanent or rotating artwork from the airport’s art program is displayed is another great attraction for those waiting for companions at restrooms. • Vending. Those waiting for their companions are a captive audience, so there is an oppor- tunity to locate vending machines at the restroom block if space permits. 2.5.3 Restroom “Room” Prototype The room prototype layout separates the toilet and washing functions into “rooms” (see Figure 2-7). It requires a little more space than the galley prototype (Section 2.5.4) but tends to feel less congested because occupants are not traversing the main circulation path when moving between the toilets and sinks. For this reason, this prototype is preferred over the galley prototype whenever feasible. This layout expands easily by adding opposing pairs of stalls and sink pairs. BAG 3’ -0 ” C LE A R 2’-0” 38 6 6 6 4 0 6 6 7 6 6 6 50 6 5 0 6 6 4 0 Figure 2-7. Room prototype layout—1,950 square ft (approximately 160 square ft per fixture).

Planning 27 Another feature of this layout is the potential for a large “grooming” node that greets travelers as they turn into the restroom proper from the entry (see Figures 2-8 through 2-10). This buffer adds a welcoming, hospitable feel to the space and works well for people who just need to quickly wash their hands. Other options for this space are an art wall or another sink grouping. A baby diaper changing table is discouraged here, as noted previously. Variations of the room prototype are used at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), Long Beach Airport (LGB), and Jackson Hole Airport (JAC) as discussed in case studies for this research (see Appendix C.1). 2.5.4 Restroom “Galley” Prototype The galley layout is a more efficient plan, spatially (see Figures 2-11 through 2-13). The toilets and urinals stretch along one side of the circulation space, and sinks line the other. A set of male and female restrooms can share a single plumbing chase. If a restroom needs to expand to more than two sink groups and a baby diaper changing table group, the width of circulation space should be increased to 7 ft and 6 inches to accommodate the extra traffic. The accessible stall and changing table remain on the shorter, quieter end of the restroom in expanded versions. Figure 2-8. Room prototype—view toward entry. Figure 2-9. Room prototype—view toward grooming node.

28 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Figure 2-10. Room prototype—view from sink node to grooming and toilet nodes with entry node to the right. 27 6 6 6 6’ -6 ” 6 6 5 60 6 0 6 6 Figure 2-11. Galley prototype layout—1,650 square ft (approximately 138 square ft per fixture). Figure 2-12. Galley prototype—view toward entry node.

Planning 29 One drawback of this type of layout is that the entry point directly approaches the stalls and urinals. This condition can be remedied by eliminating two or three stalls and creating a blank wall for art or creating a grooming alcove like the room prototype. This enhancement requires more floor area, however (using only slightly more floor area than the preferred room prototype). Variations of the galley prototype are used at LAX, Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), Sacramento International Airport (SMF), John Wayne Airport (SNA), Blue Grass Airport (LEX), and Duluth International Airport (DLH) as discussed in case studies for this research (see Appendix C.1). 2.5.5 Prototype Layout Expansion The galley and room prototypes in Figures 2-14 and 2-15, respectively, are shown with the preferred minimum restroom size and gender mix of six fixtures per gender stated in Section 2.4. Figures 2-16 and 2-17 show how both prototypes can expand for larger fixture counts. The dashed-line stalls and sinks show how the restroom can be expanded while Figure 2-13. Galley prototype—view toward toilet nodes with the entry node to the left. Figure 2-14. Basic galley prototype. Figure 2-15. Basic room prototype.

30 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces maintaining the fixture/sink balance. The recommended mix is two stalls or urinals for each sink station. Many airports have a column bay spacing of approximately 30-by-30 ft, so a typical con- course might be three bays wide. This limits expansion outward. However, a variation of the prototype might expand the restroom along the concourse length. Alternatively, a larger rest- room block might have a pair of female and male restrooms grouped together. This arrangement facilitates cleaning by closing only half a gender’s restroom in each location. The drawback is that if both gender sets are open, it may be unclear whether one is full. This can lead to customer frustration. A technology that monitors and indicates stall occupancy with an electronic sign at the restroom entry would alleviate this issue. 2.5.6 Restroom Components The placement of the restroom components (described in more detail in Chapter 4) needs careful consideration to provide travelers with what they need in locations that are intuitive and efficient. These components include • Spatial nodes from Section 2.5.1 • External restroom components from Section 2.5.2 • Internal restroom components • Signage • Accessories • HVAC • Lighting • Power • Technology Figures 2-18 through 2-26 show the recommended placement for each of these nodes and components as well as providing brief commentary. The diagrams are based on the room prototype. However, the placement applies similarly to the galley prototype. Figure 2-16. Expanded galley prototype. Figure 2-17. Expanded room prototype.

Entry Sink Area Changing Area Toilet Stall Accessible Stall Urinal Area Chase Storage Figure 2-18. Spatial nodes arrangement. CIRCULATION TENANT Co-locate common-use items, like a flight information display system (FIDS) and automated external defibrillator (AED), with restrooms to create an amenity and information hub. Items can be grouped together or separated depending on wall/space availability on both sides of the circulation area. Tenant space might be used for a holdroom, retail, office spaces, etc. Vending Power / Charging Station Waiting Drinking Fountain FIDS AED / Fire Extinguisher / Emergency Phone Figure 2-19. Locations of external restroom components.

32 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Shelf Changing Table Grooming / Make-up Storage Shelves Figure 2-20. Locations of internal components. as a wayfinding icon to reduce determine if supplementary overhead or blade signs are required. Restroom block should serve terminal signage clutter. Analyze each location to Wayfinding ADA Health Department (Hand Washing) Figure 2-21. Signage locations.

Planning 33 Mirror Toilet Paper / Disposal Seat Paper Dispenser Paper Towels / Trash Biohazard Disposal Sanitary Products Vendor Utility Shelf / Rack Provide recessed accessories wherever possible to reduce surfaces requiring cleaning, to minimize potential corners to bump into, and to streamline restroom appearance. Figure 2-22. Locations of accessories. exhaust vents above toilets will draw out air supplied from low odors. ductwork. Air Supply (Low) Exhaust (High) Supplying warm air from vents under sinks helps to dry wet floors quickly. Locating vents and quickly pull out Note: Providing supply air under sinks requires a thicker wall to accommodate insulated Figure 2-23. HVAC locations.

34 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces Lighted Panels Recessed Downlight Mirror Light Utility Light Motion Detector Wall lights provide even ambient light and minimize fixture clutter on ceilings. Side lighting at mirrors illuminates faces without shadows. A downlight in each stall eliminates shadows from light panels behind occupants. Lighting at restroom exterior should complement lighting concept of the surrounding public space. Figure 2-24. Lighting locations. Duplex Receptacle A receptacle at each sink allows use of a shaver or hair dryer. Provide central receptacle for cleaning equipment. Coordinate power requirements in chase and storage spaces with equipment and airport needs. Figure 2-25. Power locations.

Planning 35 2.6 Amenity Prototypes and Considerations The essential/regulated amenity spaces are either regulated by the FAA (SARAs and areas for lactation) or deemed essential (spaces for nursing mothers and companion care and changing table restrooms) based on this research. Prototypes for these spaces are provided in the sections that follow. See Chapter 4 for detailed recommendations on related components. The waiting-related and layover-related amenity space prototypes demonstrate consider- ations for each space. In addition, the case studies in Appendix C.2 provide a good starting point for considering all of these spaces via photos and other airport-specific information. 2.6.1 Regulated/Essential Amenity Spaces Service Animal Relief Area Prototype This FAA-required space (on the secure side) is going through an evolution as most airports are providing their best interpretation of current requirements (based on FAA Advisory Circular 150/5360-14A—Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities). Solutions range from 2-ft by 4-ft portable boxes (not recommended) to large spaces for numerous animals. SARAs are ideally located adjacent to restroom blocks to access plumbing. Also, they are located there because if their pet has to use the facilities, the travelers likely do too. As the name suggests, this space is designed for service animals, primarily dogs, as they are most the most common service animals and are specifically referenced in the FAA regulations. As shown in Figure 2-27, the space should have an accessible, artificial turf area, up to approxi- mately 12 ft by 12 ft, with an automatic flushing system and floor drain below. There are two predominant training philosophies for guide dogs. One has the dog owner located in the center of the turf area while their dog walks in a circle around them on a 6-ft leash (12-ft by 12-ft turf area). The second, newer variant has the owner located at the edge of the hard floor/ turf transition (to avoid stepping in a leave-behind they may not be able to see) while their dog walks in a line back and forth in front of them (12-ft by 6-ft turf area). The restroom and amenity team should confirm with their local service animal organizations (as required by the FAA Advisory Circular) which configuration is preferred. Thermal People-Counter RMS FIDS A FIDS helps accommodate the FAA requirement for visual paging and allows a waiting companion to check flight status and potentially other airport information. A thermal people-counter tracks the number of people entering and exiting the restroom. Data can be sent to cleaners to alert when use-threshold has been reached. See Section 4.3.8 for information on the RMS. Figure 2-26. Technology locations.

36 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces A sink node is provided and a mop sink with a fold-down seat to rinse soiled paws is recom- mended. The mop sink should have a sprayer head to allow for cleaning appropriate areas. A nearby storage room should be provided for attic stock of additional turf rolls. The space is typically enclosed to manage odors. Lactation/Nursing Mothers Prototype Spaces for lactation and nursing mothers have two distinct functions and are treated separately in this guidebook. However, they are ideally located together as a suite, as shown in Figure 2-28. A space for lactation is dedicated to a mother so she can express breast milk, preferably in private. A space for nursing mothers has a lounge area with comfortable seating for nursing babies. These tend to be more communal and have multiple chairs. Spaces for lactation and nursing mothers are in high demand. Many airports use portable pods. These come in single-user and accessible models, which also accommodate multiple traveling companions. Note, however, that an inaccessible pod that is not placed in a cluster with an accessible model violates ADA requirements. As pods are considered a temporary solution, and their features are readily available on websites, the focus of this write-up is on built spaces. Lactation rooms typically feature a counter, a chair on wheels, and a baby diaper changing node. Nursing mothers’ spaces also have a baby diaper changing node. They typically have one or more chairs, usually with side tables. Sometimes there are small play areas for older children traveling too. SINK NODE MOP SINK FOLD - DOWN SEAT 12’ X 6’ TURF AREA W / DRAIN OPTIONAL 12’ X 6’ TURF AREA EXTENSION 10’ -0” - 12’ -0” 12 ’- 0” Figure 2-27. SARA prototype.

Planning 37 Companion Care Restroom Prototype The companion care restroom is similar in layout to the wheelchair-accessible stall except that a divider is placed between the toilet and sink. This provides privacy for the person using the toilet if traveling with a companion, children, etc. (See “room” and “galley” prototypes in Sections 2.5.3 and 2.5.4). As shown in Figure 2-29, this space has an accessible toilet node and baby diaper changing node. Some airports provide a fold-down bench or toddler seat. The biggest challenge with these spaces is the naming: unisex, family room, assisted care, washroom toilette, and most commonly, companion care. Some airports provide a separate baby diaper changing space next to the companion care restroom (see Chapter 3). Changing Table Restroom Prototype This is a new space that several airports are now providing. England has a strong organiza- tion, called “Changing Spaces,” that provides resources for developing these areas. As shown in Figure 2-30, these spaces are essentially companion care restrooms with the addition of an adult-sized, powered change table; a hand-held shower; and a ceiling-mounted multidirectional hoist for assisting individuals from a wheelchair onto the table or a toilet. Some airports also provide a fold-down bench. 2.6.2 Waiting-Related Amenity Spaces Companion Waiting Area For the traveler waiting for a companion, doing so in a small alcove off of the busy concourse where it might even be possible to sit down is a welcome relief, especially if the traveler is NURSING MOTHERS AREA LACTATION BABY DIAPER CHANGING NODE 16 -6 ” 16’-0” 7’ -6 ” 8’-0” Figure 2-28. Prototype of space for lactation/nursing mothers.

38 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces 7’-7” TOILET NODE B AB Y D IA PE R C H AN G IN G N O D E 14 -0 ” Figure 2-29. Companion care restroom prototype. B AB Y DI AP ER CH AN G IN G N O DE CH AN G IN G T AB LE TOILET NODE PRIVACY CURTAIN HOIST TRACKS ABOVE 7’-7” 14 -0 ” SHOWER Figure 2-30. Changing table restroom prototype.

Planning 39 accompanied by one or more children or overburdened with bags. Likewise, a companion wait- ing in a wheelchair appreciates an alcove to sit in out of the stream of traffic. See Section 2.5.2 for recommendations on appointing this space. Children’s Play Area Space permitting, an airport may provide small activity areas and/or large areas with elaborate play structures for kids to release their energy while traveling. There also may be an area with tables or carrels for “mental” activities like board or computer games. Seating for adults is recommended (this may be accommodated by adjacent holdroom seating) with charging outlets. TVs are generally not provided here to avoid distractions and discourage lingering. Airports may offer an adjacent TV lounge with options for passengers to use their laptops or tablets. Usually, there is a partial-height barrier surrounding the play area to contain activities. Similar attractions include aquariums, game arcades, and so forth. Sensory Room The key feature of a sensory room is the provision of a calming environment. In addition to features noted in the research team’s case study example at Gatwick Airport (LGW) (see Appendix C.2), the following design elements are provided in the new sensory room at Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT). PIT’s sensory room opened in July 2019 and provides a great example of this new and evolving amenity space. PIT and its design team reached out to the community for input on how best to create such a space. The following suggestions were implemented: • Located in a transition space in the concourse gate area • Options for spaces that serve both children and adults • A variety of comfortable seating • Soundproof • Neutral smell • Neutral and/or cool colors • Adjustable lighting • Calming activities and equipment such as fidget boards, tactile objects, and bubble machines • Cleanliness without the use of toxic cleaners • Visual connection to flight information • Outlets to charge devices • Ability to see into room before entering While sensory rooms have typically been focused on children, PIT also included a separate soundproof space for adults. An additional unique feature is a realistic airplane cabin experi- ence, designed to acclimate children or adults before they head to the gate. A sensory-friendly bathroom with an adult changing table is located right next door. It does not have automated hand dryers, paper towel dispensers, flushing toilets, or faucets as these features are too noisy for individuals with sensory processing issues. Meditation/Quiet Area Airports are busy and loud places. For people who are travel-weary or are sensitive to noise, lights, commotion, and so forth, it can be difficult to find a calming place to wait for their flights. Quiet rooms or areas are intended for reading, resting, and are sometimes dedicated to meditation. They typically feature comfortable seating, no TVs or aromas, dim lighting, and artwork and/or a view beyond the airfield, as well as being kept at a comfortable temperature. Large spaces might be divided into smaller nodes with translucent screens. A variety of comfort- able seating, including recliners, couches, or benches, can accommodate people with various

40 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces mobilities and groupings. Some cultures separate men, women, and families, following local protocol. Some airports also provide vending machines that feature sleep kits (water, mask, and so forth). Yoga Area Airport-provided yoga spaces, if not provided by a fitness-oriented tenant, are typically a semi-private area for individuals and/or instructed sessions. The space should be dimly lit and temperature controlled. Mats, bands, and balls are sometimes provided, particularly if instructors are available. Worship Most of the airports interviewed for this guide stated that they provide some form of worship space, from general space to well-appointed areas. Airports use a variety of names for worship spaces, including chapel, reflection room, meditation room, and prayer room. These spaces are typically multi-faith with no religious symbols portrayed in the space. Most have a seating area with a pulpit and a separate, open space, typically with prayer rugs and shelves for shoes. Sometimes kneelers are provided. Some spaces offer separate male and female entrances to accommodate Muslim practices. A few offer ablution facilities within the complex (more on this amenity can be found in the next subsection). Most are available for travelers and staff and are open 24/7. Some airports provide wedding services as well. Larger facilities may have multiple chaplains available and/or volunteers with private offices that offer counseling services. Most have a small reception area with shelves for religious texts and pamphlets. Storage space(s) are typically needed for worship spaces. Ablution There are two common configurations of space for ablution. One provides a floor-mounted ablution fixture in a private space. The other has one or more rows of individual seats lining a continuous “trough” that collects the water. A wall-mounted faucet is located facing each seat above the trough. See Section 2.6.3 for additional information. Smoking Where smoking is permitted indoors, airports typically provide an enclosed smoking room on each concourse. Smoking rooms are often enclosed with glass walls and provide charging stations. They sometimes provide cocktails, gambling, and a cigar room. 2.6.3 Multicultural Considerations To accommodate travelers of various cultures and religions, especially Muslim and Asian populations, there are many types of amenities that airports can consider. For instance, Wudu is an Islamic ritual for cleansing (ablution) parts of the body for purifi- cation. It is important for spiritual and physical health. It includes washing the hands, mouth, nostrils, arms, head, and feet. Wudu is typically performed in preparation for formal prayers and prior to handling and reading the Qur’an. Keeping clean and pure is a key tenet of the Muslim faith. Ablution is sometimes misunderstood as simply foot washing because this aspect of the cleansing cannot easily be done at a sink and therefore is very noticeable. Cleansing is some- times done in a toilet. This is permitted if the water and bowl are visibly clean. However, it can be hazardous as the bowl is curved and slippery. Furthermore, if the person is standing on the toilet seat, it may break, causing injury. There are commercial porcelain ablution fixtures readily

Planning 41 available in most countries except for the Americas. Ablution stations are typically located in a space separate from the toilet stalls and, ideally, adjacent to a prayer space. While Wudu lasts up to one day, ideally, it is performed before each prayer (Salat, which occurs five times a day). The Wudu ritual is nullified by urination, defecation, flatulence, and light menstrual bleeding, and so re-purification with the more comprehensive cleansing of Ghusl, or full ablution, is required after using the toilet. Ideally, a hygienic bidet shower (similar in appearance to a kitchen sprayer) is hung at the right side of each water closet to facilitate this religious cleansing requirement. It is on the right because, in Muslim culture, the left hand is used for cleansing related to elimination. After the spray is used, toilet paper is still used for final cleaning and drying. Muslim travelers visiting Western countries will often bring a “shataff,” which is a plastic spray bottle—a modern version of the “lota,” the traditional copper, spouted vessel. The bidet shower has a growing environmental appeal as well. According to Scientific American, the average American uses 50 pounds of toilet paper each year (“Wipe or Wash? Do Bidets Save Forest and Water Resources?” December 2009. https://www.rsph.org.uk/uploads/assets/ uploaded/e6cda5d7-bc38-4479-9a517703c22b1316.pdf). Every roll is estimated to require 37 gallons of water to produce and an additional 1.6 gallons to flush down the toilet. In place of a bidet shower, a bidet or toilet-mounted, in-seat bidet can be provided with a nozzle that either sprays from the front toward the back or from the back and straight up. In Japan, an in-seat bidet is often an integral component of toilets. As of this writing, in-seat bidets are only available for Western toilets as add-ons and are typically intended for residential use. Bidets and in-seat bidets both use about one-half gallon of water per use and require an electric receptacle. They do not appear durable enough for the intense commercial use of an airport restroom. In addition, local plumbing codes often require that toilet seats on public toilets have an open front. Washlets have a closed ring for the seat and therefore may not be code compliant for public restrooms. Alternatively, a bidet could be paired in a larger stall with a toilet, possibly even with its own grab bars (a review with local building code authority would be required). Because a bidet looks like a toilet, those unfamiliar with bidets and those bent on mischief may use the bidet as a toilet. Similar consequences may occur if a bidet is provided within its own stall (this will also reduce the fixture count). Another restroom consideration is the squat toilet, mostly used in non-Western countries. The squat toilet, once a primitive hole in the floor, has been modernized into a porcelain trough in the floor with a water seal and flush valve. Squatting is the natural position for elimina- tion and is commonly considered more hygienic and healthy than sitting on a Western toilet. In addition to porcelain, stainless steel and fiberglass are used for making squat toilets. Squat toilets are either level with the floor or on a raised platform (about a foot high). There is typi- cally an integral textured, but drainable, area for each foot to prevent slipping. Some Western airports provide one stall in each men’s and women’s restroom with this type of toilet fixture as an accommodation. On the downside, squat toilets increase the risk of soiling clothes, and they are not accessible or easy to use for persons who are elderly, who may have trouble squatting. In countries where squat toilets are common, a single Western toilet is provided to accom- modate those who are physically unable to squat, including persons using wheelchairs. Provisions for the Wudu ritual are an important traveler and employee consideration in locations where Muslims are a significant percentage of airport customers and/or staff. Airports should consider accommodating the customs of travelers/employees from other countries by providing restroom fixtures they are used to. Installing at least one of each familiar fixture type, if a significant percentage of travelers/employees would use it, could help provide safer and cleaner restrooms and amenities. At the same time, providing restroom fixtures that may be

42 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces unfamiliar to many Westerners may bring the risk of accidents or even misuse. Their provision will require considerable evaluation by an airport’s restroom and amenities team and, impor- tantly, input from users of these spaces. 2.6.4 Layover-Related Amenity Space Prototypes Layover-related amenity spaces are commonly provided by tenants and so providing a proto- type isn’t practical for this guide. Instead, the typical features of each space are described. These spaces are commonly located at hub airports with a significant percentage of long-haul, international flights. Sleeping With the compact efficiency of a mobile home, spaces for sleeping usually offer a small desk, chair, and a slide-out bed (from a couch). A larger accessible room is typically provided. Pairs of rooms may have the ability to be joined with an interlocking door for families. Separate rest- room and shower facilities are available at some locations as are various sundries at the check-in desk. Most of these facilities provide both overnight rates and hourly rates for those needing a quick nap between flights. Fitness Like most gyms, compact airport fitness areas provide equipment and workout spaces, some with scheduled sessions. Restroom, shower, and changing facilities are usually also provided. Some locations may allow travelers to shower and/or change for a small fee even if they are not using the equipment. Airport staff discounts are often available to boost usage. Public Showers Public showers usually provide individual shower stalls for privacy. Typically, these areas have lockers and sometimes a changing room for each shower. These most likely also feature a restroom. Clothes Changing Most travelers go into a stall or, if available, into a companion care restroom to change clothes after a long flight or if they have spilled on their clothing. If the restroom has not been cleaned recently, this is not pleasant. A person traveling with an ostomy bag or a person with incontinence may accidentally soil themselves, so a private place to change offers them a more dignified experience. More and more, airports, particularly hubs, are providing options for changing clothes and sometimes freshening up. The research for this guidebook showed that such spaces are commonly found in tenant spaces, such as airline lounges, hotels, and fitness clubs. Non-members can typically pay a fee for use, or the airport may provide a voucher for personal accidents. As with public showers, larger hubs might consider providing clothes changing stalls collocated with the restrooms. Business Center With the advent of charging stations in holdrooms and elsewhere in airports, the need for business centers is waning. Travelers are likely to work on their laptops at the gate or in restau- rants. Instead of a room with carrels, concession providers offer a comprehensive business suite with conference nodes and private rooms, snack areas, workstations, printing facilities, and so forth. Onsite hotels often offer these services as well. Use is typically fee-based depending on needs, time, and so forth. Some also provide shipping and mailing services.

Planning 43 Health/Urgent Care Because an airport is like a small city, this amenity type is becoming more common, especially at larger airports that have the number of travelers and staff to justify the need. Health/urgent care centers are typically provided by a concessionaire or a local provider. Usually, clinic services are provided, but some offer a pharmacy as well. Some are open 24 hours a day. A rare few also provide dental services. 2.6.5 Other Amenity Spaces A few other amenity types were occasionally encountered in this research. These were typically provided by the airport but were not noticeably commonplace. Assistance Areas These are dedicated areas within the concourses where people can get a wheelchair, wait for a cart to the gate, get assistance through security, or get an interpreter. These areas usually have multiple types of seating for different kinds of mobility, open spaces for wheelchairs, and are set somewhat apart from the bustle of the concourse. Some are called “Special Assistance” but others are shortening the name to the more appropriate “Assistance.” These services are typically free to travelers. Childcare These spaces provide a fee-based, short-term drop-off for children while parents/guardians take care of other child-unfriendly tasks. Like most childcare areas, these offer a combination of physical play areas, game tables, crafts, movies, and so forth. Typically, these also feature a restroom and a check-in desk. Gaming These spaces are newer, tenant-based destination areas with rows of gaming chairs and screens. Blocks of times can be purchased along with a variety of drinks (adult beverages included) and snacks. These can be geared toward adults as well as children. One airport noted that travelers will come a few hours before their flight just to play. Arts Typically, art installments are a joint venture between an airport and one or more local art institutions. Some airports have satellite installations of art museums, short film features, or exhibits of local organizations. These can be found in either the landside or the airside area. Mega-Amenities Some airports, especially those with a major natural or manmade attraction, have made their airport an extension of those attractions. These include large indoor and/or outdoor parks, zoos, shopping malls, amusement rides, gambling, and/or concert stages. 2.7 Restroom and Amenity Space Locations A master plan can be developed once the number of existing restroom fixtures and locations and the number and locations of required restroom fixtures (for both current passenger loads and future projections) are determined (see Section 2.8). The master plan document is an effective communication tool for a variety of audiences from airport executives and authorities to the public. In addition to documenting the number and locations of restrooms, the master

44 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces plan includes locations for the amenities discussed in this guidebook. The master plan is a living document that is expected to be modified over the years, as air travel is an ever-changing industry. Airport master plans are typically updated every 5 to 10 years or as needs warrant. The core of the master plan is the distribution of restrooms and amenity spaces. 2.7.1 Restroom Distribution When a master plan is being developed, it is important to understand the zone each restroom serves. Figure 2-31 shows the exterior catchment zone that each restroom location (represented by a red star) serves. Exterior catchment zones consist of the number of gates for each location. This relates directly to the airside calculations presented in Section 2.4.2. These zones will likely change in 10 years (or more) as the fleet mix changes or when a concourse is modified. Both scenarios should be understood from the airport’s master plan, and the restroom locations should be planned to ultimately serve the projected conditions. The interior catchment zones are equally important to delineate. This is more complex because other amenities are added to the mix such as stores, food courts, and rental car desks. Interior zones occur in both the airside and landside areas as seen in Figure 2-32. In this example, the zones and corresponding restrooms are given a number. Zones served by multiple restrooms use a letter suffix to indicate this. Because some areas of airports have convoluted passenger flows, periods of onsite observation may be required to see which restrooms travelers typically access from these points. An important consideration is the provision of restrooms at remote airport locations such as shuttle drop-offs and parking garages. Travelers and/or their non-traveling companions Figure 2-31. Exterior catchment zones (red stars represent restroom locations).

Planning 45 with mobility or health issues may need to use a restroom frequently and may not be able to wait to get to a terminal. Travelers arriving after a long drive may need to use the restroom. It is important to analyze the travel path for these airport visitors and the convenience of remote restrooms. ACRP Report 210: Innovative Solutions to Facilitate Accessibility for Airport Travelers with Disabilities provides additional information for these considerations. 2.7.2 Distribution of Regulated/Essential Amenity Spaces It is recommended that spaces for lactation/nursing mothers and changing table restrooms have the same distribution throughout an airport as SARAs. Figure 2-33 shows example SARA locations provided by the FAA in Advisory Circular 150/5360-14A—Access to Airports by Individuals with Disabilities. The basic rule of thumb is to provide one location on the secure side of each concourse. However, travel distances between like amenities in long concourses and large terminals should be considered as well. It is recommended that airports have a SARA, a room for lactation/nursing mothers, and a changing table restroom every 900 ft. The research for this guide suggests that this distance is a good target because it is generally manageable for those with limited mobility. Longer distances to disability-related amenities also impact the time needed and cost of assistance that airlines and their subcontractors are mandated to provide under the Air Carrier Access Act (ACAA). While regulations vary outside North America, most major airports and airlines worldwide are members of and try to meet the standards of international organizations such as ACI and IATA. Thus, they too are developing programs for at least some of these amenities. Service Animal Relief Area Distribution In addition to the locations listed previously, a location on the non-secure side(s) is recom- mended, but not required. An outdoor SARA is typically located near an entrance. It is important Figure 2-32. Interior catchment zones (restroom sets shown as red blocks).

46 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces TS A Se cu rit y Sc re en in g Public Sterile Area Public Sterile Area TSA Security Screening TSA Security Screening TSA Security Screening TSA Security Screening TSA Security Screening Public Sterile Area Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Pu bl ic S te ril e Ar ea Public Area - 2 1 3 4 Graphic courtesy of the FAA. Figure 2-33. Examples of SARA locations in various airport configurations.

Planning 47 to consider the travel distance for persons with limited mobility to get from any point to the outdoor SARA locations, especially in inclement weather. Distribution of Spaces for Lactation/Nursing Mothers Portable units do not provide adequate discretion, space, or accommodations for these two functions, but they are a relatively inexpensive first step. Furthermore, the use of these spaces can be tracked, so locations throughout the airport can be tested to assess demand. While spaces for lactation/nursing mothers should never be located within a restroom, proximity to a restroom is desirable for the built-in-place spaces to minimize plumbing infrastructure and also to accom- modate restroom needs in one location. Companion Care Restroom Distribution These spaces are not required, but one or more is typically located adjacent to the primary restroom set. Companion care restrooms were originally intended to provide proper wheelchair accessibility. They were also meant to make it easier if a traveler had children of opposite or multiple genders or if the traveler was traveling with a companion of the opposite gender who required assistance. The movement toward all-gender restrooms has also increased the use of this space. Numerous airports are looking at combining multiple single-user restrooms for more flexibility (see Chapter 3). Changing Table Restroom Distribution These spaces are essentially a companion care restroom with the addition of an adult-sized, diaper changing table and related accessories. For efficiency, these spaces can also serve as com- panion care restrooms. However, the demand for the latter can create a situation similar to that of a single accessible stall in a restroom. Someone who needs the space will likely have to wait. These spaces should be located as part of a restroom set. 2.7.3 Distribution of Waiting-Related Amenity Spaces As these spaces primarily serve those with a little time to spare between flights or before boarding, they are typically located on the concourse(s), not too far from the holdrooms. Children’s Play Area Play areas are typically located near holdrooms or food courts for better monitoring by parents/companions. Locating play areas near restrooms is not recommended since com- panions can have a difficult time monitoring their children from there. Most large airports have several play areas placed throughout the concourse areas to provide minimum paths of travel from the visitor’s gate. Sensory Room Sensory rooms should be located off a relatively calm circulation path and ideally not by areas with large groups of people and noise such as food courts, checkpoints, and restrooms. As these are new (and relatively costly) amenity spaces, starting with a prototype location to test demand and functionality is recommended. Meditation/Quiet Area This space is typically located among the holdrooms (although locating it near a large wall of exterior glass may make it too bright). An oddly shaped room that is difficult to lease may be a perfect location for a quiet area. Semi-private seating alcoves placed in found spaces

48 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces are also valued accommodations. However, it is important to locate these spaces away from noise and traffic. Yoga Area Like meditation/quiet areas, spaces for yoga should be in quiet areas, out of common view. It is desirable to have nearby storage space for mats and other equipment. A yoga space is frequently part of a fitness center if such a tenant space is provided at the airport. Worship Worship spaces are typically provided on the secure side, but some airports occasionally also have a space on the non-secure side set up to include participants from the local community. Ablution Ablution facilities are ideally located adjacent to prayer rooms (see Figure 2-34). Restrooms should be nearby to complete elimination prior to the ablution ritual but should be separate from ablution. Men and women should have separate but identical spaces. See Section 2.6.3 for additional information. Smoking The trend is that airports are minimizing or eliminating smoking spaces because smoking is not permitted by law inside public spaces in the United States and some other countries. Airports typically have designated areas for smoking located outdoors on the non-secure side Source: Mokhtar, A., Design Issues for Muslim Praying Spaces in Shopping Malls. 2008. PRAYER HALL ABLUTION SHOE REMOVAL SPACE REST ROOMS Figure 2-34. Recommended sequence and adjacencies for restrooms, ablution, and worship spaces in public places.

Planning 49 of the airport away from the entrance doors. However, airports with a significant number of travelers from countries where smoking accommodations are common tend to make this amenity more of a destination. Some airports have exterior courtyards or balconies on the concourses. FAA regulations need to be confirmed related to proximity to the airfield. Where permitted, some airports provide an enclosed smoking room on each concourse. 2.7.4 Distribution of Layover-Related Amenity Spaces Sleeping Areas for sleeping are typically onsite hotels that are independently operated and some- times located within security at airport hubs with frequent overnight layovers. More recently, concessionaires have begun offering a bank of small rooms for naps of varying time durations right off of the concourse (ideally in quieter areas, like a mezzanine). Some airline and airport lounges also provide sleeping accommodations for members. Sleeping pods, another concession alternative, are also available but may not have dedicated restroom and showering facilities. There are also accessibility issues with some pod designs, particularly when they are stacked or when users must crawl in. Fitness These areas are usually located within one or more concourses if provided. Typically, these have their own restroom, so adjacency is typically not required. Some onsite hotels and airline lounges also provide access to fitness facilities for a fee. Public Showers Public showers are typically found in fitness centers, lounges, concession sleeping rooms, and spas. Some onsite hotels provide showers for a fee. Business Centers These centers are commonly located in each secure zone when provided. Health/Urgent Care Typically, one care center is located on the secure side. Those that also serve the local community (as in large cities) may have an additional location landside. 2.8 The Restroom Master Plan For renovations, a useful master plan can superimpose proposed restroom locations over the existing distribution of restrooms. Figure 2-35 shows a page from an airport-wide master plan document. In the center, it lists the existing, required, and proposed fixture counts for the entire concourse. For this section of the concourse, the plan shows a dashed black box around the existing restroom locations along with the room numbers, which ties into the existing restroom evalu- ation forms described in Section 2.3 of this guidebook. The red circles indicate the proposed restroom locations with the fixture counts in red. Most of the locations in the example are reno- vations, but the plan also shows the location of one new restroom and one that is expected to be eliminated. The plan should indicate the proposed timing of the restroom projects in this area. The master plan also captures issues of interest for the airport, including restroom loca- tions that typically have long lines (there is one in this example) and the frequency of cleaning

50 Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces throughout the day. Compared to other areas of the airport, this number is high, so this is a comparatively busy concourse. This example also demonstrates that restrooms should not be located over electrical and communication rooms in the event of leaks in the restrooms. This plan indicates the location of these spaces on the level below. The restroom team at this airport designed an information hub at each restroom location so over time travelers will know that these components are co-located at this hub. This hub also installed its multi-user FIDS (MUFIDS) in an area where travelers can peruse it while waiting for companion(s) using the restrooms. This plan indicates where existing MUFIDSs will ultimately be relocated to new restroom locations. A planning strategy to consider for larger restroom blocks is to divide the restroom into two halves so one-half can be closed at a time. This eliminates the loss of an entire restroom for men or women in a particular area during maintenance. It can be difficult, however, for maintenance staff to shut down one side of a restroom without entering the restroom. This can be an issue if the maintenance staff member is a man for a women’s restroom or vice versa. Ribbon barriers, cones, and pull down (or out) grilles are strategies often used to shut down half of the restroom. 2.9 Restroom Renovation versus Building a New Restroom An important part of the master planning process is evaluating the pros and cons of reno- vating a restroom versus relocating it or building a new space. The last option is relatively easy. If a new concourse or terminal is planned, restrooms will be constructed with it. The benefit of L C C-22 C-22 CLEA 6/DA EGEND: LONG LINE ELEC/COM MUFIDS O N C O U 75 79 C-2415 C-2421 C-2425 MEN - 4 WOMEN - 8 NINGS: Y, 1/NIGHT S M BELOW R S E C FA EXIST FIXT REQU FIXT SET PROPO FIXT SET - M A I N MILY - 2 ING: URES – 141 IRED: URES – 67 S – 9 SED: URES – 72 S – 8 + 2 FAM L E V E L - M I D C-2581 C-2585 C-2664 C-2668 C-2678 WOME MEN – FAMIL SCHEDUL WOMEN – MEN – 2 FAMILY - N – 4 2 Y - 1 E: 2020-21 4 1 Figure 2-35. Partial concourse master plan.

Planning 51 new construction is that disruptions to existing restrooms and the adjacent spaces are avoided. There is also more planning freedom, so the restrooms can meet most, if not all, of the restroom team’s design criteria. If new restrooms are constructed, bringing existing restrooms up to the same or a similar standard should be considered. If this cannot be accomplished immediately, then it should be scheduled over a master-planned timeline. This ensures consistency through- out the airport, which is important for travelers from a wayfinding and LoS perspective and for maintenance by keeping attic stock to a minimum. Renovating an existing restroom is easier by far than relocating a restroom, especially if it simply involves updating fixtures and/or materials. Renovation can be phased over time to minimize disruption. If renovation is phased, the cost of the extended construction period should be analyzed because piecemeal construction can cost considerably more than a more aggressive schedule (that renovates more restroom sets at one time) due to the repeated start-up and close-out costs for each project. Sometimes, however, there are issues that a simple renovation cannot fix. Perhaps the restroom would be more effective in a different area of the concourse, or maybe the space is too small in its current location for the number of fixtures required to accommodate increased deplanements. Relocating a restroom is a logistical puzzle that everyone on the restroom and amenities team should be involved in solving. The biggest challenges to consider include the following: • How long will construction take? • What utility shutdowns will be required and for how long? • Can the existing restroom remain operational until the new location is complete? • Is there a nearby restroom(s) that can absorb some of the overflow? • What other spaces will be affected at the new location? • Will the overall project cover the cost of modifications to the affected spaces? • If the affected spaces are those of a tenant, will the timing be dependent on the tenant’s lease? These are just some of the questions requiring consideration and discussion among the rest- room team in order to make the most effective decisions for the long term.

Next: Chapter 3 - Airport Restroom of the Future »
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Customer satisfaction has become one of the primary drivers for the success of an airport, and restrooms and ancillary facilities often provide the first and last impression of a destination. The real challenge for airports is to provide restrooms with enough space for people to move around in and offer secure, clean, and dry places for their belongings.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Research Report 226: Planning and Design of Airport Terminal Restrooms and Ancillary Spaces provides a thoughtful, step-by-step process to help airport industry practitioners plan, design, and implement terminal restroom and other ancillary amenity projects. It is an updated and expanded version of ACRP Report 130: Guidebook for Airport Terminal Restroom Planning and Design and reflects the latest thinking in this quickly evolving topic.

Supplemental materials to the report include:

Appendix A: Component Comparison Matrix

Appendix B: Existing Restroom Evaluation Forms

Appendix C.1: Case Studies—Restrooms

Appendix C.2: Case Studies—Amenities

Appendix D.1: Stakeholder Outreach—Restrooms

Appendix D.2: Stakeholder Outreach—Amenities

Appendix E: Surveys

Appendix F: Restroom Design Guidelines/Standards Sample

Appendix G: Restroom Standard Operating Procedures Sample

Appendix H: Bibliography

Appendix I: Glossary

Tables 4-1 & 4-2 Worksheets

Table 4-3 Worksheet

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