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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Proposed Modification to AASHTO Cross-Frame Analysis and Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26074.
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Page 143
Page 144
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Proposed Modification to AASHTO Cross-Frame Analysis and Design. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26074.
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Page 144

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143 References Abaqus/CAE. 2017. Abaqus/CAE User’s Guide. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials/National Steel Bridge Alliance. 2019. G13.1 Guidelines for Steel Girder Bridge Analysis, 3rd ed. ———. 2017. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 8th ed. Washington, D.C. ———. 1994. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 1st ed. Washington, D.C. ———. 2020. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 9th ed. Washington, D.C. American Institute of Steel Construction. 2010. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, 14th ed. Chicago, IL. ———. 2016. Specification for Structural Steel Buildings,15th ed. Chicago, IL. Barth, K. 2015. Steel Bridge Design Handbook Design Example 2A: Two-Span Continuous Straight Composite Steel I-Girder Bridge. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration. Battistini, A., W. Wang, S. Donahue, T. Helwig, M. Engelhardt, and K. Frank. 2013. Improved Cross Frame Details. TxDOT 0-6564 Final Report, Texas Department of Transportation. Battistini, A., W. Wang, T. Helwig, M. Engelhardt, and K. Frank. 2016. “Stiffness Behavior of Cross Frame in Steel Bridge Systems.” Journal of Bridge Engineering 21 (6). Chavel, B., D. Coletti, K. Frank, M. Grubb, B. McEleney, R. Medlock, and D. White. 2016. Skewed and Curved Steel I-Girder Bridge Fit. Chicago, IL: National Steel Bridge Alliance. Connor, R., and J. Fisher. 2006. “Identifying Effective and Ineffective Retrofits for Distortion Fatigue Cracking in Steel Bridges Using Field Instrumentation.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 11 (6): 745–752. Downing, S., and D. Socie. 1982. “Simple Rainflow Counting Algorithms.” International Journal of Fatigue (Butterworth & Co) 31-40. Egilmez, O., T. Helwig, and R. Herman. 2016. “Using Metal Deck Forms for Construction Bracing in Steel Bridges.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 21 (5): 1–12. Fasl, J. 2013. Estimating the Remaining Fatigue Life of Steel Bridges Using Field Measurements. PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin. Fisher, J. W., J. Jin, D. C. Wagner, and B. T. Yen. 1990. NCHRP Research Report 336: Distortion-Induced Fatigue Cracking in Steel Bridges. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Han, L., and T. Helwig. 2016. “Effect of Girder Continuity and Imperfections on System Buckling of Narrow I-Girder Systems.” Proceedings of the Structural Stability Research Council. Orlando, FL: Structural Stability Research Council. ———. 2017. “Nonlinear Behavior of Global Lateral Buckling of I-Girder Systems.” Proceedings of the Annual Stability Conference. San Antonio, TX: Structural Stability Research Council. Hartman, A., H. Hassel, C. Adams, C. Bennett, A. Matamoros, and S. Rolfe. 2010. “Effects of Cross-Frame Placement and Skew on Distortion-Induced Fatigue in Steel Bridges.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2200 (1): 62–68. Hassel, H., C. Bennett, A. Matamoros, and S. Rolfe. 2013. “Parametric Analysis of Cross-Frame Layout on Distortion-Induced Fatigue in Skewed Steel Bridges.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 18 (7): 601–611. Helwig, T., and J. Yura. 2015. Bracing System Design. Steel Bridge Design Handbook, Publication No. FHWA- HIF-16-002 - Vol. 13, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Helwig, T., and L. Wang. 2003. Cross-Frame and Diaphragm Behavior for Steel Bridges with Skewed Supports. Research Report 1772-1, Austin, TX: Report for Texas Department of Transportation. Helwig, T., and Z. Fan. 2000. Field and Computational Studies of Steel Trapezoidal Box Girder Bridges. TxDOT Research Report 1395-3, Houston, Texas: The University of Houston.

144 Proposed Modification to AASHTO Cross-Frame Analysis and Design Helwig, T., K. Frank, and J. Yura. 1997. “Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Singly Symmetric I-Beams.” Journal of Structural Engineering 123 (9): 1172–1179. Keating, P., D. Mertz, J. Kulicki, and C. Hess. 1990. Economical and Fatigue Resistant Steel Bridge Details. FHWA-H1-90-043, Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration. Kulicki, J., Z. Prucz, C. Clancy, D. Mertz, and A. Nowak. 2007. Final Report, NCHRP Project 20-7/186, “Updating the Calibration Report for AASHTO LRFD Code.” Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Liu, Y., and T. Helwig. 2020. “Torsional Brace Strength Requirements for Steel I-Girder Systems.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 146 (1): 1–11. McDonald, G., and K. Frank. 2009. The Fatigue Performance of Angle Cross-Frame Members in Bridges. MS Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin. Modjeski and Masters. 2015. SHRP 2 Report S2-R19B-RW-1: Bridges for Service Life Beyond 100 Years: Service Limit State Design. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. Nowak, A. 1999. NCHRP Research Report 368: Calibration of LRFD Bridge Design Code. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Prado, E., and D. White. 2015. “Assessment of Basic Steel I-Section Beam Bracing Requirements by Test Simulation.” Report to the Metal Building Manufacturers Association. Quadrato, C., A. Battistini, T. Helwig, M. Engelhardt, and K. Frank. 2014. “Increasing Girder Elastic Buckling Strength using Split Pipe Bearing Stiffeners.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 19 (4). Reichenbach, M., Y. Liu, T. Helwig, and M. Engelhardt. 2020. “Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Singly Symmetric I-Girders with Stepped Flanges.” Journal of Structural Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers). Rivera, J., and B. Chavel. 2015. Steel Bridge Design Handbook Design Example 3: Three-Span Continuous Hori- zontally Curved Composite Steel I-Girder Bridge. Washington, D.C.: Federal Highway Administration. Romage, M. 2008. Field Measurements on Lean-On Bracing System for Steel I-Girder Bridges with Skewed Supports. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin. Sivakumar, B., M. Ghosn, and F. Moses. 2011. NCHRP Research Report 683: Protocols for Collecting and Using Traffic Data in Bridge Design. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Tadros, M., N. Al-Omaishi, S. Seguirant, and J. Gallt. 2003. NCHRP Research Report 496: Prestress Losses in Pretensioned High-Strength Concrete Bridge Girders. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. Taylor, A., and M. Ojalvo. 1966. “Torsional Restraint of Lateral Buckling.” Journal of the Structural Division (American Society of Civil Engineers) 92 (ST2): 115–129. Texas Department of Transportation. 2020. Transportation Planning Maps. https://www.txdot.gov/inside-txdot/ division/transportation-planning/maps.html. Timoshenko, S., and Gere, J. 1961. Theory of Elastic Stability. New York: McGraw-Hill. Wang, L., and T. Helwig. 2005. “Critical Imperfections for Beam Bracing Systems.” Journal of Structural Engi- neering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 131 (6): 933–940. Wang, L., and T. Helwig. 2008. “Stability Bracing Requirements for Steel Bridge Girders with Skewed Supports.” Journal of Bridge Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 13 (2): 149–157. Wang, W. 2013. A Study of Stiffness of Steel Bridge Cross Frames. PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin. White, D., D. Coletti, B. Chavel, A. Sanchez, C. Ozgur, J. Jimenez Chong, R. Leon, et al. 2012. NCHRP Research Report 725: Guidelines for Analysis Methods and Construction Engineering of Curved and Skewed Steel Girder Bridges. Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. White, D., T. Nguyen, D. Coletti, B. Chavel, M. Grubb, and C. Boring. 2015. Final Report, NCHRP 20-07/ Task 355, “Guidelines for Reliable Fit-Up of Steel I-Girder Bridges.” Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board. White, J. 2020. Evaluation of Fatigue Design Load Models for Cross-Frames in Steel I-Girder Bridges. PhD diss., The University of Texas at Austin. Winter, G. 1960. “Lateral Bracing of Columns and Beams.” Journal of Structural Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 125: 809–825. Yura, J. 2001. “Fundamentals of Beam Bracing.” Engineering Journal (American Institute of Steel Construction) 11–26. Yura, J., B. Philips, S. Raju, and S. Webb. 1992. Bracing of Steel Beams in Bridges. Research Report 1239-4F, Austin, TX: Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin. Yura, J., T. Helwig, R. Herman, and C. Zhou. 2008. “Global Lateral Buckling of I-Shaped Girder Systems.” Journal of Structural Engineering (American Society of Civil Engineers) 134 (9): 1487–1494.

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 Proposed Modification to AASHTO Cross-Frame Analysis and Design
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Cross-frames are important structural components that serve many functions throughout the service life of steel I-girder bridges. Under repetitive load cycles caused by heavy truck passages, cross-frames and their connections can be susceptible to load-induced fatigue cracking if not properly designed.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program'sNCHRP Research Report 962: Proposed Modification to AASHTO Cross-Frame Analysis and Design addresses knowledge gaps in an attempt to improve the reliability and economy of cross-frames in steel I-girder bridges and produces quantitatively based methodologies and design guidelines.

Appendices B through F provide examples of cross-frame design for a straight bridge and a curved bridge as well as a comprehensive overview of the work completed in Phases I, II, and III of the project. Appendix A, Proposed Modifications to AASHTO LRFD, will be published by AASHTO.

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

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