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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Looking Ahead at the
Cybersecurity Workforce at the
Federal Aviation Administration

Committee on Cybersecurity Workforce of the
Federal Aviation Administration

Board on Human-Systems Integration
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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This activity was supported by contract number 692M15-19-T-00028 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Federal Aviation Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-39150-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-39150-4
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26105.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
×

COMMITTEE ON CYBERSECURITY WORKFORCE OF THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

DIANA L. BURLEY, Co-Chair, American University

TONYA L. SMITH-JACKSON, Co-Chair, North Carolina A&T State University

RODNEY C. ADKINS, 3RAM Group

JANDRIA S. ALEXANDER, Booz Allen Hamilton

MARILYN BARRIOS, Motorola Solutions

CHARLES BLAUNER, Cyber Aegis; Team8 Ventures

MICHAEL D. COOVERT, University of South Florida

BARBARA ENDICOTT-POPOVSKY, University of Washington

ERIC GROSSE, Security Consultant

ROBERT S. GUTZWILLER, Arizona State University

KATYA LE BLANC, Idaho National Laboratory

NAN SHELLABARGER, FAA (Retired)

Staff

DANIEL TALMAGE, Co-Study Director

BRENDAN ROACH, Co-Study Director

ADAM JONES, Senior Program Assistant

TOBY WARDEN, Board Director, Board on Human-Systems Integration

JON EISENBERG, Board Director, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

MONICA STARNES, Senior Program Officer, Transportation Research Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
×

BOARD ON HUMAN-SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

FREDERICK OSWALD, Department of Psychology, Rice University, Chair

JAMES BAGIAN (NAE/NAM), Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

DIANA BURLEY, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University

BARBARA DOSHER (NAS), School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine

MICA ENDSLEY, SA Technologies, Mesa, Arizona

EDMOND ISRAELSKI, AbbVie, North Chicago, Illinois

JOHN LOCKETT, United States Army Research Laboratory (Retired)

NAJMEDIN MESHKATI, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California

EMILIE ROTH, Roth Cognitive Engineering, Stanford, California

WILLIAM J. STRICKLAND, Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, Virginia

MATTHEW WEINGER, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Staff

TOBY WARDEN, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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COMPUTER SCIENCE AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BOARD

LAURA HAAS (NAE), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Chair

DAVID CULLER (NAE), University of California, Berkeley

ERIC HORVITZ (NAE), Microsoft Corporation

CHARLES ISBELL, Georgia Institute of Technology

BETH MYNATT, Georgia Institute of Technology

CRAIG PARTRIDGE, Colorado State University

DANIELA RUS (NAE), Massachusetts Institute of Technology

FRED B. SCHNEIDER (NAE), Cornell University

MARGO SELTZER, University of British Columbia

NAMBIRAJAN SESHADRI, University of California, San Diego

MOSHE VARDI (NAS, NAE), Rice University

Staff

JON EISENBERG, Director

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Preface

This report addresses the cybersecurity workforce challenges, and the strategic opportunities to meet those challenges, facing the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as it navigates the realities of modernization and an increasingly digitized National Airspace System (NAS). As the committee carried out its tasks, our knowledge and appreciation of the complexities associated with the FAA cybersecurity workforce has grown tremendously. The FAA is on par with other federal agencies in terms of the current capacity, capability, and diversity of its cybersecurity workforce. However, as the agency’s digital footprint increases, their attack surface and vulnerability to outside threats will increase as well. The critical mission of the FAA necessitates that the agency strategically build a workforce that is able to meet both current and future needs.

The global demand for well-trained cybersecurity professionals in both industry and government continues to grow, and the tight labor market shows no signs of slowing. Given the strong demand, the FAA should simultaneously enact both short- and longer-term strategies to fill workforce needs. Fortunately, numerous opportunities exist for the FAA to grow the pool of available candidates and to develop capacity within their existing workforce. Through the varied recruitment and workforce development initiatives offered as recommendations throughout this report, the FAA can build a diverse pool of highly qualified candidates and strengthen workforce enhancement efforts.

We wish to express our deep appreciation to the members of the committee for their diligent and dedicated contributions. The committee’s expertise and knowledge were indispensable throughout our deliberations. Their efforts, which often required working nights and weekends, are particularly notable given the incredibly challenging year. We cannot thank them enough. On behalf of the entire committee, we also wish to thank the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff for their outstanding support and guidance. We are also deeply appreciative to Heather Kreidler for her writing and fact checking. The report benefited deeply from the editing skills of Laura Yoder. Additionally, we want to express our sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed their time, expertise, and experiences to our committee. The presentations, resources, and insights contributed immensely to our deliberations. Finally, we wish to thank the FAA staff for their partnership and forthright participation throughout this process. We offer this report in the spirit of that partnership and believe that the concrete, actionable recommendations provided within will aid agency leaders as they continue to build the cybersecurity workforce and achieve their mission of providing the “safest, most efficient aerospace system in the world.”

Diana Burley and Tonya Smith-Jackson, Co-Chairs
Committee on Cybersecurity Workforce of the Federal Aviation Administration

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Leisel Bogan, Congressional Digital Service Fellowship; David J. DeRosier, Department of Biology (emeritus), Brandeis University; Michael A. Echols, Max Cybersecurity LLC; R John Hansman, International Center for Air Transportation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Michael P. Huerta, MPH Consulting, LLC; Nani Lee, consultant, Waimea-South Kohala, Hawai’i; Michelle Monsees, consultant, Fairfax County, Virginia; Frederick L. Oswald, Department of Psychology, Rice University; and Juan Perez, United Parcel Service.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Jennie S. Hwang, H-Technologies Group, and Wesley L. Harris, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institure of Technology. They was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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3. MANAGING THE CAREER/EMPLOYEE LIFECYCLE FOR A DIVERSE CYBERSECURITY WORKFORCE

Chapter Overview

Characteristics of the Cybersecurity Workforce in the 21st Century

Characteristics of the Cybersecurity Workforce

Cybersecurity Workforce Labor Market

Diversity in the 21st Century Cybersecurity Workplace

Recruitment and Hiring

Key Aspects of Recruitment

Key Asects of Selection

Cyber Aptitude Assessment

Federal Cyber Talent Development

Federal Recruitment

Federal Recruitment Flexibilities

FAA Recruitment and Hiring

Job Listings

Scholarship Opportunities and FAA Recruitment

Recruiting for Diversity in the FAA Cybersecurity Workforce

Development and Advancement

Reskilling and Training

Educational Conferences

Certification

Performance Management

Diversity and Inclusion in Organizational Culture

FAA Talent Development and Advancement

Reskilling and Training

Workforce Strategies and Best Practices

Development of Cybersecurity Awareness in Organizations

Coordination with Human Resources

Using the NICE Framework as a Guide to Identify Intense Personal Interest

Summary

Conclusions and Recommendations

References

4. ADDITIONAL EMPLOYEE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

Introduction

Retention

Compensation

Career Advancement and Development

Appreciation

FAA Retention

Human Capital in the Workplace

Focusing on Management Practices and Attitudes as Leading Indicators of Employee Intent to Depart from an Organization

Advancing Workplace Culture to Enhance Attractiveness of the Organization to Recruit and Retain Employees

Talent Pipeline Development

Early Training Talent Pipeline Development

College-Level Talent Pipeline Development

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Looking Ahead at the Cybersecurity Workforce at the Federal Aviation Administration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26105.
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The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has overseen significant upgrades to the technology used to manage aviation operations to increase the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System (NAS). Though necessary to regular operations, these modern computing and communications systems provide a greater attack surface for criminals, terrorists, or nation-states to exploit and thereby increase the potential for cybersecurity threats to the NAS and its constituents.

The future safety and security of air travel will rely in part on the ability of the FAA to build a workforce capable of addressing the evolving cybersecurity threat landscape. Securing the computers, networks, and data that underpin modern aviation depends in part on the FAA having enough cybersecurity professionals (capacity) with the right knowledge, skills, and abilities (capability)). It also depends on the FAA's workforce having sufficient diversity of backgrounds and experience. Such diversity is critical in analyzing cybersecurity problems and widely understood to be a "functional imperative" for effective cybersecurity programs.

At the request of Congress, the publication examines the FAA's cybersecurity workforce challenges, reviews the current strategy for meeting those challenges, and recommends ways to strengthen the FAA's cybersecurity workforce.

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