Aiken, C., V. Reina, J. Verbrugge, A. Aurand, R. Yae, I. Gould Ellen, and T. Haupert. 2021. Learning from emergency rental assistance programs: Lessons from fifteen case studies. https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/ERA-Programs-Case-Study.pdf.
Airgood-Obrycki, W., A. Hermann, and S. Wedeen. 2021. The rent eats first: Rental housing unaffordability in the US. Working paper, Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/research-areas/working-papers/rent-eats-first-rental-housing-unaffordability-us.
Allen, H.L., E. Eliason, N. Zewde, and T. Gross. 2019. Can Medicaid expansion prevent housing evictions? Health Affairs 38(9):1451–1457. https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/pdf/10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05071 (accessed May 18, 2021).
Ambegaokar, S., Z. Neuberger, and D. Rosenbaum. 2017. Opportunities to streamline enrollment across public benefit programs. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/opportunities-to-streamline-enrollment-across-public-benefit.
Anderson, M., and M. Kumar. 2019. Digital divide persists even as lower-income Americans make gains in tech adoption. Factank: News in the Numbers. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/05/07/digital-divide-persists-even-as-lower-income-americans-make-gains-in-tech-adoption.
Arnold, A. 2020. So you want to get involved in mutual aid. The Cut: New York. https://www.thecut.com/2020/09/what-exactly-is-mutual-aid-how-to-get-involved.html.
Aurand, A., D. Emmanuel, D. Threet, I. Rafi, and D. Yentel. 2020. Out of reach 2020: The high cost of housing. National Low Income Housing Coalition. https://reports.nlihc.org/sites/default/files/oor/OOR_BOOK_2020.pdf.
Austin, J.C. 2020. COVID-19 is turning the Midwest’s long legacy of segregation deadly. The Avenue. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2020/04/17/covid-19-is-turning-the-midwests-long-legacy-of-segregation-deadly.
Bach, A., P.K. Gupta, R. Haughey, G. Kelly, M. Pawlukiewicz, and M. Pitchford. 2007. Ten principles for developing affordable housing. Urban Land Institute. https://americas.uli.org/ten-principles-for-developing-affordable-housing.
Badger, E., and A. Parlapiano. 2020. States made it harder to get jobless benefits; Now that’s hard to undo. New York Times, April 30. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/30/upshot/unemployment-state-restrictions-pandemic.html (accessed May 19, 2021).
Barber, S., I. Headen, B. Branch, L.T. Tabb, and K. Yadeta. 2020. COVID-19 in context: Racism, segregation and racial inequities in Philadelphia. Data brief, Drexel University Urban Health Collaborative. https://drexel.edu/~/media/Files/uhc/briefs/COVID_DATA.ashx?la=en.
Barrero, J.M., N. Bloom, and S. Davis. 2020. COVID-19 is also a reallocation shock. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/SU20_S5_1_Barrero-et-al_-final-paper.pdf.
Bartik, A., M. Bertrand, F. Lin, J. Rothstein, and M. Unrath. 2020. Measuring the labor market at the onset of the COVID-19 crisis. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Conference Drafts. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Bartik-etal-conference-draft.pdf.
Bell, A., B. Sard, and B. Koepnick. 2018. Prohibiting discrimination against renters using housing vouchers improves results. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, December 20. https://www.nhlp.org/wp-content/uploads/CBPP-2018-report-on-SOI-laws.pdf.
Bell, A., T. Hedin, G. Schnorr, and T. von Wachter. 2021. As crisis continues, more unemployed Californians are receiving UI benefits. Data Point, California Policy Lab, February 25. https://www.capolicylab.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/CPL-Data-Point-on-Recipiency-in-California.pdf.
Benfer, E., D.B. Robinson, S. Butler, L. Edmonds, S. Gilman, K.L. McKay, L. Owens, N. Steinkamp, D. Yentel, and Z. Neumann. 2020. The COVID-19 eviction crisis: An estimated 30–40 million people in America are at risk. Aspen Institute, August 7. https://www.aspeninstitute.org/blog-posts/the-covid-19-eviction-crisis-an-estimated-30-40million-people-in-america-are-at-risk.
Benfer, E.A., D. Vlahov, M.Y. Long, E. Walker-Wells, J.L. Pottenger, G. Gonsalves, and D.E. Keene. 2021. Eviction, health inequity, and the spread of COVID-19: Housing policy as a primary pandemic mitigation strategy. Journal of Urban Health 98(1):1–12.
Bergman, P., R. Chetty, S. DeLuca, N. Hendren, L.F. Katz, and C. Palmer. 2019. Creating moves to opportunity: Experimental evidence on barriers to neighborhood choice. Working paper No. w26164, National Bureau of Economic Research. https://scholar.harvard.edu/lkatz/publications/creating-moves-opportunity-experimental-evidence-barriers-neighborhood-choice.
Bhutta, N., J. Blair, L.J. Dettling, and K.B. Moore. 2020. COVID-19, the CARES Act, and families’ financial security. National Tax Journal 73(3):645–672. https://doi.org/dx.doi.org/10.17310/ntj.2020.3.02.
Bipartisan Policy Center. 2013. Housing America’s future: New directions for national policy. Economic Policy Program: Housing Commission. https://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/BPC_Housing-Report_web_0.pdf.
Bratt, R.G., M.E. Stone, and C.W. Hartman, Eds. 2006. A right to housing: Foundation for a new social agenda. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Brennan, M., E. Sahli, D. Elliott, and E. Noble. 2020. Breaking the link between hardship and eviction: The case for a renters’ housing stability program. Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/102881/breaking-the-link-between-hardship-and-eviction_0.pdf.
Burke, C., E.E. Johnson, C. Bourgault, M. Borgia, and T.P. O’Toole. 2013. Losing work: Regional unemployment and its effect on homeless demographic characteristics, needs, and health care. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 24(3):1391–1402.
Bush, H., and M. Shinn. 2018. Families’ experiences of doubling up after homelessness. Cityscape 19(3):331–356. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5760191 (accessed May 19, 2021).
CBPP (Center on Budget and Policy Priorities). 2017. Policy basics—Federal rental assistance. https://www.cbpp.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/PolicyBasics-housing-1-25-13RA.pdf.
CBPP. 2018. Policy basics: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). https://www.cbpp.org/research/policy-basics-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-snap.
CBPP. 2021. Tracking the COVID-19 recession’s effects on food, housing, and employment hardships. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/tracking-the-covid-19-recessions-effects-on-food-housing-and.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021. Health equity considerations and racial and ethnic minority groups. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html.
Chodorow-Reich, G., and J.M. Coglianese. 2019. Unemployment insurance and macroeconomic stabilization. In Recession ready: Fiscal policies to stabilize the American economy, edited by H. Boushey, R. Nunn, and J. Shambaugh. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Cities for Financial Empowerment Fund. 2017. An evaluation of financial empowerment centers: Building people’s financial stability as a public service. http://cfefund.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/FEC-Evaluation.pdf.
City Life/Vida Urbana. 2020. Evictions in Boston: The disproportionate effects of forced moves on communities of color. In collaboration with researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Department of Urban Studies and Planning. https://www.bostonevictions.org.
City of Alexandria. 2020. City of Alexandria launches eviction prevention task force. Press release, October 22. https://www.alexandriava.gov/news_display.aspx?id=118209.
Collinson, R., and P. Ganong. 2018. How do changes in housing voucher design affect rent and neighborhood quality?. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 10(2):62–89.
Collinson, R., and D. Reed. 2018. The effects of evictions on low-income households. https://economics.nd.edu/assets/303258/jmp_rcollinson_1_.pdf.
Collinson, R., I.G. Ellen, and J. Ludwig. 2015. Low-income housing policy. Working paper no. 21071, National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w21071/w21071.pdf.
Collinson, R., I.G. Ellen, and J. Ludwig. 2019. Reforming housing assistance. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 686(1):250–285. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219877801 (accessed May 18, 2021).
Colorado Department of Local Affairs. 2020. Special Eviction Prevention Task Force. https://cdola.colorado.gov/special-eviction-prevention-task-force (accessed May 19, 2021).
Community Legal Services of Philadelphia. 2020. Dismantling the barriers eviction records place on housing opportunities. https://clsphila.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Breaking-the-Record-Report_Nov2020.pdf.
Cortright, J. 2020. Covid-19 and segregation. City Commentary, August 6. https://cityobservatory.org/covid-19-and-segregation.
CoStar. 2016. Naturally occurring affordable housing. National Association of Affordable Housing Lenders and Urban Land Institute Symposium, October 11. https://americas.uli.org/new-costar-data-identifies-5-5-million-units-naturally-occurring-affordable-housing-markets-across-united-states.
Couch, L. 2020. House, Senate agree to final FY21 HUD funding. LeadingAge Blog, December 21. https://www.leadingage.org/legislation/house-senate-agree-final-fy21-hud-funding.
Cowan, S. 2006. Anti-snob land use laws, suburban exclusion, and housing opportunity. Journal of Urban Affairs 28(3):295–313. https://doi.org/10.111/j.1469-9906.2006.00293.
Cunningham, M. 2016. To increase housing choice, try incentivizing landlords. Urban Wire: Housing and Housing Finance Blog, September 16. https://www.urban.org/urban-wire/increase-housing-choice-try-incentivizing-landlords.
Cunningham, M., M. Galvez, C.L. Aranda, R. Santos, D.A. Wissoker, A.D. Oneto, R. Pitingolo, and J. Crawford. 2018. A pilot study of landlord acceptance of housing choice vouchers. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. https://www.urban.org/research/publication/pilot-study-land-lord-acceptance-housing-choice-vouchers.
De La Campa, E. 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on small landlords survey evidence from Albany and Rochester, New York. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/research/files/harvard_jchs_small_landlord_survey_de_la_campa_2021_0.pdf.
DeParle, J. 2021. Federal aid to renters moves slowly, leaving many at risk. New York Times, April 25. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/25/us/politics/rental-assistance-pandemic.html (accessed May 18, 2021).
Desmond, M. 2012. Eviction and the reproduction of urban poverty. American Journal of Sociology 118(1):88–133.
Desmond, M., and R.T. Kimbro. 2015. Eviction’s fallout: Housing, hardship, and health. Social Forces 94(1):295–324.
Dreier, P. 1996. Community empowerment strategies: The limits and potential of community organizing in urban neighborhoods. HUD Cityscape 2(2):121–159. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20868413.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A2e37f040863cd50d89bf-7862b3cc17ab (accessed May 19, 2021).
Eckart, K. 2020. UW study reveals gender, racial disparities in evictions. UW News, February 10. https://www.washington.edu/news/2020/02/10/uw-study-reveals-gender-racial-disparities-in-evictions.
Edelstein, S., M. Pergamit, and C. Ratcliffe. 2014. Characteristics of families receiving multiple public benefits. Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/22366/413044-Characteristics-of-Families-Receiving-Multiple-Public-Benefits.PDF.
Evans, G.W., P. Lercher, and W.W. Kofler. 2002. Crowding and children’s mental health: The role of house type. Journal of Environmental Psychology 22(3):221–231.
Eviction Prevention Task Force. 2019. An action plan to reduce evictions in Boston. City of Boston. https://www.boston.gov/sites/default/files/file/2020/01/An_Action_Plan_to_Reduce_Evictions_in_Boston_%28report%29%20200109_1.pdf.
Finkel, M., and L. Buron. 2001. Study on Section 8 voucher success rates, Vol. I: Quantitative Study of Success Rates in Metropolitan Areas. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/pdf/sec8success_1.pdf.
Fischer, W. 2018. Low-income housing tax credit could do more to expand opportunity for poor families. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Fischer, W., and B. Sard. 2016. Chart book: Federal housing spending is poorly matched to need: Tilt toward well-off homeowners leaves struggling renters without help. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/housing/chart-book-federal-housing-spending-is-poorly-matched-to-need.
Fisher, L., and N. Marantz. 2015. Can state law combat exclusionary zoning? Evidence from Massachusetts. Urban Studies 52(6):1071–1089. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014534906.
Forsythe, E. 2021. Understanding unemployment insurance recipiency during the COVID-19 pandemic. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois. http://publish.illinois.edu/elizaforsythe/files/2021/03/Forsythe_UI_draft_march8_2021-1.pdf.
Franzese, P.A. 2018. A place to call home: Tenant blacklisting and the denial of opportunity. Fordham Urban Law Journal 45(3):661–697. https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/ulj/vol45/iss3/2.
Galvez, M., K. Reynolds, J. Morales-Burnett, and Y. Su with S. Greene. 2020. Assessing options for federal rental assistance during the pandemic. Urban Institute: Renters and Rental Market Crisis Working Group. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/102676/assessing_options_for_federal_rental_assistance_during_pandemic_2.pdf.
Garboden, P.M., and E. Rosen. 2019. Serial filing: How landlords use the threat of eviction. City & Community 18(2):638–661. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/cico.12387.
Goldstein, I., E. Dowdall, C. Weidig, and J. Simmons. 2021. Evictions in Philadelphia: Race (and place) matters. Reinvestment Fund. https://www.reinvestment.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/ReinvestmentFund_PHL-Evictions-Race-and-Place-Matters.pdf.
Gould Ellen, I., B. Mazzurco Muscato, C. Aiken, V. Reina, A. Aurand, and R. Yae. 2021. Advancing racial equity in emergency rental assistance programs. New York University Furman Center, The Housing Initiative at University of Pennsylvania, and the National Low Income Housing Coalition. https://furmancenter.org/files/Advancing_Racial_Equity_in_Emergency_Rental_Assistance_Programs_-_Final.pdf.
Greenberg, D., C. Gershenson, and M. Desmond. 2016. Discrimination in evictions: Empirical evidence and legal challenges. Harvard Civil Rights Law Review 51:115.
Greer, A.L., M. Shinn, J. Kwon, and S. Zuiderveen. 2016. Targeting services to individuals most likely to enter shelter: Evaluating the efficiency of homelessness prevention. Social Service Review 90:130–155.
Gubits, D., M. Shinn, M. Wood, S.R. Brown, S.R. Dastrup, and S.H. Bell. 2018. What interventions work best for families who experience homelessness? Impact estimates from the family options study. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 37(4):835–866. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168747/pdf/nihms970065.pdf.
Harlem, G. 2020. Descriptive analysis of social determinant factors in urban communities affected by COVID-19. Journal of Public Health 42(3):466–469. https://academic.oup.com/jpubhealth/article/42/3/466/5856349?login=true (accessed May 19, 2021).
Harvey, H. 2018. Experiences of doubling-up among American families with children. University PhD dissertation, Harvard University. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/39947157/HARVEY-DISSERTATION-2018.pdf?isAllowed=y&sequence=4.
Hedin, T., G. Schnorr, and T. von Wachter. 2020. An analysis of unemployment insurance claims in California during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy brief. California Policy Lab, May 21. https://www.capolicylab.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/May-21st-Analysis-of-California-UI-Claims-During-the-COVID-19-Pandemic.pdf.
Hepburn, P., R. Louis, and M. Desmond. 2020. Racial and gender disparities among evicted Americans. Sociological Science 7:649–662.
Himmelstein, G., and M. Desmond. 2021. Association of eviction with adverse birth outcomes among women in Georgia, 2000 to 2016. JAMA Pediatrics 175(5):494–500. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6550.
Hsu, J.W., D.A. Matsa, and B.T. Melzer. 2018. Unemployment insurance as a housing market stabilizer. American Economic Review 108(1):49–81.
HUD. (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) 2013. Implementation of the Fair Housing Act’s Discriminatory Effects Standard. Federal Register 78:11459–11482. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2013/02/15/2013-03375/implementation-of-the-fair-housing-acts-discriminatory-effects-standard.
HUD. 2015. Affirmatively furthering fair housing. Federal Register 80:42271–42371. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2015/07/16/2015-17032/affirmatively-furthering-fair-housing.
HUD. 2020a. Fiscal year 2021 budget in brief. https://www.hud.gov/sites/dfiles/CFO/documents/BudgetinBrief_2020-02_06_Online.pdf.
HUD. 2020b. Preserving community and neighborhood choice. Federal Register 85:47899–47912. https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2020/08/07/2020-16320/preserving-community-and-neighborhood-choice.
HUD. 2021. Eliminating regulatory barriers to affordable housing: Federal, state, local, and tribal opportunities. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/eliminating-regulatory-barriers-to-affordable-housing.html.
HUD. J. Khadduri, K. Nelson, M. Martin, M. Shroder, B. Steffen, and D. Hardiman. 2000. Rental housing assistance—The worsening crisis: A report to Congress on the worst case housing needs. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/publications/affhsg/worstcase00.html.
Immergluck, D., A. Carpenter, and A. Lueders. 2016. Declines in low-cost rented housing units in eight large southeastern cities. Discussion Paper 2016-3, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Community and Economic Development. https://atlantafed.org/community-development/publications/discussion-papers/2016/03-declines-in-low-cost-rented-housing-units-in-eight-large-southeastern-cities-2016-05-10.
JCHS (Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University). 2020. America’s rental housing, 2020. https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/reports/files/Harvard_JCHS_Americas_Rental_Housing_2020.pdf.
Jordan, R., and E.C. Poethig. 2015. How to keep affordable housing in high-opportunity neighborhoods. Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/urban-wire/how-keep-affordable-housing-high-opportunity-neighborhoods.
Jowers, K., C. Timmins, N. Bhavsar, Q. Hu, and J. Marshall. 2021. Housing precarity & the COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts of utility disconnection and eviction moratoria on infections and deaths across US counties. Working paper no. w28394, National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w28394/w28394.pdf.
Karki, T.K. 2015. Mandatory versus incentive-based state zoning reform policies for affordable housing in the United States: A comparative assessment. Housing Policy Debate 25(2):234–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2014.917691.
Keith-Jennings, B., J. Llobrera, and S. Dean. 2019. Links of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program with food insecurity, poverty, and health: Evidence and potential. American Journal of Public Health 109(12):1636–1640. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305325 (accessed May 19, 2021).
Kende, J. 2017. Ten years in, the New York City Acquisition Fund is needed more than ever. Enterprise Community Partners, Inc. https://www.enterprisecommunity.org/blog/2017/02/ten-years-new-york-city-acquisition-fund-needed-more-ever.
Kirchner, L., and M. Goldstein. 2020. How automated background checks freeze out renters. New York Times, May 8. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/28/business/renters-background-checks.html.
La Jeunesse, E., A. Hermann, D. McCue, and J. Spader. 2019. Documenting the long-run decline in low-cost rental units in the US by state. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University. https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/research-areas/working-papers/documenting-long-run-decline-low-cost-rental-units-us-state.
Leifheit, K.M., S.L. Linton, J. Raifman, G. Schwartz, E.A. Benfer, F.J. Zimmerman, and C. Pollack. 2020. Expiring eviction moratoriums and COVID-19 incidence and mortality. SSRN. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3739576.
Leonard, N., A. Butler, and L. Lowery. 2021. National League of Cities: How 5 cities tackled eviction amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. National League of Cities, January 19. https://www.nlc.org/article/2021/01/19/how-five-cities-tackled-eviction-amidst-the-covid-19-pandemic.
Leung, L., P. Hepburn, and M. Desmond. 2020. Serial eviction filing: Civil courts, property management, and the threat of displacement. Social Forces soaa089. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/soaa089.
Local Housing Solutions. n.d. Landlord recruitment and retention. https://www.localhousingsolutions.org/act/housing-policy-library/landlord-recruitment-and-retention-overview/landlord-recruitment-and-retention.
Long, H. 2021. The U.S. government approved trillions in aid. Many hard-hit families have yet to receive it. Washington Post, April 6. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/04/06/safety-net-problems.
Mallach, A., 2017. A decent home: Planning, building, and preserving affordable housing. New York: Routledge.
Marantz, N., and H. Zheng. 2020. State affordable housing appeals systems and access to opportunity: Evidence from the northeastern United States. Housing Policy Debate 30(3):370–395. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2020.1712612.
Mayor’s Taskforce on Eviction Prevention and Response. 2018. Report and recommendations. City of Philadelphia. https://www.phila.gov/hhs/PDF/Mayors%20Task%20Force%20on%20Eviction%20Prevention%20and%20Response-Report.pdf.
McCabe, B., and E. Rosen. 2020. Eviction in Washington, DC: Racial and geographic disparities in housing instability. McCourt School of Public Policy Report, Georgetown University. https://georgetown.app.box.com/s/df0d4mruf59wcvqm6cqo9a8pyu8ukeuk.
McKenna, W., and C. Hills. 1982. The report of the President’s Commission on Housing. The President’s Commission on Housing. https://www.huduser.gov/Publications/pdf/HUD-2460.pdf.
Meyer, B.D., and N. Mittag. 2019. Using linked survey and administrative data to better measure income: Implications for poverty, program effectiveness, and holes in the safety net. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 11(2):176–204.
Myers, D., and J. Park. 2019. A constant quartile mismatch indicator of changing rental affordability in US Metropolitan areas, 2000 to 2016. Cityscape 21(1):163–200.
Nande, A., J. Sheen, E.L. Walters, B. Klein, M. Chinazzi, A. Gheorghe, and A.L. Hill. 2021. The effect of eviction moratoria on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.27.2022089.
Nassif-Pires, L., L. de Lima Xavier, T. Masterson, M. Nikiforos, and F. Rios-Avila. 2020. Public policy brief no. 149: Pandemic of inequality. Levy Economics Institute of Bard College. http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/ppb_149.pdf (accessed May 19, 2021).
National Association of Residential Property Managers. 2019. Financial benchmarks guide. https://www.narpm.org/indexed/doc4-financialbenchmarksguide-pdf/ (accessed May 19, 2021).
National Science Foundation. 2020. NSF awards rapid response grants to support COVID-19 research. Announcement, April 17. https://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/announcements/041720.jsp.
NLIHC (National Low Income Housing Coalition). 2019. Improvements to deeply target the housing credit. https://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/2019-04/Affordable-Housing-Tax-Credit-Improvement-Act-2019.pdf.
Northern Virginia Eviction Prevention and Community Stability Task Force. 2020. Cross-sector task force collaborates to prevent evictions in Northern Virginia. Press release, September 24. https://nvaha.org/wp-content/uploads/Press-Release-NorthernVirginia-Eviction-Prevention-Community-Stability-Task-Force-9.24.20.01.pdf.
Oliveira, V., M. Prell, L. Tiehen, and D. Smallwood. 2018. Design issues in USDA’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Looking ahead by looking back. Report No. 243, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. https://www.ers.usda.gov/webdocs/publications/86924/err-243.pdf?v=0.
Olsen, E.O. 2003. Housing programs for low-income households. In Means-tested transfer programs in the United States, edited by Robert A. Moffit (pp. 365–442). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
PAHRC and NLIHC (Public and Affordable Housing Research Corporation and National Low Income Housing Coalition). 2020. Picture of preservation. https://preservationdatabase.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/NHPD_2020Report.pdf.
Parolin, Z., M. Curran, J.D. Matsudaira, J. Waldfogel, and C. Wimer. 2020. Monthly poverty rates in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Poverty and social policy working paper, Center on Poverty & Social Policy. New York: Columbia University.
Prestes, B.S. 2000. Application of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act to housing leases. University of Chicago Law Review 67(3):9. https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/uclrev/vol67/iss3/9.
Purtle, J., L.T. Gebrekristos, D. Keen, P. Schlesinger, L. Niccolai, and K.M. Blankenship. 2020. Quantifying the restrictiveness of local housing authority policies toward people with criminal justice histories: United States, 2009-2018. American Journal of Public Health 110(Suppl1):S137–S144. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.305437.
Rast, J., Y.C. Martinez, and L. Heuler Williams. 2020. Milwaukee’s coronavirus racial divide: A report on the early stages of COVID-19 spread in Milwaukee County. Center for Economic Development, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. https://uwm.edu/ced/wp-content/uploads/sites/431/2020/04/COVID-report-final-version.pdf.
Raymond, E.L., R. Duckworth, B. Miller, M. Lucas, and S. Pokharel. 2018. From foreclosure to eviction: Housing insecurity in corporate-owned single-family rentals. Cityscape 20(3):159–188. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26524878.pdf.
Reed, D., E. Divringi, and T. Akana. 2021. Renters’ experiences during COVID-19. Federal Reserve Bank Philadelphia, March 1. https://www.philadelphiafed.org/-/media/frbp/assets/community-development/reports/renters-experiences-during-covid-19.pdf.
Reid, C., C., Galante, and A. Weinstein-Carnes. 2017. Addressing California’s housing shortage. Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 25(2):241–274. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26408189.
Reina, V.J. 2019. Do small area fair market rents reduce racial disparities in the voucher program?. Housing Policy Debate 29(5):820–834.
Reina, V., and J. Landis. 2019. The future of US housing policy. Housing Policy Debate 29(1):1–3. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511482.2018.1530505.
Reina, V.J., and B. Winter. 2019. Safety net? The use of vouchers when a place-based rental subsidy ends. Urban Studies 56(10):2092–2111.
Reina, V., A. Acolin, and R.W. Bostic. 2019. Section 8 vouchers and rent limits: Do small area fair market rent limits increase access to opportunity neighborhoods? An early evaluation. Housing Policy Debate 29(1):44–61.
Reina, V., C. Aiken, J. Verbrugge, I. Gould Ellen, T. Haupert, A. Aurand, and R. Yae. 2021. COVID-19 emergency rental assistance: Analysis of a national survey of programs. https://www.housinginitiative.org/uploads/1/3/2/9/132946414/hip_nlihc_furman_brief_final.pdf.
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. 2021. Improving housing affordability and stability to advance health equity: Federal policy recommendations from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. https://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2021/01/federal-policy-recommendations-to-advance-health-equity-from-rwjf.html.
Rojas, Y., and S.Å. Stenberg. 2016. Evictions and suicide: A follow-up study of almost 22000 Swedish households in the wake of the global financial crisis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70(4):409–413.
Roll, S., and M. Grinstein-Weiss. 2020. Did CARES Act benefits reach vulnerable Americans? Evidence from a national survey. Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/research/did-cares-act-benefits-reach-vulnerable-americans-evidence-from-a-national-survey (accessed May 19, 2021).
Rosen, E. 2020. The voucher promise: “Section 8” and the fate of an American neighborhood. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rothstein, J. 2011. Unemployment insurance and job search in the Great Recession. Working paper no. w17534, National Bureau of Economic Research. https://www.nber.org/papers/w17534.
Scally, C.P., A. Gold, and N. DuBois. 2018. The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit. Urban Institute. https://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/98758/lithc_how_it_works_and_who_it_serves_final_2.pdf.
Schanzenbach, D.W. 2019. Exploring options to improve the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 686(1):204–228. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0002716219882677.
Schmieder, J.F., T. von Wachter, and S. Bender. 2012. The effects of extended unemployment insurance over the business cycle: Evidence from regression discontinuity estimates over 20 years. Quarterly Journal of Economics 127(2):701–752.
Scott, D. 2020. Housing segregation left Black Americans more vulnerable to COVID-19. Vox, July 10. https://www.vox.com/2020/7/10/21319873/covid-19-coronavirus-cases-deaths-black-americans-housing-segregation.
Shaefer, H.L., and I.A. Gutierrez. 2013. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and material hardships among low-income households with children. Social Service Review 87(4):753–779.
Sherman, A., and D. Trisi. 2015. Safety net more effective against poverty than previously thought. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. https://www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/safety-net-more-effective-against-poverty-than-previously-thought.
Shinn, M., A.L. Greer, J. Bainbridge, J. Kwon, and S. Zuiderveen. 2013. Efficient targeting of homelessness prevention services for families. American Journal of Public Health 103(S2):S324–S330.
Sisson, P. 2020. COVID is killing affordable housing, just as it’s needed most. Bloomberg CityLab, July 30. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-30/the-u-s-affordable-housing-gap-is-getting-worse.
Stegman, M. 2019. Eliminating exclusionary land use regulations should be the civil rights issue of our time. Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/research-areas/working-papers/eliminating-exclusionary-land-use-regulations-should-be-civil-rights.
Stout, D., F. Clogston, A. Thackeray, J. Stoloff, and B. Anthony. 2019. Final report: Evaluation of HUD’s Rental Assistance Demonstration (RAD). Office of Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/sites/default/files/pdf/RAD-Evaluation-Final-Report.pdf.
Stout Risius Ross, LLC. 2020. The economic impact of an eviction right to counsel in Baltimore City. http://bmorerentersunited.org/rtc/stoutreport.
Tian, C.Y., R.G. Quercia, and S. Riley. 2016. Unemployment as an adverse trigger event for mortgage default. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics 52(1):28–49.
Tighe, J.R., M.E. Hatch, and J. Mead. 2017. Source of income discrimination and fair housing policy. Journal of Planning Literature 32(1):3–15. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0885412216670603.
Tobolowsky, F.A., E. Gonzales, J.L. Self, C.Y. Rao, R. Keating, G.E. Marx, T.M. McMichael, M.D. Lukoff, J.S. Duchin, K. Huster, and J. Rauch. 2020. COVID-19 outbreak among three affiliated homeless service sites—King County, Washington, 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69(17):523.
Up for Growth. 2019. New legislation would make housing a higher priority in federally funded transit projects. https://www.upforgrowth.org/news/new-legislation-would-make-housing-higher-priority-federally-funded-transit-projects.
Up for Growth. 2020. U.S. House says yes in my backyard. https://www.upforgrowth.org/news/us-house-says-yes-my-backyard.
U.S. Census Bureau. 2020. American housing survey—National data 2019. U.S. Department of Commerce. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/ahs/data.html.
U.S. Department of Labor. 2021. Unemployment insurance weekly claims. News Release, May 6. https://www.dol.gov/ui/data.pdf (accessed May 19, 2021).
U.S. Department of the Treasury. 2014. Creating affordable homes for America: An impact assessment of the Capital Magnet Fund. https://www.novoco.com/sites/default/files/atoms/files/cmf_impact_assessment_creating_affordable_homes_032714.pdf.
U.S. Government Accountability Office. 2021. COVID-19 housing protections: Moratoriums have helped limit evictions, but further outreach is needed. https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-21-370.
U.S. House of Representatives. 1987. Background material and data on programs within the jurisdiction of the Committee on Ways and Means: Green book. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Publishing Office.
Vásquez-Vera, H., L. Palència, I. Magna, C. Mena, J. Neira, and C. Borrell. 2017. The threat of home eviction and its effects on health through the equity lens: A systematic review. Social Science & Medicine 175:199–208.
von Wachter, T., M. Bertrand, H. Pollack, J., Rountree, and B. Blackwell. 2019. Predicting and preventing homelessness in Los Angeles. UChicago Poverty Lab and California Policy Lab. https://www.capolicylab.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Predicting_and_Preventing_Homelessness_in_Los_Angeles.pdf.
Whitehead, J., and C. Williams-Derry. 2014. Zoning: Inclusionary v. exclusionary. Sightline Institute, September 29. https://www.sightline.org/2014/09/29/zoning-inclusionary-v-exclusionary.
Wise, A. 2020. Why is COVID-19 hitting Black communities harder? Residential segregation is a key factor. The Appeal. https://theappeal.org/coronavirus-racial-disparities-residential-segregation.
Wood, M., J. Turnham, and G. Mills. 2008. Housing affordability and family well‐being: Results from the housing voucher evaluation. Housing Policy Debate 19(2):367–412. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.530.3116&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Zaretsky, R. 2020. CARES Act support is falling short. Tax Vox: Individual Taxes, May 6. https://www.taxpolicycenter.org/taxvox/cares-act-support-falling-short.
Zipperer, B., and E. Gould. 2020. Unemployment filing failures. Working Economics Blog, Economic Policy Institute. https://www.epi.org/blog/unemployment-filing-failures-new-survey-confirms-that-millions-of-jobless-were-unable-to-file-an-unemployment-insurance-claim (accessed May 19, 2021).