2. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Science Literacy: Concepts, Contexts, and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/23595.
3. Cherrstrom, C.A., Lopez, O.S., and Ashford-Hanserd, S. (2021). STEM Knowledge in Non-STEM Occupations: Implications for Community Colleges, Community College Journal of Research and Practice, DOI: 10.1080/10668926.2020.1868359.
4. U.S. Bureau of Labor Stats. Available: https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/stem-employment.htm.
6. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2011). Expanding Underrepresented Minority Participation: America’s Science and Technology Talent at the Crossroads. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12984.
7. Cohen, J.J., Gabriel, B.A., and Terrell, C. (2002). The case for diversity in the health care workforce. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 21(5), 90–102.
9. Florida, R. (2014). The Rise of the Creative Class—Revisited: Revised and Expanded. New York: Basic Books.
10. Centre for Strategy and Evaluation Services. (2003). The Costs and Benefits of Diversity: A Study on Methods and Indicators to Measure the Cost Effectiveness of Diversity Policies in Enterprises: Executive summary. European Commission. Available: https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/mars/source/resources/references/others/17%20-%20Costs%20and%20Benefits%20of%20Diversity%20-%20EU%202003%20ExSum.pdf.
11. Campbell, L.G., Mehtani, S., Dozier, M.E., and Rinehart, R. (2013). Gender-heterogeneous working groups produce higher quality science. PLOS ONE 8(10).
12. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). How People Learn II: Learners, Contexts, and Cultures. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24783.
14. Arum, N., Besley, J., and Gomez, L. (2018). Disparities in Science Literacy. Science, 360(6391), 861-862. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar8480.
15. National Research Council. (2012). A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13165.
16. National Research Council. (2012). Discipline-Based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13362.
17. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Barriers and Opportunities for 2-Year and 4-Year STEM Degrees: Systemic Change to Support Students’ Diverse Pathways. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/21739.
18. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Science and Engineering for Grades 6-12: Investigation and Design at the Center. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25216.
19. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Science Teachers’ Learning: Enhancing Opportunities, Creating Supportive Contexts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/21836.
20. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25603.
21. Ong, M., Wright, C., Espinosa, L. L., and Orfield, G. (2011). Inside the double bind: A synthesis of empirical research on undergraduate and graduate women of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Harvard Educational Review, 81(2), 172–208. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.81.2.t022245n7x4752v2.
22. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24994.
23. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Promising Practices for Addressing the Underrepresentation of Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Opening Doors. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25585.
24. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Undergraduate Research Experiences for STEM Students: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24622.
25. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2017). The Nation’s Report Card: 2015 Science at Grades 4, 8 and 12. NCES 2016162. Available: https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2016162.
26. Horizon Research, Inc. (2019). Highlights from the 2018 NSSME+. Available: http://www.horizon-research.com/highlights-from-the-2018-nssme.
27. Blank, R.K. (2013). Science instructional time is declining in elementary schools: What are the implications for student achievement and closing the gap?. Science Education, 97(6), 830–847.
28. Judson, E. (2013). The relationship between time allocated for science in elementary schools and state accountability policies. Science Education, 97(4), 621–636.
29. Hartry, A., Dorph, R., Shields, P., Tiffany-Morales, J., and Romero, V. (2012). The Status of Middle School Science Education in California. Sacramento, CA: The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning at WestEd.
30. Change the Equation. (2017). Ending the Double Disadvantage: Ensuring STEM Opportunities in Our Poorest Schools. Available: https://www.ecs.org/wp-content/uploads/CTE_STEM-Desert-Brief_FINAL.pdf.
31. Banilower, E.R., Smith, P.S., Weiss, I.R., Malzahn, K.A., Campbell, K.M., and Weis, A.M. (2013). Report of the 2012 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education. Horizon Research, Inc. Available: http://www.horizon-research.com/2012nssme/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/2012-NSSME-Full-Report1.pdf.
32. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Prioritizing Health, Equity, and Communities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25858.
33. Trygstad, P.J., Malzahn, K.A., Banilower, E.R., Plumley, C.L., and Bruce, A.D. (2020). Are All Students Getting Equal Access to High-Quality Science Education? Data from the 2018 NSSME+. Horizon Research, Inc. Available: http://www.horizon-research.com/horizonresearchwp/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/Equity_Science_FINAL.pdf.
34. Dee, T.S. and Goldhaber, D. (2017). Understanding and Addressing Teacher Shortages in the United States. The Hamilton Project, Brookings. Policy Proposal 2017-05.
36. Egalite, A., and Kisida, B. (2017). The effects of teacher match on students’ academic perceptions and attitudes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 40(1), 59–81. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373717714056.
37. Ingersoll, R., May, H., and Collins, G. (2019). Recruitment, employment, retention, and the minority teacher shortage. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 27(37). http://dx.doi.org/10.14507/epaa.27.3714.
38. de Brey, C., Musu, L., McFarland, J., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Diliberti, M., Zhang, A., Branstetter, C., and Wang, X. (2019). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups 2018. NCES 2019-038. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Available: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019038.pdf.
39. ExcelinEd. (2018). College and Career Pathways: Equity and Access. Available: https://www.excelined.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/ExcelinEd.Report.CollegeCareerPathways.CRDCAnalysis.2018.pdf.
40. ECS/College Board. Advanced-Placement-Access-and-Success-How-do-rural-schools-stack-up.pdf (ecs.org).
41. Gao, N. (2016). College Readiness in California: A Look at Rigorous High School Course-Taking. Public Policy Institute of California. Available: https://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/R_0716NGR.pdf.
42. Castleman, B., and Page, L. (2013). A trickle or a torrent? Understanding the extent of summer “melt” among college-intending high school graduates. Social Science Quarterly, 95(1), 202–220.
43. Hillman, N., and Weichman, T. (2016). Education Deserts: The Continued Significance of “Place” in the Twenty-First Century. Viewpoints: Voices from the Field. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
44. Klasik, D., Blagg, K., and Pekor, Z. (2018). Out of the Education Desert: How Limited Local College Options are Associated with Inequity in Postsecondary Opportunities (CEPA Working Paper No.18-15). Available: http://cepa.stanford.edu/wp18-15.
46. Seymour, E., and Hunter, A.-B. (Eds.). (2019). Talking About Leaving Revisited: Persistence, Relocation, and Loss in Undergraduate STEM Education. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
47. Riegle-Crumb, C., King, B., and Irizarry, Y. (2019). Does STEM stand out? Examining racial/ethnic gaps in persistence across postsecondary fields. Educational Researcher, 48(3), 133–144. (Original DOI: 10.3102/0013189X19831006).
48. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. (2012). Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Available: https://obamaWhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-engage-to-excel-final_2-25-12.pdf.
49. National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics, National Science Foundation. (2019). Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2019. Special Report NSF 19-304. Available at https://www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd.
50. Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., and Dillow, S.A. (2019). Digest of Education Statistics 2018. NCES 2020-009. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Available: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2020/2020009.pdf.
51. Yuen, V. (October, 2020). The $78 Billion Community College Funding Shortfall. Center for American Progress. Available: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education-postsecondary/reports/2020/10/07/491242/78-billion-community-college-funding-shortfall/.
52. Goldrick-Rab, S., Kelchen, R., and Houle, J. (2014). Color of Student Debt: Implications of Federal Loan Program Reforms for Black Students and Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Wisconsin Hope Lab. Paper for discussion.
53. Scott-Clayton, J., and Li, J. (2016). Black-White disparity in student loan debt more than triples after graduation. Evidence Speaks Reports, 2 (3). Brookings.
54. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2018). Digest of Education Statistics. Available: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2018menu_tables.asp.
55. Bettinger, E., and Long, B. (2005). Do faculty serve as role models? The impact of instructor gender on women students. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 95(2), 152-157.
56. Fairlee, R., Hoffman, F., and Oreopoulous, P. (2014). A community college instructor like me: Race and ethnicity interactions in the classroom. American Economic Review, 104(8), 2567–2591.
57. Hoffmann, F. and P. Oreopoulos. (2009). A professor like me: the influence of instructor gender on university achievement. Journal of Human Resources, 44(2), 479-494.
59. Addo, F.R. and Houle, J.N., and Simon, D. (2016). Young, Black, and (still) in the red: Parental wealth, race, and student loan debt, Race and Social Problems, 8(1), 64–76.
61. Quillian, L., Lee, J.J. and Honoré, B. (2020). Racial discrimination in the U.S. housing and mortgage lending markets: A quantitative review of trends, 1976–2016. Race and Social Problems, 12, 13–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12552-019-09276-x.
62. Semega, J., Kollar, M. Creamer, J., and Mohanty, A. (2019). Income and Poverty in the United States: 2018-Current Population Reports. Report number P60-266. https://www.census.gov/library/visualizations/2019/demo/p60-266.html.
63. McIntosh, K., Moss, E., Nunn, R., and Shambaugh, J. (2020). Examining the Black White Wealth Gap. Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/up-front/2020/02/27/examining-the-black-White-wealth-gap/.
64. Greene, S., Austin Turner, M., and Gourevitch, R. (August, 2017). Racial Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Disparities. U.S. Partnership on Mobility and Poverty. Available: https://www.mobilitypartnership.org/publications/racial-residential-segregation-and-neighborhood-disparities.
65. Chin, M.J., Quinn, D.M., and Dhaliwal, T.K. (2020). Bias in the air: A Nationwide exploration of teachers’ implicit racial attitudes, aggregate bias, and student outcomes. Educational Researcher, 49(8), 566–578. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X20937240.
68. Bustamante, A.S., Greenfield, D.B., and Nayfield, I. (2018). Early childhood science and engineering: Engaging platforms for fostering domain-general learning skills. Journal of Education Sciences, 8(3), 144-157.
69. Cervetti, G.N., Wright, T.S., and Hwang, H. (2016). Conceptual coherence, comprehension and vocabulary acquisition: A knowledge effect? Reading and Writing, 29, 761-779.
70. Pearson, P.D., Moje, E., and Greenleaf, C. (2010). Literacy and science: Each in the service of the other. Science, 328(5977), 459-463.
71. Hurd, N. M., Tan, J., Loeb, E. L. (2016). Natural mentoring relationships and the adjustment to college among underrepresented students. American Journal of Community Psychology.
72. Sally Lindsay, De-Lawrence Lamptey, Elaine Cagliostro, Dilakshan Srikanthan, Neda Mortaji and Leora Karon. (2019). A systematic review of postsecondary transition interventions for youth with disabilities, Disability and Rehabilitation, 41(21), 2492-2505, DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2018.1470260.
74. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Minority-Serving Institutions: America’s Underutilized Resource for Strengthening the STEM Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25257.
78. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Indicators for Monitoring Undergraduate STEM Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24943.
79. Coburn, C.E., and Penuel, W.R. (2016). Research–practice partnerships in education: Outcomes, dynamics, and open questions. Educational Researcher, 45(1), 48-54. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X16631750.
80. Russell, J. L., Bryk, A. S., Dolle, J. R., Gomez, L. M., L., P. G., and Grunow, A. (2017). A framework for the initiation of networked improvement communities, Teachers College Record, 119(5), 1-36.
81. Government Accounting Office (2016). K-12 Education: Better Use of Information Could Help Agencies Identify Disparities and Address Racial Discrimination. GAO-16-345. Published: Apr 21, 2016. Publicly Released: May 17, 2016. https://www.gao.gov/products/gao-16-345.
82. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Building Educational Equity Indicator Systems: A Guidebook for States and School Districts. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25833.
83. White, K., Beach, A., Finkelstein, N., Henderson, C., Simkins, S., Slakey, L., Stains, M., Weaver, G., and Whitehead, L. (Eds.). (2020). Transforming Institutions: Accelerating Systemic Change in Higher Education. Pressbooks. http://openbooks.library.umass.edu/ascnti2020/.