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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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ENERGIZING DATA-DRIVEN
OPERATIONS AT THE
TACTICAL EDGE
Challenges and Concerns

Committee on Energy Challenges and Opportunities for
Future Data-Driven Operations in the United States Air Force

Air Force Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract No. FA8650-19-F-9303 with the U.S. Air Force. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67023-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67023-3
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26183

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26183.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

COMMITTEE ON ENERGY CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR FUTURE DATA-DRIVEN OPERATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE

JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group, Chair

MARK F. COSTELLO, Georgia Institute of Technology

JOHN FERRARI, Visiting Fellow, American Enterprise Institute and QOMPLX

DENIZ OZKAN, Shell Renewables and Energy Solutions

DOROTHY ROBYN, Boston University Institute for Sustainable Energy (through July 2020)

MARCUS SACHS, Auburn University and Pattern Computer

MICHAEL SCHNEIDER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

SUBHASH C. SINGHAL, NAE,1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Emeritus)

Staff

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer, Study Director

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

EVAN ELWELL, Research Assistant

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

AIR FORCE STUDIES BOARD

ELLEN M. PAWLIKOWSKI, NAE,1 Independent Consultant, Chair

KEVIN G. BOWCUTT, NAE, Boeing Company

TED F. BOWLDS, IAI North America

CLAUDE CANIZARES, NAS,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MARK F. COSTELLO, Georgia Institute of Technology

WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JAMES E. HUBBARD, JR., NAE, Texas A&M University

LESTER L. LYLES, NAE, U.S. Air Force (retired)

WENDY M. MASIELLO, Wendy Mas Consulting, LLC

LESLIE A. MOMODA, HRL Laboratories, LLC

OZDEN OCHOA, Texas A&M University

F. WHITTEN PETERS, Williams and Connolly, LLP

HENDRICK RUCK, Edaptive Computing, Inc.

JULIE J.C.H. RYAN, Wyndrose Technical Group

MICHAEL SCHNEIDER, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

GRANT STOKES, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MICHAEL YARYMOVYCH, NAE, Sarasota Space Associates

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Director

GEORGE COYLE, Senior Program Officer

EVAN ELWELL, Research Assistant

ADRIANNA HARGROVE, Financial Assistant

RYAN MURPHY, Program Officer

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

of this report was overseen by Robert F. Sproull, NAE, Oracle Labs (retired), University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
×

Preface

In 2019, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conduct a study to examine challenges and opportunities associated with energy needs for future data-driven operations at the tactical edge. Accordingly, the National Academies, under the auspices of its Air Force Studies Board (AFSB), established the Committee on Energy Challenges and Opportunities for Future Data-Driven Operations in the United States Air Force. Members of the interdisciplinary committee were volunteers, appointed to represent relevant academic, research, and operational experience for this highly specialized topic. This report is the result of the work of that committee. Consistent with the statement of task, reprinted in Appendix A, this report offers insights into the Air Force regarding the energy needs for information systems at the tactical edge.

The committee wishes to acknowledge the many contributors to the study, specifically those who took the time to brief the committee and participate in the many virtual meetings over the period of the study. The committee began work just prior to the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and was able to have only one meeting in person before the restrictions on gathering went into effect. The pandemic restrictions on travel and group gatherings impacted the normal National Academies study process by requiring that all data gathering and interviews be conducted virtually and by eliminating the ability of the committee to collect data from operational locations. The committee would particularly like to acknowledge and thank the participants, including both staff and subject-matter experts, who participated while actively fighting the COVID-19 infection. The

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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committee members and National Academies staff displayed perseverance in the midst of these unusual circumstances, completing the study despite the restrictions. We wish to thank them and the many subject-matter experts for their flexibility and willingness to contribute to this effort.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge: Challenges and Concerns. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26183.
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Significant efforts are ongoing within the U.S. Air Force (USAF) to improve national security and competitiveness by harnessing the growing power of information technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. Product and process technologies are being researched, experimented with, and integrated into future warfighting concepts and plans. A significant part of this effort is focused on integrating operations, from the strategic to the tactical and across all lines of effort. A question that must be asked in considering these future warfighting concepts is: how will the devices that enable the knowledge-based future be powered? The abundant energy supplies that characterize peacetime operating environments may not be readily available at the far reaches of the force projections - the tactical edge - during conflict. Understanding the energy challenges associated with continued data collection, processing, storage, analysis, and communications at the tactical edge is an important part of developing the plans for meeting the future competition on the battlefield.

This report identifies challenges and issues associated with energy needs at the tactical edge as well as any potential for solutions to be considered in the future to help address these challenges. The recommendations of Energizing Data-Driven Operations at the Tactical Edge address understanding these requirement needs and the cascading effects of not meeting those needs, integrating energy needs for data processing into mission and unit readiness assessments, and research into product and process technologies to address energy-efficient computation, resilience, interoperability, and alternative solutions to energy management at the tactical edge.

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