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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Suggested Citation:"Part II - Toolkit and Guidance." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26230.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Toolkit and Guidance P A R T I I

37   Diversity and Inclusion Toolkit and Recommendations The interviews, case studies, and other research indicated that there are both standard practices and areas for improvement in transit agency diversity and inclusion efforts. This chapter is a toolkit for transit agencies to use in benchmarking their progress and seeking out incremental steps to advance practices to nurture a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive workforce and workplace. This toolkit has two parts: a set of diversity and inclusion checklists and a collection of resources for staff management, procurement, and service delivery. Diversity and Inclusion Checklists for Program Implementation Each transit agency is unique. Transit agencies differ in ridership and services offered, work- force size, budgets, and communities served, which can affect the scope of their current diversity and inclusion efforts. Therefore, the research team developed checklists with two tiers of recommendations—initial efforts and expanded efforts—that can be used to gauge the progress of an organization and set future aspirations. The checklists provided in this report are not meant to cover all legally required actions. Transit agencies must be in compliance with federal, state, and local laws in addition to the measures outlined in the checklists. Additionally, transit agencies that receive FTA funding must follow federal DBE Program requirements, which are outlined below. The checklists in this section can be used to gauge the implementation and progress of diversity and inclusion efforts within an organization. Leaders and managers can visually assess how well they meet standards. The checklists that follow include programs and strategies insti- tuted by transit agencies across the nation identified through in-depth interviews, case studies, and other research. They are organized by the following topics: • Forms of diversity, • Employee recruitment and hiring methods, • Current employee efforts, • Procurement initiatives, and • Additional service-related measures. Forms of Diversity There are many ways to define diversity and many forms of it. Research finds that it is effective for an agency to expand its notion of diversity beyond legally protected groups (as outlined by federal, state, and local laws) and to include diversity of thought and experience. Table 6-1 lists various types of diversity that transit agencies can incorporate in their definitions of diversity and efforts to increase it. C H A P T E R   6

38 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry                 Life experience Political affiliation and beliefs Socioeconomic status Family structure Learning style Above and beyond Communication style Sexual orientation Veteran status Race, ethnicity and color Religious beliefs Language Nationality and immigration status Gender identity and expression Genetic traits and information Fundamentals Age and life stage Disability Forms of diversity checklist Table 6-1. Diversity checklist. Employee Recruitment and Hiring Methods Development of a diverse and inclusive workforce begins at recruitment and hiring. Table 6-2 is a list of strategies that can be implemented by transit agencies to improve recruitment and hiring practices. Results are based on interviews and case studies as well as other data. Current Employee Efforts Staff management is one of the primary areas in which agencies focus their diversity and inclusion efforts. Table 6-3 provides a checklist of efforts targeted to current employees and

Diversity and Inclusion Toolkit and Recommendations 39   derived from the standard initiatives used by transit agencies examined in this study as well as other research. Procurement Initiatives In addition to staff management, initiatives can be implemented in procurement processes to increase opportunities for diverse vendors in purchasing and contracting. Table 6-4 provides a checklist for such initiatives that was developed on the basis of results from interviews, case studies, and other research. Additional Measures Most of the transit agencies in the case studies appeared to exceed the legal requirements for diversity and inclusion in their decision-making about the services they provide. They apply equity initiatives in their relationships with local communities, in services provided, in activities such as policing, and in relation to the environment. Table 6-5 lists these additional measures. Note: LGBTQ = lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer.         Provide recruitment announcements and hiring documents in accessible formats, including non-English languages Develop apprenticeship and internship programs targeted at training underutilized groups Develop programs that encourage job placement for persons with disabilities Use diverse interview panels Evaluate and monitor candidate interview and selection processes for biases Initial efforts Employee recruitment and hiring methods checklist Expanded efforts Conduct and publish results of workforce studies, and incorporate workforce utilization analysis results into hiring practices and goal-setting Utilize targeted recruitment of people of color, women, persons with disabilities, LGBTQ members, veterans and potentially other groups Assess minimum qualifications of job postings for institutional barriers, including exams Table 6-2. Employment recruitment and hiring methods checklist.

40 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry Staff Management and Procurement Resources Numerous resources regarding diversity and inclusion in public transportation are available to transit agency leaders. Topics addressed in these sources range from staff management best practices to cultural inclusivity to leveling the playing field in purchasing and contracting. The most important resources are those that explore federal regulations or national standards. These sources can assist transit agencies in their efforts to maintain (and later exceed) compliance. Following are some of these key resources: • Federal Transit Administration. FTA provides circulars on numerous topics to guide transit agency policies and practices, such as the following: – FTA Circular C 4704.1A, Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Requirements and Guidelines for Federal Transit Administration Recipients (FTA 2016a);             Provide facilities for all gender identities/expressions Formalize and fund employee resource groups Assess promotion/succession processes for barriers that may negatively impact diverse employees, including exams Encourage staff to actively lead agency diversity and inclusion efforts Create formal diversity and inclusion committees Expanded efforts Use positive messaging in diversity and inclusion training, avoid language that produces fear (e.g., penalties) Encourage formation of informal employee resource groups Develop and execute a plan to have diverse representation in leadership positions Guarantee employees have the technological access and time to engage in diversity and inclusion activities and training Celebrate diverse cultures and holidays through events and discretionary holidays Implement diversity and inclusion training Current employee efforts checklist Initial efforts Create and distribute diversity and inclusion policy Table 6-3. Workforce initiatives checklist.

Diversity and Inclusion Toolkit and Recommendations 41          Assess any potentially discriminatory effects of procurement practices, including notification of opportunities, unfair qualifications requirements and other bidding processes Expanded efforts Implement contract equity programs for non-federally funded contracts based on disparity study, and report results Require and monitor prompt payment to vendors as well as subcontractors Meet the maximum feasible portion of agency DBE goal using neutral means, such as providing technical assistance, fostering small business participation and simplifying the bidding process Consistently monitor the utilization of DBEs and their availability in the local marketplace and report results Meet FTA administrative and compliance standards for federally funded contracts and operating the Federal DBE Program Encourage disadvantaged firms to obtain certification and provide information on the certification process Procurement initiatives checklist Initial efforts Table 6-4. Procurement initiatives checklist. – FTA Circular C 4710.1, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Guidance (FTA 2015); – FTA Circular C 9070.1G, Enhanced Mobility of Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities Program Guidance and Application Instructions (FTA 2020); – FTA Circular C 4702.1B, Title VI Requirements and Guidelines for Federal Transit Adminis- tration Recipients (FTA 2012b); and – FTA Circular C 4703.1, Environmental Justice Policy Guidance for Federal Transit Adminis- tration Recipients (FTA 2012a). • U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: EEOC provides a digest of EEO laws (EEOC n.d.-a) as well as training and outreach resources, including the following: – Explanation of discrimination by type (EEOC n.d.-b); – Explanation of prohibited employment policies and practices (EEOC n.d.-d); and – Outreach, education, and technical assistance (EEOC n.d.-c). • American Public Transportation Association (APTA): APTA initiates and publicizes research on public transit in partnership with TRB, through the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) and multiple research organizations. Many TRB reports are cited in this research, including the following: – TCRP Report 120/NCHRP Report 585: Racial and Gender Diversity in State DOTs and Transit Agencies: A Benchmark Scoping (Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs 2007),

42 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry – TCRP Report 148: Practical Resources for Recruiting Minorities for Chief Executive Officers at Public Transportation Agencies (Washington et al. 2011), – TCRP Research Report 205: Social and Economic Sustainability Performance Measures for Public Transportation: Final Guidance Document (Unger et al. 2019), and – TCRP Synthesis 147: Attracting, Retaining, and Advancing Women in Transit (Alexander 2020). Agency leaders seek out other avenues of information outside of these federal and national sources. The rest of this chapter provides information on websites, journals, organizations, and associations mentioned by interviewees or discovered in the course of conducting research for this report. They are separated by type: staff management, procurement, and service delivery. Diversity and inclusion are major topics in human resources. Consequently, there are signi- ficant staff management resources available to transportation organizations regarding these topics. Table 6-6 highlights those most pertinent to the transit industry. Table 6-7 notes helpful resources for transit professionals who specialize in purchasing and contracting. Resources concerning equity and inclusion in service delivery are abundant. Table 6-8 lists those commonly used by transit agencies.         Ensure that diverse communities are represented on agency board and advisory groups Assess any bias in transit policing and remedy any disparities Address housing and business displacement (or disruption) due to transit construction via financial support and business development resources Partner with other groups to address role of agency in addressing homelessness Ensure language inclusion among customers through non-English announcements, signs in multiple languages and trained bilingual staff Reach out to diverse communities to uncover underserved needs Evaluate overall services and budgets for equity Incorporate equity lens when making decisions on services and operations Additional measures checklist Table 6-5. Services checklist: Additional measures.

Name U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Society for Human Resource Management Conference of Minority Transportation Officials TransitCenter HR Source LinkedIn Learning Human Resource Management Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Free or paid? Examples of available resources related to diversity and inclusion Diversity and inclusion resources for staff management Description Website Association for human resource professionals that provides information on staff management and employment law Paid, limited open access content https://www.shrm.orgArticles, legislative updates, benchmarks, and newsletters on topics such as "How to Develop a Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Initiative" National organization for diverse transportation professionals Network for transit professionals and advocates that performs research and holds events Paid Free Advocacy, professional development training, and webinars on topics such as "Celebrating Women Who Move the Nation" https://comtonational.org/ https://transitcenter.orgArticles, videos, podcasts, events, and blog posts on topics such as "Women Changing Transportation: The conversations" Paid, limited open access content Paid Articles, webinars, and training, including sessions on "Unconscious Bias and the Workplace" Videos, courses, and "learning paths" with experts such as Dr. Robin DiAngelo on "Confronting Racism" Federal agency that provides explanations, training, and other relevant materials regarding EEO law and discrimination Free Law digests, outreach, and training assistance and explanations about the various types of discrimination https://www.eeoc.gov https://www.emerald.com/ insight/publication/issn/ 2040-7149 Academic articles, such as "What Does 'Gender Equality' Mean?" PaidAcademic human resource management journal published by Emerald Insight Paid, limited open access content Academic articles including, "Religious Identity in the Workplace" and "Who Promotes a Value-in-Diversity Perspective?" https://www.hrsource.org https://www.linkedin.com/ learning https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/journal/1099050x Association for human resource professionals that provides resources, consulting services, and hosts events Professional e-learning platform with training and courses developed by experts Academic journal on human resource management Table 6-6. Diversity and inclusion resources for staff management.

Name Federal Transit Administration U.S. Department of Transportation National Institute of Governmental Purchasing Chartered Institute of Procurement and Supply Journal of Public Procurement https://www.emerald.com/ insight/publication/issn/15 35-0118 https://www.cips.org/ Federal agency with information regarding diverse populations Free Information regarding persons with disabilities and veterans in the workforce https://www.transportation .gov/careers/diversity-and- inclusion Public procurement resource that provides training, certification, and hosts events Paid Conferences, reports, and training courses on topics regarding policy and legislation, strategies, and interpersonal skills https://www.nigp.org International association for procurement and supply professionals that provides networking, resources, and consulting services Paid, limited open access content LinkedIn DE&I group networking, workshops, podcasts, and videos on topics such as "Inclusive Procurement" Academic journal on purchasing and supply management published by Emerald Insight Paid, limited open access content Academic articles, such as "Diversity Management and the Organizational Perspective" Federal agency with training materials and information regarding EEO and DBE Free Recorded webinars, PowerPoint presentations, and videos on topics such as, "DBE Goal Setting" https://www.transit.dot .gov/regulations-and- guidance/civil-rights- ada/civil-rightsada Free or paid? Diversity and inclusion resources for procurement Description Examples of available resources related to diversity and inclusion Website Table 6-7. Diversity and inclusion resources for procurement.

Name National Transportation Library American Public Transportation Association Transportation Research Board Transportation Learning Center California Transit Association Harvard Business Review, Diversity section National Diversity Council Non-profit organization focused on multiculturalism in the private and public sectors Paid Peer networking, conferences, articles, and employee resource group materials http://www.national diversitycouncil.org/ State association for public transit professionals Free, some paid events Industry networking, conferences, webinars, industry data, and Transit California, a monthly publication https://caltransit.org Business management magazine published by Harvard University Paid, limited open access content Articles, such as "How to Best Use Data to Meet Your DE&I Goals," and "Race at Work" podcast episodes https://hbr.org/insight- center/race-equity-and- power-at-work Research and information exchange organization focused on transportation Free Articles, meetings, workshops, webinars, and conferences with themes such as the 2021 "Conference on Advancing Transportation Equity" https://www.trb.org National organization that conducts research and training on issues regarding frontline transit workers Free publications, paid training Training, assessments, digital articles, and reports and professional meetings https://www.transport center.org/ Repository developed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics that provides guides, databases, and blog posts Free Guides on accessibility and a portal to "ROSA P," an open access library of books, pamphlets, briefs, and journal articles on transit topics, including diversity https://ntl.bts.gov Association for public and private transportation organizations that conducts research, consulting, and advocacy Paid Research reports, publications, and webinars, such as 2016's "Diversity in the Transportation Industry: Attracting and engaging diverse groups" https://www.apta.com Diversity and inclusion resources for service delivery Description Free or paid? Examples of available resources related to diversity and inclusion Website Table 6-8. Diversity and inclusion resources for service delivery.

46 Implementation of Diversity and Inclusion Programs Implementation and delivery can be the most complex aspect of a diversity and inclusion program. This difficulty can be attributed to a lack of evaluative research on the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of alternative methods of implementing diversity programs. There is also a general lack of consensus on the usefulness and viability of certain strategies. What research has shown is that there is no one-size-fits-all solution for implementation, as agencies differ in size, scope, ability, demographics, culture, and more. This chapter provides recommendations for implementation based on interviews, case studies, and a review of existing literature. Recommendations are sensitive to the individual- ized nature of public transit organizations as well as the lack of industry consensus on effective practices. The suggestions presented here may not be appropriate for all organizations. Research has found that implementation of programs that are not evidence-based, cogent, or cohesive with workplace culture can result in employee backlash and other negative impacts (Dobbin and Kalev 2016). Therefore, transit agency leaders must critically weigh the advantages and dis advantages of the recommended implementation strategies, examine whether they are feasible, and consider how they will be perceived by employees. Recommendations on How Best to Put Research Findings and Products into Practice Chapter 6 outlines many staff management, procurement, and service delivery recommen- dations derived from research findings. Those recommendations are not repeated here. This section details broader organizational strategies that agencies can employ. Precise Implementation at All Organizational Levels To address all levels of organizational hierarchies, diversity and inclusion programs should occur on the macro, mezzo, and micro levels of a transit agency, as each position feeds into those above and below. To be innovative and integrate the voices of more employees, these efforts can be guided by leaders from each rank. For example, macro-level efforts can be headed by the general manager, mezzo-level efforts can be led by department managers, and micro- level initiatives can be guided by employee resource group leaders. Employee-Driven Diversity and Inclusion Committees Many organizations have found success with employee-driven diversity and inclusion committees. These are groups of individuals tasked with advancing organizational equity. Committees can include internal and external stakeholders to encourage a more diverse group C H A P T E R 7

Implementation of Diversity and Inclusion Programs 47   perspective. For example, a committee focused on leveling the playing field in procurement practices may include transit agency purchasing and contracting staff, local business associa- tion leaders, and business owners. In some agencies, these committees are tasked with covering all facets of organizational diversity and inclusion. For example, the New York City MTA’s Diversity Committee addresses issues relating to community relations, employees, EEO programs and activities, DBE certification, and federal DBE compliance. Internal Microsites Internal microsites—websites created for organizational use—are helpful repositories that consolidate information, web-based training, and program updates into one location. Some agencies also pair microsites with weekly or monthly newsletters to ensure employee awareness of these resources. Consistent, Tailored Training Training is often the most common tool used in diversity and inclusion programs. To be effective, training must be held on a regular basis, be evidence based, use positive messaging, be integrated with other equity initiatives, and be tailored to the needs and demographics of the transit agency. For example, the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority developed an Inclusive Leadership Certificate program with the help of Corporate College (consultants) to train employees and demonstrate organizational commitment to inclusivity and equal opportunity— two areas of the transit agency’s focus. The leadership program has since graduated many GCRTA employees. It also may be advantageous for transit agencies to vary the format of training. Web-based modules are the most common format because of their low cost and easy dissemination; how- ever, e-learning does not address all learning or communication styles. Alternative training formats, such as in-person activities, train-the-trainer events, managerial coaching sessions, newsletters, and field trips may help individuals learn and retain knowledge in new ways. Retaining a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Consultant External assistance with diversity and inclusion can be obtained by contracting with a diver- sity, equity, and inclusion expert or firm. Consultants bring outside perspectives, ask new ques- tions, and prompt new thinking, which may illuminate long-standing issues that have gone unaddressed. In some cases, they might overcome internal cynicism and lack of trust in manage- ment’s intentions surrounding diversity and inclusion efforts. At the time of this report, GCRTA and Salem Area Mass Transit District were two transportation organizations that were in the process of considering contracting with an outside diversity, equity, and inclusion consultant. Institutions That Might Take Leadership in Applying Research Findings and Products Several organizations within the transit field educate, connect, and guide agencies toward improvement, notably, the following: • Federal Transit Administration. FTA is the leading agency providing information to transit agencies about equity, diversity, and inclusion. Its circulars are a particularly useful source of information. • American Public Transportation Association. APTA is a foundational resource within the U.S. transportation industry. APTA has the largest membership of transit professionals in

48 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry North America and has the infrastructure to connect members on topics of equity. This organization currently provides some diversity, equity, and inclusion resources to members, such as sample racial equity statements for transit agencies, examples of mobility action plans (which include innovative equity-related practices), and educational webinars. • Regional and state transit associations. Regional and state associations for transit profes- sionals may also be effective sources of information about equity, diversity, and inclusion. These associations, such as the California Transit Association and the South West Transit Association, connect and engage professionals of multiple organizations. • Large transit agencies. Research findings show that large transit agencies devote more resources and staff to diversity and inclusion and are often more innovative in their practices. They may be able to devote more effort to disseminating results of their efforts and advising midsized and small transit agencies. • Transportation Research Board. Like APTA, TRB is an established organization with the infrastructure to distribute information about industry-wide diversity and inclusion efforts. Issues Affecting Potential Implementation of Findings and Products and How to Address Them Issues that can affect the implementation of research recommendations are highlighted in Chapter 5. Addressing these issues is difficult. There is no set of actions that eliminates all concerns surrounding diversity and inclusion programs. However, interviews, case studies, and background research indicate that the following techniques are helpful in overcoming noted gaps and constraints. Integration of Known Gaps and Constraints into Program Development As diversity and inclusion plans are being developed, leaders should consider known gaps and constraints. Doing so will develop programs that address constraints directly or steer clear of potential pitfalls. For example, if a transit agency is aware of employee cynicism or mistrust, leadership can utilize employee-led committees and initiatives to engage the workforce so that efforts are clearly seen as driven by employees. Consistency As mentioned earlier, some agencies lack consistent implementation of diversity-related programs and training. For example, new employees may be trained upon hiring, but train- ing topics are not revisited. The same may be true for evaluations of organizational equity. For training and evaluation to be effective, they must be conducted regularly and consistently. To do so, adequate resources and planning must be devoted to these efforts. As noted in Chapter 5, barriers that impede employee training and the conducting of assessments must also be addressed. Expansion of Hiring Pools Some organizations suffer from a limited pool of applicants for jobs or apprenticeships, due, in part, to minimum qualifications and requirements that may be outdated or irrelevant. This situation can be exacerbated by a lack of agency assessment of job postings if positions are reposted without review. Therefore, agencies should assess the minimum qualifications and

Implementation of Diversity and Inclusion Programs 49   requirements of every job announcement before it is posted. Transit agencies can also consider expanding hiring pool populations to include those with criminal records by “banning the box,” that is, removing questions about criminal records from job applications, as well as by building targeted pathways for diverse workers through apprenticeships and other training programs. Methods of Identifying and Measuring Impacts Associated with Implementation of Research Findings and Products As mentioned above, it is important for transit agencies to consistently track progress and set goals for diversity and inclusion. This is because staff management, procurement, and service delivery efforts are not static; rather, they are dynamic and contextual processes. For example, a supplier diversity goal set in one year may no longer be feasible 3 years later if the availability of diverse vendors decreases, or an equity program developed in one period may seem out of touch during the next. Therefore, for agencies to accurately measure the impact of programs and effectively apply research results, leaders must initiate consistent and regular studies. There is a wide variety of evaluative tools that measure diversity and inclusion. The following tools are the most relevant to public transportation organizations. Disparity Studies and Other Equity Studies A disparity study compares a transit agency’s actual utilization of minority- and women- owned firms (and other disadvantaged businesses) with what might be expected given the availability of those firms to perform the agency’s work. Disparity studies can also compare hiring of diverse employees and the availability of those employees in the labor pool (similar analyses of promotions and retention can also be done). Case study transit agency WMATA was one organization undergoing a disparity study at the time of this report. Employee equity studies can also assess whether there are disparities in worker pay on the basis of race, ethnicity, or gender after other factors are controlled for. There are different types of equity and impact studies that can examine the fairness of service delivery, impacts of system changes or improvements, and other activities. For example, it is possible to research the impacts of transit policing on diverse populations. Each of these types of studies can measure the effectiveness of any new equity, diversity, or inclusion programs implemented by a transit agency. Satisfaction Surveys Many transit agencies regularly survey their employees to measure job satisfaction and perceived inclusion and belonging. These surveys can identify any disparities in how welcome different employees feel in their workplaces within the organization, for example. Surveys can highlight improvements or deterioration in employee perceptions over time. If performed regularly and consistently, those surveys can also gauge the impacts of any new diversity and inclusion measures. Similar surveys can gauge businesses’ perceptions of the equity and inclusive- ness of a transit agency’s procurement. Many transit agencies also regularly survey their riders. Questions concerning equity and inclusion can be incorporated into those surveys.

50 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry Community Transportation Needs Assessment A community transportation needs assessment identifies the mobility needs of a transit agency’s surrounding communities, particularly those that are unmet. It also benchmarks current services. This assessment is helpful in creating more equitable transit network designs and in addressing diversity and inclusion in ridership. For example, case study transit agency PAAC’s planning department conducted a mobility needs assessment in 2019 that identified neighborhoods with high mobility needs but that lacked services. This evaluation informed future planning. Environment and Sustainability Assessment There are many ways to assess the impact of public transportation on the environment as well as on organizational sustainability. In terms of diversity, equity, and inclusion, such assess- ments should be targeted at the impact of transit services and construction on the local envi- ronment and community (e.g., housing and businesses), so as to determine how to avoid or minimize any negative effects. These studies can also examine environmental justice issues. For example, WMATA has employed environmental assessments to develop forward-looking sustainability plans, such as its Zero-Emissions Bus Plan and 2025 Energy Action Plan. Other Program Evaluation Program evaluation is a broad set of assessments that can be qualitative or quantitative and whose main goal is to determine the effectiveness of a program. Program evaluations ask, “Was the program successful? If so, why? And if not, why not?” Factors that determine the success (or failure) of a program are identified and can then be addressed in future programs. In transit agencies, program evaluation can be conducted on diversity and inclusion programs related to staff management, procurement, and service delivery.

51   Conclusion Using interviews with leaders of 12 midsized and large transit organizations, this report examines and defines diversity and inclusion in public transportation. Common and innovative equity programs that address employees, vendors, riders, and local communities are detailed and benchmarked; the legal landscape that regulates efforts of organizations is summarized; and gaps and constraints that influence the effectiveness of diversity and inclusion initiatives are analyzed. The research findings show that transit agencies with adequate resources tend to go above and beyond check-the-box compliance. These agencies attempt to incorporate equity, diversity, and inclusion into workplace culture, procurement, and routine organizational decision-making. Some agencies extend this framework when making service decisions for their communities. The research results also show that leaders at transit agencies tend to define “diversity” and “inclusion” beyond legally protected characteristics and are beginning to integrate notions that diversity includes that of thought and experience. However, this study found that attempts to ensure diversity and inclusion are not easy and that many may prove unsuccessful. Interviewees described encountering cynical employees, logistical barriers, and practical constraints. Case studies found that most efforts centered on staff management and human resources–led programs, potentially underrecognizing the inte- gration of diversity and inclusion in interactions with riders and the local community. The research team also identified implementation of programs that focused on diversity but lacked inclusion. Despite these challenges, agencies appear undeterred and continue to initiate and sustain programs and develop more innovative strategies. This report provides resources to assist public transportation organizations of various sizes, resources, and abilities in improving and implementing diversity and inclusion programs. The toolkit provided in Chapter 6 and implementation guidelines provided in Chapter 7 can serve as templates for future transit agency efforts. As diversity and inclusion become more ingrained in the missions and values of transit agencies, it is important for organizations to share their knowledge and strategies with one another and for research on this topic to broaden. Disseminating new information across agencies can speed progress within the industry. The following sections examine some ways knowledge can be shared across agencies as well as some paths for future researchers to pursue. Future Knowledge Sharing There are several approaches to knowledge sharing that can be used individually by a transit agency or collectively by multiple agencies to improve diversity and inclusion throughout the industry. The latter has already been initiated by organizations such as TRB, through annual C H A P T E R 8

52 Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry meetings with panels focused on equity in transit and through equity-related research; APTA, through diversity, equity, and inclusion webinars and mobility action plans; and COMTO, through minority advocacy programs and networking. Transportation agencies can engage with these organizations and their materials as well as create professional linkages through them to support diversity and inclusion efforts. Established organizations such as those mentioned above may find value in enacting broader knowledge-sharing initiatives such as • A monthly diversity and inclusion newsletter targeted specifically at transit agencies with cutting-edge activities, outreach, and training ideas as well as recent research findings and • A free, open-source, online library of transit-focused diversity, equity, and inclusion materials. Most industries have sites of this nature. For example, there are countless equity websites for professionals in academia. A transit-focused site could be modeled after an established non- industry website, and resources could be populated via crowd-sourced material from agencies throughout the country. Individual transit agencies can also improve knowledge sharing by prioritizing it through • The formulation of long-term information-sharing plans to ensure constant and extended efforts and • The creation and funding of a position in human resources and/or procurement that is dedicated to collating compartmentalized information from internal transit agency depart- ments, sharing said information with external agencies, and updating resources made available to other agencies. Paths for Future Research Future researchers have a host of avenues with which to expand the understanding of equity, diversity, and inclusion activities in public transit. Transit researchers must closely follow the progress of diversity, equity, and inclusion studies performed outside of the transit industry to remain current in their methodology and relevant in their research questions, analyses, and recommendations. Following is a list of potential research paths informed by both non-transit- related and transit-related diversity, equity, and inclusion studies: • Most diversity and inclusion studies focus on the effect of programs on the recruitment and retention of people of color and women. Future studies could also examine diverse individuals on the basis of factors other than race and gender, such as diverse learning styles, communication techniques, and backgrounds. How do individuals in these groups perceive diversity and inclusion in their organizations? What programs are most effective in reaching these groups and helping them feel included? • The research for this report focused on investigating and defining the concepts of “diversity” and “inclusion.” Equity was not a primary topic; however, it plays a major role in diversity and inclusion efforts. Future studies can continue to explore equity in public transit, as it is a key element in the success of an organization’s efforts. • TRB’s literature on equity in procurement for transit agencies is limited as compared with that of state DOTs and airports. Researchers should be encouraged to investigate how tran- sit agencies could best improve equity through the operation of the federal DBE Program as well as other inclusion programs. • This report provides yes/no benchmarks and checklists for gauging transit agency prog- ress. Future researchers could develop more advanced and quantifiable measurements for diversity, equity, and inclusion programs. Such benchmarks could, for example, provide guid- ance on how many employee resource groups are appropriate for a certain size of workforce

Conclusion 53   (e.g., 10 employee groups per 500 employees?) or how many trainings should be held over what length of time to attain maximum positive impact. A study of this sort would assist transit agency leaders as they invest in such activities. • Diversity and inclusion programs cost money and staff time, but how much of each is unclear. One pragmatic path for future research would be to conduct a cost assessment of the various diversity and inclusion strategies noted in this research. This assessment could calculate the average cost according to transit agency size and provide leaders a frame of reference for future program planning. • Training is often considered the primary method for addressing diversity and inclusion among current employees. It is still unclear (a) what type of diversity and inclusion training is most effective among transit workers, (b) how to truly measure the effectiveness of train- ing on employee behaviors, and (c) what training topics are most relevant, on the basis of employee type or department. Studies that address these questions could pinpoint the most impactful trainings and delivery methods for transit workers and increase the cost-effectiveness of training.

Next: Part III - Resources and Appendices »
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Many transit agencies are striving to improve diversity and inclusion. They continue to initiate and sustain programs and develop more innovative strategies.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 228: Resource Guide for Improving Diversity and Inclusion Programs for the Public Transportation Industry builds on the snapshot of transit agency diversity initiatives provided nearly 20 years ago in TCRP Synthesis 46: Diversity Training Initiatives to understand how diversity programs at transit agencies have evolved, how inclusion has been incorporated, and what policies, plans, and practices have been successfully implemented within the industry.

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