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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AD artificial downwelling
AIS automatic identification system
ANSI American National Standards Institute
aOIF artificial ocean iron fertilization
AU artificial upwelling
BBNJ Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction
BCP biological carbon pump
C carbon
Ca(HCO3)2 calcium bicarbonate
Ca(OH)2 portlandite or calcium hydroxide
CaAl2Si2O8 anorthite
CAB coastal area of benefit
CaCO3 calcium carbonate or calcite
CaMg(CO3)2 dolomite
CaO quicklime or calcium oxide
CBD Convention on Biological Diversity
CCBS Climate, Community, and Biodiversity Standards
CCS carbon capture and storage
CDR carbon dioxide removal
CH4 methane
CO2 carbon dioxide
CO2 (aq) CO32− aqueous carbon dioxide carbonate ion
CREATE Carbon Removal, Efficient Agencies, Technology Expertise
CWA Clean Water Act
CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
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DA domoic acid
DIC dissolved inorganic carbon
DMS dimethyl sulfide
DOC dissolved organic carbon
DOE Department of Energy
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone
EIA environmental impact assessment
ENSO El Niño–Southern Oscillation
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ESA Endangered Species Act
EW enhanced weathering
EZ euphotic zone
Fe iron
Fe2SiO4 fayalite
GHGs greenhouse gases
GO-SHIP Global Ocean Hydrographic Investigations Program
H+ hydrogen ion
H2CO3 carbonic acid
H2O water
HABs harmful algal blooms
HCO3- bicarbonate
HNLC high nutrient, low chlorophyll
IODP International Ocean Discovery Program
IOOS Integrated Ocean Observing System
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
LC/LP London Convention and London Protocol
LNLC low nutrient, low chlorophyll
Mg(OH)2 brucite
Mg2SiO4 forsterite
MgCO3 manganesite
MgO periclase/magnesia
MMPA Marine Mammal Protection Act
MPAs marine protected areas
MPRSA Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
MSFCMA Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
N nitrogen
N2O nitrous oxide
NaOH sodium hydroxide
NBS nature-based solutions
NDC nationally determined contribution
NEPA National Environmental Policy Act
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
×
NETs negative emissions technologies
NIMBY not in my backyard
NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service
NMSA National Marine Sanctuaries Act
nOIF natural ocean iron fertilization
NPP net primary productivity
NPSG North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
NRC National Research Council
NSTC National Science and Technology Council
O2 oxygen
OA ocean alkalinity
OAE ocean alkalinity enhancement
OCCAM Ocean Circulation and Climate Advanced Modeling
OCSLA Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act
OF ocean fertilization
OIF ocean iron fertilization
OMF ocean macronutrient fertilization
OOI Ocean Observatories Initiative
OTEC ocean thermal energy conversion
P phosphorus
pCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation
POC particulate organic carbon
REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
RHA Rivers and Harbors Act
Si silica
SLO social license to operate
SOD superoxide dismutase
TZ twilight zone
UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
VCS Verified Carbon Standard
WHOI Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
×
Page298
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
×
Page299
Suggested Citation:"Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26278.
×
Page300
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A Research Strategy for Ocean-based Carbon Dioxide Removal and Sequestration Get This Book
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As of 2021, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have reached historically unprecedented levels, higher than at any time in the past 800,000 years. Worldwide efforts to reduce emissions by creating a more efficient, carbon-free energy system may not be enough to stabilize the climate and avoid the worst impacts of climate change. Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategies, which remove and sequester carbon from the atmosphere, likely will be needed to meet global climate goals. The ocean, covering 70% of the Earth's surface, includes much of the global capacity for natural carbon sequestration; the ocean also holds great potential for uptake and longerterm sequestration of human-produced CO2.

This report builds on previous work from the National Academies to assess what is currently known about the benefits, risks, and potential for responsible scale-up of six specific ocean-based CDR strategies as identified by the sponsor, ClimateWorks Foundation. It describes the research needed to advance understanding of those approaches and address knowledge gaps. The resulting research agenda is meant to provide an improved and unbiased knowledge base for the public, stakeholders, and policymakers to make informed decisions on the next steps for ocean CDR, as part of a larger climate mitigation strategy; it is not meant to lock in or advocate for any particular approach.

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