National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Vaccine Research
and Development
to Advance Pandemic
and Seasonal
Influenza Preparedness
and Response

Lessons from COVID-19

Enriqueta Bond, Kanta Subbarao, and Hoda Soltani, Editors

Committee on Vaccine Research and Development Recommendations
for Advancing Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness
and Response

Board on Global Health

Health and Medicine Division

A Consensus Study Report of

images

and

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF MEDICINE

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Global Affairs with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-08781-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-08781-3
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26282
Library of Congress Catalog Number: 2021950193

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Vaccine research and development to advance pandemic and seasonal influenza preparedness and response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26282.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process, and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

COMMITTEE ON VACCINE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ADVANCING PANDEMIC AND SEASONAL INFLUENZA PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE1

ENRIQUETA BOND (Co-Chair), Founding Partner, QE Philanthropic Advisors

KANTA SUBBARAO (Co-Chair), Director, Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, World Health Organization

MARIA ELENA BOTTAZZI, Associate Dean, National School of Tropical Medicine; Professor of Pediatrics and Co-Director, Texas Children’s Center for Vaccine Development, Baylor College of Medicine; Co-Chair, Vaccines and Therapeutics Taskforce, Lancet Commission on COVID-19

REBECCA J. COX, Professor of Medical Virology and Head of the Influenza Centre, University of Bergen and Haukeland University Hospital

ANNETTE FOX, Senior Research Scientist, Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, World Health Organization

FLORIAN KRAMMER, Professor of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

GRACE M. LEE, Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine JOHN C. MARTIN (until March 30, 2021, deceased), former Chief Executive Officer and Executive Chairman, Gilead Sciences

JOSHUA M. SHARFSTEIN, Professor of the Practice in Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

MILAGRITOS D. TAPIA, Professor, Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Study Staff

HODA SOLTANI, Study Director

EMILIE RYAN-CASTILLO, Senior Program Assistant

ELIZABETH ASHBY, Research Associate

HANNAH K. COLLINS, Research Associate

PATRICIA A. CUFF, Senior Program Officer

JULIE A. PAVLIN, Senior Director, Board on Global Health

Consultant

MAARTJE WOUTERS, Science Writer

___________________

1 See Appendix B, Disclosure of Unavoidable Conflict of Interest.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

In Memoriam

John C. Martin, Ph.D., M.B.A.
1951–2021

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by ANN M. ARVIN, Stanford University School of Medicine, and ALASTAIR J. WOOD, Vanderbilt University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

National Academy of Medicine

Advancing Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Preparedness and Response Series

This study, Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19, provides recommendations on how to leverage the knowledge gained from the COVID-19 pandemic to optimize research and development for future pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines. It is one of four studies conducted under the Advancing Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Preparedness and Response Initiative, which explores how the scientific and technological breakthroughs throughout the COVID-19 pandemic could inform and advance future pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine preparedness and response efforts.

The three companion studies to this study examine how the lessons learned from COVID-19 around vaccine distribution and supply chain contingencies, public health interventions and countermeasures, and global coordination, partnerships, and financing could be best utilized to improve the development and distribution of future pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines. Together, the four studies present a path toward better preparedness in addressing pandemic and seasonal influenza.

Launched by the National Academy of Medicine with support from the Office of Global Affairs, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Advancing Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Preparedness and Response Initiative acknowledges that influenza is here to stay. The unprecedented scope of this initiative allowed for international experts to look at this issue from multiple angles and provide recommendations that set out a pathway to more effective influenza vaccines worldwide. Driven by international cooperation, this independent initiative provides a platform to highlight why we need to act as a global community to better prepare for pandemic and seasonal influenza.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee has been honored and privileged to be able to contribute to this important effort and wishes to acknowledge the valuable contributions and assistance of many individuals who shared their expertise. The Statement of Task was developed by an international committee of experts assembled by the National Academy of Medicine. Many thanks to many area experts who volunteered their time to present to the committee and provided invaluable insights to inform the recommendations in this report. In this vein, we extend our thanks to Ben Cowling (University of Hong Kong); Barney Graham (NIH); Rita Helfand (WHO); Robert Johnston (BARDA); David Kaslow (PATH); Jerome Kim (International Vaccine Institute); Nicole Lurie (CEPI); Peter Marks (FDA); Kathleen Neuzil (University of Maryland – Center for Vaccine Development); Julie Ostrowsky (CIDRAP); Rino Rappuoli (GlaxoSmithKlein); Nadine Rouphael (Emory Vaccine Center); and Melanie Saville (CEPI). Finally, we thank the outstanding support and work of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine project staff for overseeing the assembly of our committee and the details of this report. We deeply appreciate the work of Hoda Soltani, Study Director; Emilie Ryan-Castillo, Senior Program Assistant; Elizabeth Ashby, Research Associate; Hannah Collins, Research Associate; Patricia Cuff, Senior Program Officer; and Julie Pavlin, Senior Director, Board on Global Health. This project would not be possible without the support of the Office of Global Affairs at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Preface

The National Academy of Medicine (NAM) has established an international committee in coordination with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of Global Affairs (OGA) to inform and facilitate efforts to advance global influenza pandemic preparedness. This international committee will provide OGA with an iterative, interactive multidisciplinary process for assessing the global effect that capabilities, technologies, processes, and policies developed for COVID-19 pandemic could have on pandemic and seasonal influenza global preparedness and response, especially regarding vaccine development. As part of the NAM initiative, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are carrying out four concurrent consensus studies. As one of the four work streams of this effort, our committee examined the technological and scientific advances achieved during the global response to COVID-19 and other outbreaks to distill lessons learned for vaccine research, development, and manufacturing, including the use of platform technologies to recommend strategies to harness the science, technology, policy, and practice required to improve global influenza pandemic preparedness and response.

In the 1980s as the United States mounted a response to address the harsh realities of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg warned that the public and political leadership of the United States needed to seriously address emerging infectious diseases and their potential for devastating epidemics. In 1992 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States, which pointed to major challenges for the public health and medical care communities in detecting and managing infectious disease

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

outbreaks and monitoring the prevalence of endemic diseases. A decade later Microbial Threats to Health: Emergence, Detection, and Response, underscored the revolution in globalization of all spheres including political, economic, cultural, technological, and informational—a new global environment where infectious agents could migrate with the internationalization of goods and people.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the Middle East respiratory syndrome, and Ebola serve as classic examples for how diseases can emerge and reemerge with unexpected fluctuations in different parts of the world. Fortunately, each was controlled before it grew into a pandemic. Then SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged, causing the COVID-19 pandemic, with dramatic loss of human life and devastating social and economic disruption worldwide. In October 2020, Cutler and Summers estimated the costs of COVID-19 in the United States at $16 trillion. As of August 2021, the Johns Hopkins University map notes that globally there have been nearly 190 million cases, more than 4 million recorded deaths, though some estimate total deaths may be as high as 16 million, and nearly 3.6 billion courses of vaccine administered. While an unprecedented number of vaccines has been developed, much more needs to be done to reach the nearly 8 billion human beings on Earth. The pandemic continues as variants have emerged.

Most experts believe that an influenza pandemic is inevitable given (1) the circulation of different influenza A subtypes in animals, (2) current global circulation of two A subtypes in humans, and (3) the ability of the viruses to mutate and reassort. In the early 20 century, the Spanish influenza caused an estimated 50 million deaths worldwide. Additional influenza pandemics in 1957, 1968, and 2009 claimed lower numbers of lives but still had an enormous impact on global human health and the economy. For this reason, for several years, governments, philanthropy, and global organizations have focused much attention to influenza pandemic preparedness planning. These efforts certainly facilitated the scientific and public health response to COVID-19, but they fell short, as we have seen with the inequities and the inability to vaccinate all. In the process of responding to COVID-19, lessons learned can be deployed to help the world respond better to the next influenza pandemic.

The main lesson has been that, given the astonishing and devastating costs to human life and the global economy, many more resources need to be sustainably invested in continued research, platform development for new influenza vaccines, and the regional capacity to research, manufacture, and distribute vaccines. Unprecedented cooperation and coordination among the different academic, government, industry, philanthropic, and global organizations have facilitated COVID-19 vaccine development and provided models for the future, but more needs to be done to ensure that

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

low- and middle-income countries also benefit and that we do not lose momentum in preparing ourselves for a future influenza pandemic.

Enriqueta Bond, Co-Chair
Kanta Subbarao, Co-Chair
Committee on Vaccine Research and Development
Recommendations for Advancing Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Ad26 adenovirus serotype 26
BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority
CDC U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CEPI Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
CIDRAP Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy
CMC chemistry, manufacturing, and control
COBRA computational optimized broadly reactive antigens
CONSISE Consortium for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology
COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019
CVD Centre pour le Developpement des Vaccins
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
EMA European Medicines Agency
EUA Emergency Use Authorization
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FLUCOP Standardization and Development of Assays for Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Correlates of Protection
GAP Global Action Plan
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
GISAID Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data
GISRS Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System
HA hemagglutinin
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HI hemagglutinin inhibition
HIC high-income country
ICMRA International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities
IHR International Health Regulations
IP intellectual property
LMIC low- and middle-income country
mAb monoclonal antibody
MDCK Madin-Darby canine kidney
MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome
NA neuraminidase
NAM National Academy of Medicine
NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NIH National Institutes of Health
NK natural killer
OWS Operation Warp Speed
PRR pattern recognition receptor
QIV quadrivalent inactivated vaccine
R&D research and development
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
SARS-CoV-2 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
SPEAC Safety Platform for Emergency vACcines
TIV trivalent inactivated vaccine
TTS thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome
UIV universal influenza vaccine
VAERS Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
VE vaccine effectiveness
VSD Vaccine Safety Data Link
WHO World Health Organization
YODA Yale Open Data Access
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR13
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR14
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR15
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR16
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR17
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR18
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR19
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR20
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR22
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR23
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Medicine. 2022. Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26282.
×
PageR24
Next: Summary »
Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response: Lessons from COVID-19 Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $50.00 Buy Ebook | $40.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The global response to COVID-19 has demonstrated the importance of vigilance and preparedness for infectious diseases, particularly influenza. There is a need for more effective influenza vaccines and modern manufacturing technologies that are adaptable and scalable to meet demand during a pandemic. The rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines has demonstrated what is possible with extensive data sharing, researchers who have the necessary resources and novel technologies to conduct and apply their research, rolling review by regulators, and public-private partnerships. As demonstrated throughout the response to COVID-19, the process of research and development of novel vaccines can be significantly optimized when stakeholders are provided with the resources and technologies needed to support their response.

Vaccine Research and Development to Advance Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Preparedness and Response focuses on how to leverage the knowledge gained from the COVID-19 pandemic to optimize vaccine research and development (R&D) to support the prevention and control of seasonal and pandemic influenza. The committee's findings address four dimensions of vaccine R&D: (1) basic and translational science, (2) clinical science, (3) manufacturing science, and (4) regulatory science.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!