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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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AN ASSESSMENT OF
SELECTED DIVISIONS OF THE
PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY
AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

FISCAL YEAR 2021

Panel on Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory
at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

Committee on NIST Technical Programs

Laboratory Assessments Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract No. SB13411CQ0017 with the National institute of Standards and Technology Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-09371-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-09371-6
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26312

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2021 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26312.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

PANEL ON ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED DIVISIONS OF THE PHYSICAL MEASUREMENT LABORATORY AT THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY

DWIGHT C. STREIT, NAE,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair

ROBERT H. AUSTIN, NAS,2 Princeton University

DAVID J. BISHOP, NAE, Boston University

JOHN E. BOWERS, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara

MALCOLM S. CARROLL, Princeton University

ROBERT P. COLWELL, NAE, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

BRIAN L. DEMARCO, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

SHAHEEN AZIM DEWJI, Georgia Institute of Technology

RANDALL H. GOLDSMITH, University of Wisconsin, Madison

JEFFERY C. GUST, Fluke Corporation

RICHARD A HAIGHT, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center

CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University

MARY CYNTHIA HIPWELL, NAE, Texas A&M University

IGOR JOVANOVIC, University of Michigan

STEVEN M. LARSON, NAM,3 Sloan Kettering Institute

CHEN-YU LIU, Indiana University

CHRIS ALAN MACK, Fractilia

PIERRE MEYSTRE, University of Arizona

JOHN DAVID ROBERTSON, University of Missouri

SUSAN J. SEESTROM, Sandia National Laboratories

NATHAN SHATTUCK, SpaceX

MICHAEL G. SPENCER, Morgan State University

KERRY J. VAHALA, NAE, California Institute of Technology

VLADAN VULETIC, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Staff

AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant

EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator

JAMES MCGEE, Director

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

3 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

COMMITTEE ON NIST TECHNICAL PROGRAMS

ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Lehigh University, Chair

MICHAEL I. BASKES, NAE, Mississippi State University

LEWIS BRANSCOMB, NAS/NAE/NAM, University of California, San Diego

MARTIN E. GLICKSMAN, NAE, Florida Institute of Technology

JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group

CHRISTOPHER W. MACOSKO, NAE, University of Minnesota

C. KUMAR PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc.

BHAKTA B. RATH, NAE, Naval Research Laboratory

ALICE WHITE, Boston University

Staff

AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant

EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator

JAMES MCGEE, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS BOARD

JENNIE S. HWANG, NAE, H-Technologies Group, Chair

MICHAEL I. BASKES, NAE, Los Alamos National Laboratory

KEVIN MACK GATES II, Strategic Analysis, Inc.

WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

W. CARL LINEBERGER, NAS, University of Colorado, Boulder

AJAY P. MALSHE, NAE, Purdue University

C. KUMAR N. PATEL, NAS/NAE, Pranalytica, Inc.

ELSA REICHMANIS. NAE, Lehigh University

FRANCISCO F. ROBERTO, NAE, Newmont Corporation

Staff

AZEB GETACHEW, Senior Program Assistant

EVA LABRE, Administrative Coordinator

JAMES MCGEE, Director

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Carlos D. Bustamante, Stanford University,

Jordan J. Green, Johns Hopkins University,

Max G. Lagally, NAE,1 University of Wisconsin, Madison,

Nadya Mason, NAS,2 University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and

Robert Schoelkopf, NAS, Yale University.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by David W. Johnson, Jr., NAE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (retired). He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. An Assessment of Selected Divisions of the Physical Measurement Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology: Fiscal Year 2021. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26312.
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At the request of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has, since 1959, annually assembled panels of experts from academia, industry, medicine, and other scientific and engineering environments to assess the quality and effectiveness of the NIST measurements and standards laboratories, as well as the adequacy of the laboratories' resources. This report assesses the scientific and technical work performed by the NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory in the Quantum Measurement Division, Radiation Physics Division, Sensor Science Division, Microsystems and Nanotechnology Division, and Nanoscale Device Characterization Division.

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