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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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PageR3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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PageR5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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PageR6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
×
PageR12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academy of Engineering. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26331.
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PageR13

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches Proceedings of a Workshop David A. Butler and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs National Academy of Engineering Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Health and Medicine Division PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract No. 68HERC19D0011, Order No. 68HERC20F0334 between the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. Views expressed in written conference materials or publications and by speakers and moderators do not necessarily reflect the official policies of the EPA, nor does any mention of trade names, commercial practices, or organization imply endorsement by the United States Government. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26331 Additional copies of this proceedings are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26331. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE INDOOR EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICULATE MATTER AND PRACTICAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES WORKSHOP1 RICHARD L. CORSI (Chair), Dean of Engineering, University of California, Davis SEEMA BHANGAR, Senior Indoor Air Quality Manager, WeWork WANYU R. CHAN, Research Scientist and Deputy Indoor Environment Group Leader, Energy Analysis and Environmental Impact Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ELIZABETH C. MATSUI, Professor of Population Health and Pediatrics and Associate Director of the Health Transformation Research Institute, Dell Medical School at the University of Texas at Austin LINDA A. MCCAULEY, Professor and Dean of Emory University’s Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing KIMBERLY A. PRATHER, Professor in Chemistry and Biochemistry, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego DAVID Y. PUI, Regents Professor and the L.M. Fingerson/TSI Inc. Chair in Mechanical Engineering and Director, Particle Technology Laboratory and Center for Filtration Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis JEFFREY A. SIEGEL, Professor of Civil Engineering and Member, Building Engineering Research Group, University of Toronto MARINA E. VANCE, Assistant Professor and McLagan Family Faculty Fellow, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder National Academies Staff DAVID A. BUTLER, J. Herbert Hollomon Scholar GURU MADHAVAN, Norman R. Augustine Senior Scholar and Senior Director of Programs KATHLEEN STRATTON, Scholar COURTNEY HILL, Associate Program Officer MICHAEL HOLZER, Senior Program Assistant (through June 2021) MAIYA SPELL, Senior Program Assistant (from June 2021) Consultant JOE ALPER, Consulting Writer 1 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published proceedings rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vi

Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Diane Gold, Harvard University Andrew Persily, National Institute of Standards and Technology Mark Utell, University of Rochester Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the proceedings before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Michael Ladisch, Purdue University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

Contents LIST OF FIGURES ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION Conduct of the Workshop Organization of the Proceedings 2 OUTDOOR SOURCES OF INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER Indoor Particulate Matter of Outdoor Origin and the Disparities in Sources and Exposures across Communities Outdoor-to-Indoor Transport Mechanisms and Particle Penetration for Fine Particulate Matter Outdoor Particulate Matter Sources and the Chemical Transformations That Take Place When They Interact with the Indoor Environment Discussion 3 INDOOR SOURCES OF INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER Fine Particulate Matter Emissions from Cooking Secondary Aerosol Formation of Fine Particulate Matter in the Indoor Environment The Effect of Humidity on the Chemistry and Biology of Indoor Air The Influence of Sources of Indoor Fine Particulate Matter on the Characterization of Exposure and Evaluation of Health Effects Discussion 4 DAY ONE SUMMARY 5 HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER The Overall (Mostly Cardiovascular) Health Burden of Indoor PM2.5 Exposure Pulmonary Disease Associated with PM2.5 Exposure in Indoor Environments and Disparities in Economically Challenged Communities Wildfire Smoke and Other Ambient Air Pollution Comes Indoors: Health Effects and the Building Characteristics That Mitigate Them Discussion PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

6 INDOOR EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER: METRICS AND ASSESSMENT Transcending Complexity: Indoor PM2.5 Measurement, Exposure, and Control The Challenge of Moving from the Measurement of Indoor PM2.5 to Evaluating Occupant Exposure The Utility, Use, and Misuse of Low-Cost Consumer Indoor Particulate Matter Sensors Discussion 7 DAY TWO SUMMARY 8 INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE CONTROL AND MITIGATION PM2.5 Filtration and Air Cleaning in Residential Environments PM2.5 Exposure Control in Schools Mitigation of PM2.5 Exposures Associated with Cooking Discussion 9 OCCUPANT RESPONSES TO INDOOR PARTICULATE MATTER Portable Indoor Air Cleaners and Human Behavior How Building Occupants Interpret and Respond to Indoor Air Quality Sensor Data Public Health Responses to Reduce Community Exposure to Indoor PM2.5 Discussion 10 WORKSHOP SUMMARY AND CLOSING REFLECTIONS REFERENCES APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda B Biographic Sketches of Planning Committee Members and Workshop Speakers PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Figures 2-1 The diverse origins of ambient PM2.5 2-2 Top five sources of PM2.5 emissions in the San Bernardino and Muscoy, California, community 2-3 3-year (2013−2015) average of the 24-hour PM2.5 concentrations for the United States network of outdoor PM2.5 monitoring stations 2-4 Average PM2.5 concentrations on an annual basis, 2000–2012, estimated by combining modeling and remote sensing information 2-5 Infiltration of outdoor particulate matter into the indoor environment 2-6 Output from a NASA model showing the different sources of particulate matter 3-1 High particle concentrations observed during cooking activities, with and without ventilation 3-2 Total indoor particulate matter mass concentrations during the HOMEChem Thanksgiving Day experiment 3-3 Indoor residential activities enhance semivolatile organic compound concentrations 3-4 Particulate matter mass deposited in the respiratory system in different contexts 3-5 Change in solute concentrations at varying relative humidities 3-6 Framework for determining contributors to indoor particulate matter exposure disparities 5-1 Global burden of disease expressed in disability-adjusted life years 5-2 Overview of diseases, conditions and biomarkers affected by outdoor air pollution 5-3 Possible mechanistic paths linking particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular disease 5-4 Indoor particulate pollution and asthma morbidity 5-5 Solid fuel use as primary heating source 5-6 US regional estimates for weeks with a risk of very large fires in the mid-21st century compared to the end of the 20th century 6-1 One person’s PM2.5 exposure in Singapore on June 25, 2013, during a wildfire smoke event 6-2 Size and spatial complexity of particle deposition in different regions of the lung 6-3 Temporal complexity’s correlation with occupancy, using the example of optical particle counter data from university classroom in normal use 6-4 Measurements of particulate matter in a controlled chamber over time 6-5 EPA environmental health paradigm 6-6 Variability of PM2.5 exposures by person, day, and microenvironment 8-1 Home air volumes that pass through a filter when the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system is operating in residences sampled in 3 studies in selected North American locations 8-2 Fraction of time that a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system operates 8-3 Single-pass filtration removal of particles at different face velocities PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS x

INTRODUCTION xi 8-4 Results of in situ testing of four types of air filters compared to laboratory results 8-5 Percentage of students attending a school within 250 meters of a major roadway (2005– 06 school year) 9-1 Conceptual diagram showing elements of behavior change to reduce particulate matter exposure and improve health 9-2 Seasonal summary of particulate matter concentrations for filter use study control and intervention groups 9-3 Occupant use of air cleaner during and between monitoring periods 9-4 Occupant perception of indoor environmental quality, including air quality PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Acronyms and Abbreviations μg/m3 microgram per cubic meter ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease EPA US Environmental Protection Agency HOMEChem House Observations of Microbial and Environmental Chemistry HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning MERV minimum efficiency reporting value (a measure of a filter’s ability to capture particles between 0.3 and 10 microns) NASEM National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine PCAP persistent cold air pooling PM0.1 ultrafine aerosols PM2.5 fine particulate matter PM10 coarse particulate matter SVOC semivolatile organic compound VOC volatile organic compound PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii

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Overwhelming evidence exists that exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with a range of short-term and chronic health impacts, including asthma exacerbation, acute and chronic bronchitis, heart attacks, increased susceptibility to respiratory infections, and premature death, with the burden of these health effects falling more heavily on underserved and marginalized communities. Although less studied to date, indoor exposure to PM2.5 is also gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects, particularly given that Americans spend 90 percent of their lives indoors and indoor PM2.5 levels can exceed outdoor levels.

To better understand the sources of indoor PM2.5, the possible health effects of exposure to indoor PM2.5, and engineering approaches and interventions to reduce those exposure risks, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a virtual workshop, Indoor Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Practical Mitigation Approaches, on April 14, 21, and 28, 2021. The workshop focused on exposures that occur in residential and school buildings and on existing and practical mitigation technologies and approaches. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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