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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26363.
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PREPUBLICATION COPY Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade Committee on Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the Ocean Decade Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the report. Although the substance of the report is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. A Consensus Study Report of

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Award Number 10002633. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26363 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover credit: Paul Johnson of the University of New Hampshire for the globe image. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the UN Ocean Decade. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26363.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

COMMITTEE ON CROSS-CUTTING THEMES FOR U.S. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OCEAN DECADE Larry A. Mayer (NAE), Chair, University of New Hampshire, Durham Mark R. Abbott, Vice Chair, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Carol Arnosti, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Claudia Benitez-Nelson, University of South Carolina, Columbia Anjali Boyd, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Annie Brett, Levin College of Law, University of Florida, Gainesville Thomas S. Chance, ASV Global, LLC (ret.), Broussard, Louisiana Daniel Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz John R. Delaney, University of Washington (ret.), Seattle Angee Doerr, Oregon State University, Oregon Sea Grant, Corvallis Scott Glenn, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Patrick Heimbach, The University of Texas at Austin Marcia Isakson, The University of Texas at Austin Lekelia Jenkins, Arizona State University, Tempe Sandra Knight, University of Maryland, College Park Nancy Knowlton (NAS), Smithsonian Institution (ret.), Washington, District of Columbia Anthony MacDonald, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey Jacqueline McGlade, University College London, United Kingdom Thomas J. Miller, University of Maryland, Solomons S. Bradley Moran, University of Alaska Fairbanks Ruth M. Perry, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas James Sanchirico, University of California, Davis Mark J. Spalding, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia Lynne D. Talley, Scripps Oceanography, San Diego, California Robert S. Winokur, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland Grace C. Young, X, Alphabet’s Moonshot Factory, Mountain View, California Staff Susan Roberts, Director Vanessa Constant, Associate Program Officer Shelly-Ann Freeland, Financial Business Partner Elizabeth Costa, Program Assistant Prepublication Copy v

OCEAN STUDIES BOARD Claudia Benitez-Nelson, Chair, University of South Carolina, Columbia Mark R. Abbott, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts Carol Arnosti, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Lisa M. Campbell, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina Thomas S. Chance, ASV Global, LLC (ret.), Broussard, Louisiana Daniel Costa, University of California, Santa Cruz John R. Delaney, University of Washington (ret.), Seattle Scott Glenn, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Patrick Heimbach, The University of Texas at Austin Marcia Isakson, The University of Texas at Austin Lekelia Jenkins, Arizona State University, Tempe Nancy Knowlton (NAS), Smithsonian Institution (ret.), Washington, District of Columbia Anthony MacDonald, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, New Jersey Thomas J. Miller, University of Maryland, Solomons S. Bradley Moran, University of Alaska Fairbanks Ruth M. Perry, Shell Exploration & Production Company, Houston, Texas James Sanchirico, University of California, Davis Mark J. Spalding, The Ocean Foundation, Washington, District of Columbia Robert S. Winokur, Michigan Tech Research Institute, Silver Spring, Maryland Staff Susan Roberts, Director Stacee Karras, Senior Program Officer Kelly Oskvig, Senior Program Officer Emily Twigg, Senior Program Officer Alexandra Skrivanek, Associate Program Officer (through February 2022) Vanessa Constant, Associate Program Officer Shelly-Ann Freeland, Financial Business Partner (through January 2022) Thanh Nguyen, Financial Business Partner Kenza Sidi-Ali-Cherif, Senior Program Assistant Elizabeth Costa, Program Assistant Grace Callahan, Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

Preface The United Nations (UN) Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021–2030 (UN Ocean Decade) provides a pathway to support and implement a globally coordinated scientific effort to develop solutions for ensuring the health and sustainability of our life-sustaining oceans. For many who have devoted their lives to the study of the oceans, the UN Ocean Decade is an opportunity to highlight the critical importance of the oceans to the long-term well-being of humankind. The UN Ocean Decade’s Implementation Plan (which benefited tremendously from the input of U.S. Executive Planning Group representatives—Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Margaret Leinen, Craig McLean, and Linwood Pendleton) describes outcomes that, if achieved, would ensure that we have “the ocean we need for the future we want.” The challenge to the global community is to define and execute the science needed to make these outcomes a reality. While the UN Ocean Decade provides overarching guidance, much of the work and particularly the funding for UN Ocean Decade efforts will happen on a national or regional level. Recognizing the fundamental importance of healthy and sustainable oceans to the United States and the historic leadership role that the United States has played in ocean sciences, Craig McLean, Assistant Administrator for Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and Acting Chief Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, led the effort to promote UN Ocean Decade activities both within the federal government and through the establishment of the nongovernmental, U.S. National Committee for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (U.S. National Committee), hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The U.S. National Committee and the nation owe Craig a tremendous debt for his inspirational and tireless efforts to support the concepts and principles of the UN Ocean Decade and particularly the role that the United States can play in it. His challenge to the U.S. National Committee—to inspire the U.S. community to develop audacious and transformative science in support of the UN Ocean Decade—led then U.S. National Committee vice-chair Rick Spinrad to propose the concept of “Ocean-Shots.” The tremendous response to the call for Ocean-Shots clearly demonstrated the creativity, breadth, and capacity of the U.S. community and set the framework for this report. In October 2021, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, with funding from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, called on the National Academies to produce this consensus report and recommend several cross-cutting themes based on the Ocean-Shots and complemented by U.S. ocean science priorities and UN Ocean Decade outcomes. This led to frenetic activity on the part of the consensus committee, the Committee on Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the Ocean Decade, which was made more difficult by the inability to meet in person. The committee’s hard work and thoughtful input helped us meet very short deadlines. Most importantly, credit must be given to Ocean Studies Board director Susan Roberts and associate program officer Vanessa Constant who, with the excellent assistance of program assistant Elizabeth Costa, worked tirelessly to put together a coherent report. The recommendations of this report offer what we believe to be a bold plan for the future of ocean science in support of sustainable development. The suggested themes offer frameworks for developing solutions to critical issues of ocean health and global well-being, while also defining new and more inclusive ways of doing ocean science. At this point, however, they are only frameworks. Whether they grow into fully defined research programs that will lead to the “ocean we need for the future we want” will depend on the response of those to whom this report is submitted. With leadership from the federal agencies, in conjunction with international efforts and contributions from other sectors, the research community will provide the science necessary to achieve a sustainable ocean. Larry A. Mayer, Chair Committee on Cross-Cutting Themes for U.S. Contributions to the Ocean Decade Prepublication Copy vii

Acknowledgments The committee would like to thank Tom Drake, Jane Lubchenco, Craig McLean, and Terry Quinn for their presentations at the November 12, 2021, meeting of the U.S. National Committee for the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. In addition, the committee would like to acknowledge the thoughtful responses received during the posting of the draft themes for public comment. These contributions informed the committee’s revisions of the themes as presented in the report. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed as a draft by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Julie Bringham-Grette, University of Massachusetts Amherst Melbourne Briscoe, OceanGeeks, LLC Keith Criddle, University of Alaska Fairbanks Timothy Gallaudet, Ocean STL Consulting Cassia Galvao, Texas A&M at Galveston Ashanti Johnson, MatlScience, Inc. Geraldine Knatz (NAE), University of Southern California, Los Angeles Margaret Leinen, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Molly McCammon, Alaska Ocean Observing System Nancy Rabalais (NAS), Louisiana State University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert Duce, Texas A&M University, and Bonnie McCay, Rutgers University (ret.). They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy ix

Contents SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 9 2 THEMES FOR U.S. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE OCEAN DECADE ....................................... 14 Foundational Themes, 14 Topical Themes, 23 3 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................................. 45 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................... 48 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................. 51 GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................................................. 52 APPENDIXES A CONNECTIONS TO OCEAN-SHOTS AND UN OCEAN DECADE ACTIONS: TABLES .............................................................................................................................................. 54 B COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHIES ....................................................................................................... 77 Prepublication Copy xi

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The ocean is central to the health of the planet and the well-being of human societies, but ongoing depletion, disruption, and pollution threaten its future. The United Nations proclaimed 2021-2030 the Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (UN Ocean Decade) in recognition of the need to sustainably manage the Ocean. U.S. participation in the Decade, guided by the U.S. National Committee, included a call for "Ocean-Shots" - ambitious, transformational research concepts that draw from multiple disciplines. More than 100 Ocean-Shots were submitted.

Conducted at the request of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and sponsored by NASA, this report identifies exciting themes from the Ocean-Shots that will galvanize action and inspire transformative, cross-disciplinary, and multi-generational participation in the Decade. Two foundational themes undergird how to go about science: An Inclusive and Equitable Ocean calls for the involvement of a diverse and representative ocean community, and An Ocean of Data recognizes the shift toward open access for data that is collected. Four topical themes - The Ocean Revealed, The Restored and Sustainable Ocean, Ocean Solutions for Climate Resilience, and Healthy Urban Sea - represent promising areas for research investments that are consistent both with the UN Ocean Decade Outcomes and U.S. ocean priorities.

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