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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in
the Leadership of Competed Space Missions

Committee on Increasing Diversity and Inclusion in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions

Space Studies Board
Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

Board on Science Education
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract NNH17CB02B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

Cover design by Timothy Warchocki. Background: Astronaut image ISS059-E-36323 of the Mississippi Delta; courtesy of the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA Johnson Space Center, https://eol.jsc.nasa.gov. Top row, second from left: X-ray image of the Sun by NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, overlaid on a picture taken by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO); courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC. Middle row, left: Dr. Ali Guarneros-Luna holds CubeSat hardware; courtesy of NASA/Dominic Hart. Middle row, fifth from left: Image of the Orion Nebula taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in January 2006; courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC. Middle row, seventh from left: March 2, 2015, astronaut image ISS042E340851; courtesy of NASA. Middle row, eighth from left: Alice Bowman, the Mission Operations Manager for NASA’s New Horizons mission, at work in the Mission Operations Center on December 6, 2014; courtesy of SwRI/JHUAPL. Bottom row, left: Dr. Temilola Fatoyinbo presents some of the data visualizations and Earth Science implications of current satellite missions to Vice President Kamala Harris using Goddard’s Hyperwall on November 5, 2021, at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland; courtesy of NASA/Taylor Mickal. Bottom row, second from left: Nelson Huang, Manuel Soriano, and John Trinh stand in front of NASA’s Psyche mission; courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Soriano. Bottom row, third from left: Image of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope on June 27, 2019; courtesy of NASA, ESA, A. Simon (Goddard Space Flight Center), and M.H. Wong (University of California, Berkeley). Bottom row, seventh from left: Dr. Lindy Elkins-Tanton, principal investigator of NASA’s Psyche mission from Arizona State University gives remarks during a briefing discussing small bodies missions, December 31, 2018; courtesy of NASA/Bill Ingalls.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27317-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27317-X
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26385
Library of Congress Control Number: 2022940422

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26385.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other events convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

COMMITTEE ON INCREASING DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION IN THE LEADERSHIP OF COMPETED SPACE MISSIONS

FRANCES BAGENAL, NAS,1 University of Colorado Boulder, Co-Chair

WANDA E. WARD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Co-Chair

CLAUDE R. CANIZARES, NAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ERIN CECH, University of Michigan

ANNMARIE ELDERING, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

ELENA A. EROSHEVA, University of Washington

ORLANDO FIGUEROA, Orlando Leadership, LLC

ALLISON N. JAYNES, University of Iowa

LINDSEY MALCOM-PIQUEUX, California Institute of Technology

DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University

CHRISTOPHER B. NEWMAN, Azusa Pacific University

KUNIO M. SAYANAGI, Hampton University

KEIVAN G. STASSUN, Vanderbilt University

LOUIS-GREGORY STROLGER, Space Telescope Science Institute

Staff

SANDRA GRAHAM, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Co-Study Director

TIFFANY E. TAYLOR, Board on Science Education, Co-Study Director

ABIGAIL SHEFFER, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board

GAYBRIELLE HOLBERT, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board

COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board

HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS,1 University of California, Los Angeles, Chair

JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE,2 Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (retired), Vice Chair

GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Carnegie Institution for Science

ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University

DANIELA CALZETTI, NAS, University of Massachusetts Amherst

JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara

MELINDA DARBY DYAR, Mount Holyoke College

ANTONIO L. ELIAS, NAE, Orbital ATK, Inc. (retired)

VICTORIA E. HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute

DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles

ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, American Institute of Physics

DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University

LARRY J. PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University

ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley

MARK P. SAUNDERS, Independent Consultant

J. MMARSHALL SHEPHERD, NAS/NAE, University of Georgia

BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, NAS/NAE, University of Toronto

HOWARD J. SINGER, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire

ERIKA B. WAGNER, Blue Origin, LLC

PAUL D. WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies

EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles

Staff

COLLEEN N. HARTMAN, Director

ALAN ANGLEMAN, Associate Director

ANDREA REBHOLZ, Program Coordinator

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

MARGARET KNEMEYER, Senior Financial Business Partner

ALEXIS BHADHA, Senior Financial Assistant

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

SUSAN SINGER, Rollins College, Chair

SUE ALLEN, Maine Mathematics and Science Alliance

MEGAN BANG, Northwestern University

VICKI L. CHANDLER, NAS,1 Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute

SUNITA V. COOKE, MiraCosta College

MAYA GARCIA, Colorado Department of Education

RUSH HOLT, CEO Emeritus, American Association for the Advancement of Science

CATHY MANDUCA, Carleton College

JOHN MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

TONYA MATTHEWS, International African American Museum

WILLIAM PENUEL, University of Colorado Boulder

STEPHEN L. PRUITT, Southern Regional Education Board

K. RENAE PULLEN, Caddo Parish Schools

K. ANN RENNINGER, Swarthmore College

MARCY H. TOWNS, Purdue University

DARRYL N. WILLIAMS, The Franklin Institute

Staff

HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director

MARGARET KELLY, Program Coordinator

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

Acknowledgments

This Consensus Study Report reflects the invaluable contributions of many individuals who provided their expertise, including those who served on the committee, the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and many other experts who participated in discussions with the committee.

This report was made possible by sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In particular, the committee would like to first acknowledge both Thomas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, and Michael New, Deputy Associate Administrator of Research in NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, for requesting the study, for being on hand to provide resources, answer committee questions, and to offer insight throughout the study process.

Over the course of the study, the committee held several public fact-finding meetings, of which committee members greatly benefited from. Many presentations and discussions were held with many individuals, including Thomas Wagner, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Deborah Amato, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center; Cathy Olkin, Southwest Research Institute; Sarah Lipscy, Ball Aerospace; Erika Hamden, University of Arizona; Nicola Fox, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Elizabeth Cole, University of Michigan; Susan White, American Institute of Physics; Christopher Keane, American Geosciences Institute; Louis Barbier, NASA Office of the Chief Scientist; Kelly Case, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Sabrina Feldman, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Bruce Jakosky, University of Colorado Boulder; Sean Jones, National Science Foundation; Stephen Meacham, National Science Foundation; Bernice Anderson, National Science Foundation; Marie Bernard, National Institutes of Health; Shamala Srinivas, National Cancer Institute; Caron Lyman, National Cancer Institute; Lauren Moen, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Alison Gammie, National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Stephen Fiore, University of Central Florida; Janet Vertesi, Princeton University; Stephanie Pfirman, Arizona State University; Jim Burch, Southwest Research Institute; Lisa Wood, Ball Aerospace; Lisa Callahan, Lockheed Martin; Mike Ryschkewitsch, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory; Lindy Elkins-Tanton, Arizona State University; Tuija Pulkkinen, University of Michigan; Harlan Spence, University of New Hampshire; Louisa Koch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Ping Ge, Department of Energy; Victor McCrary, National Science Board; Heidi Jensen, NASA Science Mission Directorate, Lorenzo Pappas, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Brenda Manuel, former NASA Associate Administrator for Diversity and Equal Opportunity; Elaine Ho, NASA Office of STEM Engagement; Kris Brown, NASA Office of STEM Engagement; Torry Johnson, NASA Office of STEM Engagement; Richard Gilmore, NASA Office of STEM Engagement; Philip Sakimoto; University of Notre Dame; Louie Lopez, Department of Defense; and Charles Bolden, former NASA Administrator.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

The committee is also extremely grateful to Mithuna Srinivasan, Heather Sawyer, Ann Davoren, Elena Navarro, and Julie Kubelka from the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago who consulted with us to conduct a qualitative study on the competed space mission proposal process and the experiences of principal investigators for the committee’s use in drafting the report.

Lastly, the committee wishes to extend its gratitude to the staff of both the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences (DEPS) and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE), in particular to Sandra Graham of the Space Studies Board (DEPS/SSB) and Tiffany Taylor of the Board on Science Education (DBASSE/BOSE), who as co-study directors, shepherded the committee throughout the entire process and played a key role in the report preparation and review process; to Abigail Sheffer (DEPS/SSB), who provided critical assistance in project direction and report review; to Gaybrielle Holbert (DEPS/SSB), whose expert administrative leadership and support enabled smooth meetings and report production; to Mia Brown (DEPS/SSB), who stepped in to provide timely help and support to prepare the report for review; and to Colleen N. Hartman (director of SSB) and Heidi Schweingruber (director of BOSE), whose expert advice, strategic thinking, and helpful suggestions throughout the entire study process ensured a timely and impactful report. Liz Panos of the DEPS staff expertly guided the report through the National Academies review process and Catherine Gruber of the DEPS staff provided invaluable editorial assistance.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Wesley L. Harris, NAE,2 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Martha Haynes, NAS, Cornell University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

___________________

2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26385.
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Fostering diverse and inclusive teams that are highly skilled, innovative, and productive is critical for maintaining U.S. leadership in space exploration. In recent years, NASA has taken steps to advance diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility (DEIA) in their workforce by releasing its equity action plan, emphasizing how diverse and inclusive teams help maximize scientific returns, and requiring DEIA plans as part of announcements of opportunities. To further its efforts to advance DEIA, the Agency requested the National Academies undertake a study to evaluate ways NASA can address the lack of diversity in space mission leadership.

Advancing Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility in the Leadership of Competed Space Missions outlines near and long-term actions NASA can take to make opportunities for leadership and involvement in competed space missions more accessible, inclusive, and equitable. Report recommendations range from changes to the mission proposal process to investments in STEM education and career pathways. This report makes 15 recommendations for advancing DEIA within NASA's Science Mission Directorate divisions that support competed space mission programs. However, many of the report's recommendations could also be applied broadly to research at NASA and other federal agencies and institutions, leading to a more diverse research workforce.

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