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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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EDUCATIONAL PATHWAYS FOR BLACK STUDENTS
IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE

EXPLORING BARRIERS AND POSSIBLE INTERVENTIONS

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Olujimi Ajijola, Charles R. Bridges, Jr., Lynne M. Holden, and
Paula Whitacre, Rapporteurs

Cato T. Laurencin, Editor

Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in
Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Policy and Global Affairs

Health and Medicine Division

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Aetna Foundation (#18-8876), Johnson & Johnson, the National Institutes of Health (HHSN263201800029I/75N98021F00006), the National Research Council President’s Circle Fund, and UConn Health. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27344-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27344-7
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26391

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26391.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

Image

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

K–GRAD EDUCATION ACTION GROUP PLANNING COMMITTEE

OLUJIMI AJIJOLA (Co-chair), UCLA Medical Center

CHARLES R. BRIDGES, JR. (Co-chair), Janssen Research & Development, LLC

LYNNE M. HOLDEN (Co-chair), Montefiore Medical Center

KIMBERLY BRYANT, Black Girls CODE

IAN HENRY, Procter & Gamble Company

JOHN R. LUMPKIN (NAM), Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina Foundation

ELIZABETH O. OFILI (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

LAMONT R. TERRELL, GlaxoSmithKline

Project Staff

REGINALD HAYES, Associate Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

TOM ARRISON, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs (until May 2021)

PAULA W. WHITACRE, Consultant Writer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

ROUNDTABLE ON BLACK MEN AND BLACK WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND MEDICINE

CATO T. LAURENCIN (NAS/NAE/NAM) (Chair), University of Connecticut Health

OLUJIMI AJIJOLA, UCLA Medical Center

GILDA A. BARABINO (NAE/NAM), Olin College of Engineering

CHARLES R. BRIDGES, JR., Janssen Research & Development, LLC

CEDRIC BRIGHT, East Carolina University

L. D. BRITT (NAM), Eastern Virginia Medical School

ANDRÉ L. CHURCHWELL, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

THEODORE CORBIN, Drexel University

GEORGE Q. DALEY (NAM), Harvard Medical School

WAYNE FREDERICK, Howard University

PAULA T. HAMMOND (NAS/NAE/NAM), Massachusetts Institute of Technology

EVELYNN M. HAMMONDS (NAM), Harvard University

LYNNE M. HOLDEN, Montefiore Medical Center

CAMARA P. JONES, Morehouse School of Medicine

CORA BAGLEY MARRETT, University of Wisconsin–Madison

VALERIE MONTGOMERY RICE (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

RANDALL C. MORGAN, JR., W. Montague Cobb/NMA Health Institute

ELIZABETH O. OFILI (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

VIVIAN W. PINN (NAM), National Institutes of Health (Retired)

JOAN Y. REEDE (NAM), Harvard Medical School

LOUIS W. SULLIVAN (NAM), Morehouse School of Medicine

HANNAH VALANTINE (NAM), Stanford University

CLYDE W. YANCY (NAM), Northwestern University

MARK ALEXANDER (Ex Officio Member), 100 Black Men of America, Inc.

MARIE BERNARD (Ex Officio Member), National Institutes of Health

KIMBERLY BRYANT (Ex Officio Member), Black Girls CODE

IVORY DEAN (Ex Officio Member), Chan Zuckerberg Initiative

GARTH N. GRAHAM (NAM) (Ex Officio Member), Google, Inc.

IAN HENRY (Ex Officio Member), Procter & Gamble Company

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

ORLANDO KIRTON (Ex Officio Member), Society of Black Academic Surgeons

JOHN R. LUMPKIN (NAM) (Ex Officio Member), Blue Cross and Blue Shield of North Carolina Foundation

SHIRLEY MALCOM (NAS) (Ex Officio Member), American Association for the Advancement of Science

ALFRED MAYS (Ex Officio Member), Burroughs Wellcome Fund

LAMONT R. TERRELL (Ex Officio Member), GlaxoSmithKline

Project Staff

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Senior Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

LYNNETTE LUSENAKA, Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

REGINALD HAYES, Associate Program Officer, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

TOM ARRISON, Program Director, Policy and Global Affairs (until May 2021)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

Preface

It is an honor for me to serve as chair of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, and serve as the editor of the first in a series of proceedings publications from the Roundtable. Our work in this space began in 2015 when I and leaders of the W. Montague Cobb/National Medical Association Health Institute recognized the growing absence of Black men in medical schools. In fact, levels of Black men entering medical school reached a historic low in 2015 and 2016. Starting in 2016, and with financial support from important partners such as the Aetna Foundation, the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and the Connecticut Legislative Black and Puerto Rican Caucus, we began planning a National Academies workshop on issues surrounding the absence of Black men in medicine. The joint workshop, titled “The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science,” took place in 2017. It was historic in that, to my knowledge, it was the first National Academies activity specifically focused on issues involving Black people. The proceedings of that workshop is titled An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in Medicine and Science: Proceedings of a Joint Workshop. It was released in May 2018, and corresponded to a briefing on the subject of Black men and medicine with the Congressional Black Caucus in Washington, D.C. Many of the ideas that emerged from the workshop have been embraced by academia, industry, and philanthropy. More needs to be done.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

Our next steps have involved the development of a more permanent presence in the National Academies to discuss issues surrounding Black men and Black women in science, engineering, and medicine. With support from our anchor partners named above, along with Johnson & Johnson, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and the University of Pittsburgh, and with the continued leadership and commitment from Dr. Victor J. Dzau, the president of the National Academy of Medicine, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine was launched late in 2018. I am grateful to the steering committee members for the Roundtable: Drs. L. D. Britt, Cedric M. Bright, George Q. Daley, Randall C. Morgan, Jr., Elizabeth O. Ofili, Vivian W. Pinn, and Louis W. Sullivan.

The Roundtable has tackled important issues.

In October 2020, the Roundtable organized a workshop to examine the current educational pathways for Black students in science, engineering, and medicine, with special emphasis on understanding barriers to success along the pathways. Most importantly, the workshop presented ideas for interventions to overcome barriers.

I am grateful to the co-chairs of the workshop, Drs. Lynne M. Holden, Charles R. Bridges, Jr., and Olujimi Ajijola. They began work on this particular workshop 9 months before the set date, and met weekly or biweekly. The excellent workshop is reflective of their great care and attention to detail. As Dr. Holden so aptly stated, “Our society is at an inflection point, and the workshop speaks to this.”

Indeed, so.

Cato T. Laurencin, M.D., Ph.D. (NAS/NAE/NAM)
Chair, Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women
in Science, Engineering, and Medicine
University Professor, University of Connecticut

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

Acknowledgments

This Proceedings of a Workshop was prepared by the workshop rapporteur as a factual summary of what was presented and discussed at the workshop. The planning committee’s role was limited to planning and convening the workshop. The statements made are those of the rapporteur and do not necessarily represent positions of the workshop participants as a whole, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. We wish to extend sincere thanks to all the members of the planning committee for their contributions in scoping, developing, and carrying out this project.

This proceedings has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and ensure the document meets institutional standards for quality and objectivity. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: Bryan Dewsbury, University of Rhode Island; James Doucet-Battle, University of California, Santa Cruz; Clay Gloster, Jr., North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; Daryl Hood, Ohio State University; and Heather Thiry, University of Colorado Boulder. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×

ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Maxine Hayes, University of Washington. Appointed by the National Academies, she was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this proceedings rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Educational Pathways for Black Students in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26391.
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Academic preparation is critical to increase Black representation in Science, Engineering, and Medicine, but so, too, are such interrelated factors as providing mentoring and role models in sufficient numbers, adequately funding school and community support services, and analyzing the intentional and unintentional consequences of a range of policies and practices. To address these issues, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a virtual workshop on September 2 and 3, 2020. Titled "Educational Pathways for Blacks in Science, Engineering, and Medicine: Exploring Barriers and Possible Interventions," the workshop provided a platform to explore challenges and opportunities, beginning in the earliest years of life through K-12 schooling, undergraduate and postgraduate education, and into the workforce. Presenters throughout the workshop provided perspectives from research and from their own experiences to discuss the need for systemic solutions inside and outside of formal education institutions. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.

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