National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics (2022)

Chapter:Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26392.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A VISION AND ROADMAP FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS Larry Hedges, Melissa Chiu, Celeste Stone, Bradford Chaney, and Nancy Kirkendall, Editors Panel on A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of   ADVANCE COPY NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE Thursday, April 7, 2022 11:00 a.m. EDT Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education, under Sponsor Award No. 9199-00-21-C-0002. Support for the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a consortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation, a National Agricultural Statistics Service cooperative agreement, and several individual contracts. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26392 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2022). A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26392. Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

PANEL ON A VISION AND ROADMAP FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS LARRY V. HEDGES (Chair), Northwestern University MATTHEW M. CHINGOS, Urban Institute, Washington, DC DONALD R. EASTON-BROOKS, University of Nevada, Reno LEILANI GARCIA, Stanislaus County Office of Education, Modesto, CA JOSHUA HAWLEY, The Ohio State University SAMUEL R. LUCAS, University of California, Berkeley JOSH MCGEE, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville AMY B. O’HARA, Georgetown University PATRICK PERRY, California Student Aid Commission, Rancho Cordova JUDITH D. SINGER, Harvard University KATHRYN B. STACK, KB Stack Consulting, LLC, Great Falls, VA S. LYNNE STOKES, Southern Methodist University KATHERINE K. WALLMAN, U.S. Office of Management and Budget (retired) JOHN ROBERT WARREN, University of Minnesota MELISSA CHIU, Study Director NANCY KIRKENDALL, Senior Program Officer ERIC GRIMES, Senior Program Assistant Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS ROBERT M. GROVES, (Chair), Office of the Provost, Georgetown University LAWRENCE D. BOBO, Department of Sociology, Harvard University ANNE C. CASE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Emeritus MICK P. COUPER, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan JANET M. CURRIE, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University DIANA FARRELL, JPMorgan Chase Institute, Washington, DC ROBERT GOERGE, Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago ERICA L. GROSHEN, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University HILARY HOYNES, Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California-Berkeley DANIEL KIFER, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University SHARON LOHR, School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Emeritus JEROME P. REITER, Department of Statistical Science, Duke University JUDITH A. SELTZER, Department of Sociology, University of California-Los Angeles, Emeritus C. MATTHEW SNIPP, School of the Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University ELIZABETH A. STUART, Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health JEANNETTE WING, Data Science Institute and Computer Science Department, Columbia University BRIAN HARRIS-KOJETIN, Director MELISSA C. CHIU, Deputy Director CONSTANCE F. CITRO, Senior Scholar Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report reflects the invaluable contributions of many colleagues, whom we thank for their generous time, effort, and expert guidance. On behalf of the panel, I extend our deepest appreciation to the sponsor of this work: the Institute for Education Sciences (IES) with the U.S. Department of Education. Without support from IES and staff at the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), this study would not have come to fruition. In particular, we thank Mark Schneider, director of IES; Peggy Carr, commissioner of NCES, James (Lynn) Woodworth, former commissioner of NCES, Ross Santy, associate commissioner at NCES, and Marie Marcum, senior mathematical statistician at NCES. We also thank Gloria Vera, contracting officer’s representative in IES, for administrative support of this project. The panel thanks NCES staff who attended open meetings and generously gave of their time to present material to inform the panel’s deliberations. We also thank the many NCES staff who responded to numerous questions from the panel and provided comprehensive information about the Center’s current programs, operations, and organizational structure. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Kathryn S. Akers, Advanced Data Analytics, System Office, Pennsylvania’s State System of Higher Education; Mary E. Bohman, Acting Director’s Office, Bureau of Economic Analysis; George T. Duncan, H. John Heinz III School of Public Policy and Management, Department of Statistics, emeritus, Carnegie Mellon University; Susan Dynarski, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Andrew D. Ho, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Anne Holton, College of Education and Human Development, George Mason University; Chandra L. Muller, Department of Sociology, College of Liberal Arts, University of Texas; Debra Munk, Independent consultant, Vienna, Virginia; Stephen W. Raudenbush, Department of Sociology, The University of Chicago. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Cynthia Z. Clark, Independent consultant, McLean, Virginia, and Eugenie C. Scott, former executive director, National Center for Science Education, Berkeley, California. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee also extends its gratitude to members of the staff of the National Academies for their significant contributions to this report. Kirsten Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

VIII A VISION AND ROADMAP FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS Sampson Snyder and Yvonne Wise masterfully shepherded the report through the review and production process, and Susan Debad provided useful editorial advice that streamlined the report. Eric Grimes provided administrative and logistical support for numerous panel meetings, and Joshua Lang provided document format support and countless reference checks. Melissa Chiu, study director and deputy director of the Committee on National Statistics, with the experienced insight of Nancy Kirkendall, senior program officer, designed the study, recruited the panel, gathered resources across a wide variety of topics, and guided the study with intelligence and care. They helped the panel orient to the breadth of the study and to become familiar with some of NCES’s programs and federal initiatives. Along with Celeste Stone, senior consultant, and Bradford Chaney, senior program officer, they helped the panel work its way through difficult topics and focus on the most pressing issues, by distilling and synthesizing hundreds of documents and resources, providing critical rigor, and fleshing out the panel’s ideas. The panel’s report rests on their diligent efforts. To my colleagues on the panel, I appreciate your dedication and motivation to lift up NCES, a critically important resource in education data and statistics. You shared your wisdom from across a wide range of expertise areas and brought innovative ideas to the discussions. At every meeting, I learned something new or heard different perspectives that became critical nuances of this report. You gave generously of your time across numerous meetings to grapple with broad and complex issues and arrive at consensus conclusions and recommendations for advancing NCES. Thank you. Larry Hedges, Chair Panel on A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Contents Synopsis 1 Summary 3 1. Introduction 13 The National Center for Education Statistics: Context and Mandates, Organization, and Products and Services 13 Charge to the Panel 19 Information Gathering 20 Panel’s Approach to the Charge 21 Audiences for and Organization of the Report 23 2. Rise Up to Meet 21st-Century Education Data Ecosystem Needs 25 Meet the Mission in a Changing Social Context 25 Develop a Strong Strategic Plan to Make Tough Decisions 27 Support and Empower NCES to Set Its Own Priorities 34 Maximize NCES’s Unique Value for Evidence Building 35 Adapt to the Changing World of Education: Increase Diversity and Awareness of Equity Issues 38 Expand Data Acquisition Strategies for New Insights 46 3. Prioritize Topics, Data Content, and Statistical Information to Maintain Relevance 49 Prioritizing Topics 49 Align Acquired Data Content with High-Priority Topics and Questions 50 4. Expand Engagement and Dissemination for Greater Mission Impact 61 Create Engagement Feedback Loops to Ensure Relevance of Products and Services 62 Expand NCES’s Role Enabling Data Access to Serve and Engage Stakeholders 69 Improve Dissemination, Focusing on Accessibility and Usefulness 73 5. Transform Internal Structure and Operations to Align with and Directly Support the Strategic Plan 79 Organizational Structure 79 Budget 80 Reimbursable Work 81 Staff Characteristics 81 Staff Turnover 83 Average Number of U.S. Dollars Managed by Each Agency Employee 84 Use of Contractors 85 Resources for Stakeholder Engagement, Communication, and Dissemination 86 Intradepartmental Operations, Support, and Relations 86 Knowledge Retention 87 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

X A VISION AND ROADMAP FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS NCES’s Structure and Operations—Conclusions 87 Opportunities for Leveraging Contractors and Other Nontraditional Mechanisms for Building Agency Capacity, Retaining Knowledge, and Enhancing Resilience 89 Evaluate Possible Organizational Structures and Features as Part of Strategic Planning 91 6. Summary Of Recommendations 93 Complete Listing of Recommendations and Conclusions 96 Final Thoughts 100 References 103 Appendixes A. Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Used in This Report 113 B. Data Sources and Collection Approaches 125 Probability Sample Surveys 126 Administrative Records 149 Other Data Sources 150 Non-Probability Sample Surveys 150 Trade Association and Other Membership Data 150 Web Scraping 151 Social Media 151 Cognitive Interviewing/Testing 151 Focus Groups 152 C. Summary of Data Content Prioritization Process 153 D. Comparing Federal Principal Statistical Agencies and Units 157 E. Institute of Education Sciences and NCES Product Review Processes 163 F. Open Meeting Agendas and Solicited Statements 167 Agenda Second Virtual Open Panel Meeting 168 Agenda Third Virtual Open Panel Meeting 169 Agenda Fourth Virtual Open Panel Meeting 169 Agenda Fifth Virtual Open Panel Meeting 170 Agenda Sixth Virtual Open Panel Meeting 170 Agenda Seventh Virtual Open Panel Meeting 171 Agenda Eighth Virtual Open Panel Meeting 171 Solicited Testimony 172 G. Biographical Sketches of The Committee and Staff 173 Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

Prepublication copy, uncorrected proofs

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The education landscape in the United States has been changing rapidly in recent decades: student populations have become more diverse; there has been an explosion of data sources; there is an intensified focus on diversity, equity, inclusion, and accessibility; educators and policy makers at all levels want more and better data for evidence-based decision making; and the role of technology in education has increased dramatically. With awareness of this changed landscape the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide a vision for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)—the nation's premier statistical agency for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating statistics at all levels of education.

A Vision and Roadmap for Education Statistics (2022) reviews developments in using alternative data sources, considers recent trends and future priorities, and suggests changes to NCES's programs and operations, with a focus on NCES's statistical programs. The report reimagines NCES as a leader in the 21st century education data ecosystem, where it can meet the growing demands for policy-relevant statistical analyses and data to more effectively and efficiently achieve its mission, especially in light of the Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018 and the 2021 Presidential Executive Order on advancing racial equity. The report provides strategic advice for NCES in all aspects of the agency's work including modernization, stakeholder engagement, and the resources necessary to complete its mission and meet the current and future challenges in education.

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