DEFENSE RESEARCH CAPACITY
at Historically Black Colleges
and Universities and Other
TRANSITIONING FROM GOOD INTENTIONS
TO MEASURABLE OUTCOMES
Eugene M. DeLoatch, Aliecia R. McClain,
and Leigh Miles Jackson, Editors
Committee on Defense Research at Historically Black Colleges
and Universities and Other Minority Institutions
Board on Higher Education and Workforce
Policy and Global Affairs
A Consensus Study Report of
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This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense (W911NF-18-D-0002/W911NF20F0016). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27374-9
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27374-9
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26399
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Defense Research Capacity at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Institutions: Transitioning from Good Intentions to Measurable Outcomes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26399.
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COMMITTEE ON DEFENSE RESEARCH AT HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER MINORITY INSTITUTIONS
EUGENE M. DELOATCH (Chair), Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD
ALIECIA R. MCCLAIN (Vice Chair), Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA
FARRUKH S. ALVI, Florida A&M University-Florida State University, Tallahassee
CARRIE L. BILLY, American Indian Higher Education Consortium, Alexandria, VA
ROBIN N. COGER, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro
ALICIA DIAZ, Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC (resigned from committee November 2020)
LESTER A. FOSTER, III, Electronic Warfare Associates, Inc., Herndon, VA
VICE ADMIRAL PAUL G. GAFFNEY, II (NAE), U.S. Navy (Ret.), Monmouth University (Emeritus), University of South Carolina, Columbia
MARK L. MCKELVIN, JR., The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA
RICHARD M. MURRAY (NAE), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
GENERAL ELLEN M. PAWLIKOWSKI (NAE), U.S. Air Force (Ret.), Independent Consultant, Macon, GA
DEBORAH A. SANTIAGO, Excelencia in Education, Washington, DC
DEEPAK K. TOSH, University of Texas at El Paso
CHAD WOMACK, United Negro College Fund, Washington, DC
LEIGH MILES JACKSON, Study Director
MARIE HARTON, Program Officer
PRIYANKA NALAMADA, Associate Program Officer
AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Research Associate
MARQUITA WHITING, Senior Program Assistant
PAULA WHITACRE, Consultant
JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Consultant
BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE
KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY (Chair), University of Massachusetts, Amherst
JAIME CURTIS-FISK, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI
MARIELENA DESANCTIS, Broward College, Fort Lauderdale, FL
JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY, University of Maine, Orono
GABRIELA GONZALEZ (NAS), Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge
TASHA R. INNISS, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA
DOUGLAS S. MASSEY (NAS), Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
RICHARD K. MILLER (NAE), Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA
KATE STOLL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Washington Office, Washington, DC
MEGHNA TARE, University of Texas at Arlington
MARY WOOLLEY (NAM), Research!America, Arlington, VA
LEIGH MILES JACKSON, Acting Director
For decades, Congress has recognized the need to develop a diverse national science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce. While federal agencies provide significant opportunities for underrepresented minorities in these fields, the national STEM workforce is still less racially and ethnically diverse than the U.S. general population. As one of the largest federal STEM funding agencies and employers, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) plays an essential role in the U.S. science and technology ecosystem and can greatly expand opportunities to diversify the STEM workforce. It has been long recognized that Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and other minority institutions (MIs) represent a valuable resource for DoD’s government and extramural workforce and S&T enterprise. However, DoD underperforms when it comes to its overall investments in research and research capacity at these institutions. This report examines how to advance the research capacity of HBCU/MIs in defense research and addresses key questions around why DoD has not yet harnessed these institutions as vital resources in developing its research portfolio.
The committee relied heavily on the testimony of representatives of federal agencies, HBCU/MIs, and other institutions as we addressed our task, and we thank them all for taking the time to share their expertise and perspectives. Through a series of public workshops, the committee heard from representatives from within the military departments, defense agencies, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Select leaders from a range of institutions of higher education were asked for opinions on the best practices and challenges in competing for DoD research funding. The committee also commissioned a nonprofit research organization, the American Institutes for Research, to conduct focus groups with administrators and faculty at HBCUs and other MIs to gain candid observations
around challenges to expanding research capacity and working with DoD. We also analyzed longitudinal data on DoD investment in HBCU/MI programs with the support of the nonprofit Institute for Defense Analyses’ Science and Technology Policy Institute. These data-gathering efforts were invaluable and formed the basis of the committee’s conclusions and recommendations.
We also thank the members of our committee, whose hard work and steadfast focus on this important issue have resulted in a report that we hope will greatly strengthen and open opportunities for defense research at HBCU/MIs. Committee members have contributed in immeasurable ways to this important effort, and we cannot thank them enough for their time and attention, particularly given all of the challenges we have all faced during the pandemic.
Finally, we cannot say enough about the dedication and hard work of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff. We are all indebted to study director Leigh Miles Jackson, whose hard work, dedication, and vision have supported the committee throughout the rigorous National Academies’ study process. Priyanka Nalamada, associate program officer, provided invaluable research and writing support to the committee. Additional thanks go to Austen Applegate, research associate, and Marie Harton, program officer, for their significant contributions to the study.
As the report title suggests, it is time to move from well-intentioned statements to actionable outcomes. The recommendations of this report are offered to guide DoD, Congress, HBCU/MIs, and partnering entities in supporting and strengthening the role of these institutions in defense research. A strategic commitment on the part of DoD is needed to advance the research capacity of HBCU/MIs. This will ultimately support DoD as it works to address national defense goals and will diversify the STEM workforce in the long term.
Drs. Eugene M. DeLoatch (Chair) and Aliecia R. McClain (Vice Chair)
Committee on Defense Research at Historically Black
Colleges and Universities and Other Minority Institutions
Acknowledgment of Reviewers
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Charles Bolden, Jr. (NAE), The Charles F. Bolden Group LLC; Gwendolyn Boyd, Alabama State University (ret.); Frank Doyle, III (NAE/NAM), Harvard University; Earnestine Easter, National Science Foundation; Cecil Haney, U.S. Navy (ret.); Christopher Jarzynski (NAS), University of Maryland; Bernadette Johnson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Tommy Marks, U.S. Department of Commerce; Steven Ramberg, U.S. Navy (ret.); and Arun Seraphin, National Defense Industrial Association.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the findings of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen
by Lester Lyles (NAE), independent consultant. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.
This report reflects contributions from a number of individuals and groups. The committee takes this opportunity to recognize those who so generously gave their time and expertise to inform its deliberations.
To begin, the committee would like to thank the U.S. Department of Defense and Evelyn Kent for their sponsorship, guidance, and support of this important national issue.
The committee greatly benefited from the opportunity for discussion with individuals who attended and presented at the open session meetings (see Appendix C), as well as with the leadership, faculty, and staff at the 13 Historically Black Colleges and Universities and minority institutions that graciously participated in our focus groups (see Appendix K). The committee thanks these individuals for their time and the candid perspectives they provided.
The committee could not have done its work without the support and guidance provided by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine project staff: Leigh Miles Jackson, study director; Marie Harton, program officer; Priyanka Nalamada, associate program officer; Austen Applegate, research associate; and Marquita Whiting, senior program assistant. We appreciate Bardia Massoudkhan for his financial assistance on this project, and gratefully acknowledge Tom Rudin of the National Academies’ Board on Higher Education and Workforce for his guidance.
Many other staff within the National Academies provided support to this project in various ways. The committee would like to thank Marilyn Baker, William “Bruno” Millonig, Steven Darbes, Julie Eubank, Constance F. Citro, Anne-Marie Mazza, Amy Shifflette, Karen Autrey, Holly Sten, Clair Woolley, and Anne
Marie Houppert for their expertise and support throughout the life cycle of this research study and report.
This committee is grateful to the research and writing consultants that generously contributed to this body of work, Victor McCrary (University of the District Columbia) and John Rosenthall (Tougaloo Center for Research and Development Foundation). We thank Brian L. Zuckerman, Pavel Panko, and Bill Brykczynski at the Institute for Defense Analyses’ Science and Technology Policy Institute for their invaluable expertise and support in the committee’s data collection and analysis needs, and Montrischa Essoka, Helen Muhisani, Nara Nayar, Courtney Tanenbaum, and their team at the American Institutes for Research for their management and support of the committee’s HBCU/MI focus group data collection efforts.
In addition to the contributions above, a great number of stakeholders offered resources, expertise, and insight to support the committee’s work. These include Jody Chase (National Science Foundation); Alexandra McCargo (Precision Collective, LLC); Jonathan Gordon (RTI International); Jennifer C. Shieh, Marcus Harris, and Allen Gutierrez (U.S. Small Business Administration); Anissa C. Lumpkin (Air Force Research Laboratory/Small Business); Susan Fitzgerald and Dennis Gephardt (Moody’s Corporation); Joseph P. Boutte (Dun & Bradstreet Corporation); Lora G. Weiss and Julia D. Erdley (Pennsylvania State University); Darold Hamlin (Emerging Technology Consortium); Victor Santos (Thurgood Marshall College Fund); Lamont Hames (LMH Strategies); Aprille J. Ericsson (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center); Wesley L. Harris (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Denise N. Baken (Shield Analysis Technology, LLC); Francisco C. Rodriguez (Los Angeles Community College District); Van Freeman (Aerospace Industries Association); Kiya Jones (Ron Brown Scholar Program); Tommy L. Marks (MBDA Federal Procurement Center); Gerald Hector (University of Central Florida); and the numerous stakeholder representatives from DoD agencies and related research entities who submitted resources and updates on recent HBCU/MI initiatives, including the Office of Naval Research, Air Force Research Laboratory, and Army Research Laboratory.
Finally, the committee is indebted to Paula Whitacre (Full Circle Communications) and Jennifer Saunders for their invaluable commissioned work on the committee’s interim and final reports.
|ASSURE||Awards to Stimulate and Support Undergraduate Research Experiences|
|DEPSCoR||Defense Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DURIP||Defense University Research Instrumentation Program|
|EPSCoR||Established Program to Stimulate Competitive Research|
|HBCUs||Historically Black Colleges and Universities|
|IPEDS||Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System|
|MURI||Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative|
|NASA||National Aeronautics and Space Administration|
|NASEM||National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine|
|NCSES||National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics|
|NDAA||National Defense Authorization Act|
|NIH||National Institutes of Health|
|NSF||National Science Foundation|
|R&D||research and development|
|S&T||science and technology|
|SBIR||Small Business Innovation Research|
|SMART||Science, Mathematics, and Research for Transformation|
|STEM||science, technology, engineering, and mathematics|
|STTR||Small Business Technology Transfer|
|TCUs||Tribal Colleges and Universities|