National Academies Press: OpenBook

Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1 (2022)

Chapter:Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act

« Previous: References
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×

Appendix A

Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act

SEC. 3125. CONTINUED ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE AT HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

(a) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Energy shall—

(1) enter into an arrangement with a federally funded research and development center to conduct a follow-on analysis to the analysis required by section 3134 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 (Public Law 114–328; 130 Stat. 2769) with respect to approaches for treating the portion of low-activity waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Richland, Washington, intended for supplemental treatment; and

(2) enter into an arrangement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to review the follow-on analysis conducted under paragraph (1).

(b) COMPARISON OF ALTERNATIVES TO AID DECISIONMAKING.— The analysis required by subsection (a)(1) shall be designed, to the greatest extent possible, to provide decisionmakers with the ability to make a direct comparison between approaches for the supplemental treatment of low-activity waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation based on criteria that are relevant to decisionmaking and most clearly differentiate between approaches.

(c) ELEMENTS.—The analysis required by subsection (a)(1) shall clearly lay out a framework of decisions to be made among the treatment technologies, waste forms, and disposal locations by including an assessment of the following:

(1) The most effective potential technology for supplemental treatment of low-activity waste that will produce an effective waste form, including an assessment of the following:

(A) The maturity and complexity of the technology.

(B) The extent of previous use of the technology.

(C) The life cycle costs and duration of use of the technology.

(D) The effectiveness of the technology with respect to immobilization.

(E) The performance of the technology expected under permanent disposal.

(F) The topical areas of additional study required for the grout option identified in the analysis required by section 3134 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.

(2) The differences among approaches for the supplemental treatment of low-activity waste considered as of the date of the analysis required by subsection (a)(1).

(3) The compliance of such approaches with the technical standards described in section 3134(b)(2)(D) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.

(4) The differences among potential disposal sites for the waste form produced through such treatment, including mitigation of radionuclides, including technetium-99, selenium-79, and iodine-129, on a system level.

(5) Potential modifications to the design of facilities to enhance performance with respect to disposal of the waste form to account for the following:

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×

(A) Regulatory compliance.

(B) Public acceptance.

(C) Cost.

(D) Safety.

(E) The expected radiation dose to maximally exposed individuals over time.

(F) Differences among disposal environments.

(6) Approximately how much and what type of pretreatment is needed to meet regulatory requirements regarding long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals to reduce disposal costs for radionuclides described in paragraph (4).

(7) Whether the radionuclides can be left in the waste form or economically removed and bounded at a system level by the performance assessment of a potential disposal site and, if the radionuclides cannot be left in the waste form, how to account for the secondary waste stream.

(8) Other relevant factors relating to the technology described in paragraph (1), including the following:

(A) The costs and risks in delays with respect to tank performance over time.

(B) Consideration of experience with treatment methods at other sites and commercial facilities.

(C) Outcomes of the test bed initiative of the Office of Environmental Management at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.

(d) REVIEW, CONSULTATION, SUBMISSION, AND LIMITATIONS.— The provisions of subsections (c) through (f) of section 3134 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 shall apply with respect to the analysis required by subsection (a)(1) to the same extent and in the same manner that such provisions applied with respect to the analysis required by subsection (a) of such section 3134, except that subsection (e) of such section shall be applied and administered by substituting ‘‘the date of the enactment of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021’’ for ‘‘the date of the enactment of this Act’’ each place it appears.

SEC. 3134. ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENT OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE AT HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

(a) IN GENERAL.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Energy shall enter into an arrangement with a federally funded research and development center to conduct an analysis of approaches for treating the portion of low‐activity waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, Richland, Washington, that, as of such date of enactment, is intended for supplemental treatment.

(b) ELEMENTS.—The analysis required by subsection (a) shall include the following:

(1) An analysis of, at a minimum, the following approaches for treating the low‐activity waste described in subsection (a):

(A) Further processing of the low‐activity waste to remove long‐lived radioactive constituents, particularly technetium‐99 and iodine‐129, for immobilization with high level waste.

(B) Vitrification, grouting, and steam reforming, and other alternative approaches identified by the Department of Energy for immobilizing the low‐activity waste.

(2) An analysis of the following:

(A) The risks of the approaches described in paragraph (1) relating to treatment and final disposition.

(B) The benefits and costs of such approaches.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×

(C) Anticipated schedules for such approaches, including the time needed to complete necessary construction and to begin treatment operations.

(D) The compliance of such approaches with applicable technical standards associated with and contained in regulations prescribed pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.), the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.) (commonly referred to as the ‘‘Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976’’), the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) (commonly referred to as the ‘‘Clean Water Act’’), and the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.).

(E) Any obstacles that would inhibit the ability of the Department of Energy to pursue such approaches.

(c) REVIEW OF ANALYSIS.—

(1) IN GENERAL.—Concurrent with entering into an arrangement with a federally funded research and development center under subsection (a), the Secretary shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to conduct a review of the analysis conducted by the federally funded research and development center.

(2) METHOD OF REVIEW.—The review required by paragraph (1) shall be conducted concurrent with the analysis required by subsection (a), and in a manner that is parallel to that analysis, so that the results of the review may be used to improve the quality of the analysis.

(3) PUBLIC REVIEW.—In conducting the review required paragraph (1), the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine shall provide an opportunity for public comment, with sufficient notice, to inform and improve the quality of the review.

(d) CONSULTATION WITH STATE.—Prior to the submission in accordance with subsection (e)(2) of the analysis required by subsection (a) and the review of the analysis required by subsection (c), the federally funded research and development center and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine shall provide to the State of Washington—

(1) the analysis and review in draft form; and

(2) an opportunity to comment on the analysis and review for a period of not less than 60 days.

(e) SUBMISSION TO CONGRESS.—

(1) BRIEFINGS ON PROGRESS.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 180 days thereafter until the materials described in paragraph (2) are submitted in accordance with that paragraph, the Secretary shall provide to the congressional defense committees a briefing on the progress being made on the analysis required by subsection (a) and the review of the analysis required by subsection (c).

(2) COMPLETED ANALYSIS AND REVIEW.—Not later than two years after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional defense committees the analysis required by subsection (a), the review of the analysis required by subsection (c), any comments of the State of Washington under subsection (d)(2), and any comments of the Secretary on the analysis or the review of the analysis.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×

(f) Limitations.—

(1) Secretary of energy.—This section does not conflict with or impair the obligation of the Secretary to comply with any requirement of—

(A) the amended consent decree in Washington v. Moniz, No. 2:08-CV-5085-RMP (E.D. Wash.); or

(B) the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order.

(2) State of Washington.—This section does not conflict with or impair the regulatory authority of the State of Washington under the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.) (commonly referred to as the “Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976”) and any corresponding State law.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×
Page14
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×
Page15
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×
Page16
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Section 3125 of the Fiscal Year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act and Section 3134 of the Fiscal Year 2017 National Defense Authorization Act." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26423.
×
Page17
Next: Appendix B: Statement of Task »
Review of the Continued Analysis of the Supplemental Treatment Approaches of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation: Review #1 Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The Hanford Nuclear Reservation, where about two-thirds of the nation's weapons plutonium was produced from 1944 to 1987, is the site of the largest and most complex nuclear cleanup challenge in the United States. Section 3125 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021 calls for a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) to develop a framework of decisions to be made among the supplemental treatment technologies, waste forms, and disposal locations for low-activity waste in the Hanford tanks. In addition, Section 3125 calls for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide a concurrent, independent peer review of the ongoing FFRDC analysis. This review report, the first of three to address the Congressional mandate, focuses on the technical quality and completeness of the FFRDC's draft framework.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!