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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Flying in the COVID-19 Era

Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies
on the Ground and in the Air

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Robert Pool, Rapporteur

Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study is based on work supported by Contract NNH16CD01B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27524-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27524-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26426

Cover design by Tim Warchocki.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26426.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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FLYING IN THE COVID-19 ERA WORKSHOP ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

JOHN-PAUL B. CLARKE, University of Texas, Austin, Chair

WILLIAM R. BRODY, NAE1/NAM,2 Salk Institute for Biological Studies

EDWARD F. CRAWLEY, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MICHAEL P. DELANEY, Boeing Commercial Airplane

ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Pratt & Whitney

PARIMAL KOPARDEKAR, NASA Ames Research Center

ILAN KROO, NAE, Stanford University

ANDREW R. LACHER, Noblis

VALERIE M. MANNING, Airbus SAS

PAMELA A. MELROY, NAE, Melroy & Hollett Technology Partners, LLC

ROBIE I. SAMANTA-ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation

Staff

DANIEL NAGASAWA, Program Officer, Space Studies Board, Study Director

ANDREA REBHOLZ, Program Associate, Space Studies Board

COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
×

AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD

BRIAN M. ARGROW, University of Colorado, Boulder, Chair

ROBERT D. BRAUN, California Institute of Technology

EDWARD F. CRAWLEY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

WILLIAM R. GRAY III, United States Air Force

SUSAN J. HELMS, NAE,1 Orbital Visions LLC

JOHN C. KARAS, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company

ILAN KROO, NAE, Stanford University

NICHOLAS D. LAPPOS, Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company

GEORGE T. LIGLER, NAE, GTL Associates

LESTER L. LYLES, NAE, United States Air Force

VALERIE MANNING, Airbus

PARVIZ MOIN, NAE/NAS,2 Stanford University

DARRYLL J. PINES, NAE, University of Maryland

ROBIE I. SAMANTA ROY, Lockheed Martin Corporation

WANDA A. SIGUR, NAE, Independent Consultant

DAVID W. THOMPSON, NAE, Orbital ATK, Inc.

ANTHONY M. WAAS, University of Michigan

MICHAEL I. YARYMOVYCH, Sarasota Space Associates

SHERRIE L. ZACHARIUS, Aerospace Corporation

Staff

COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director

TANJA PILZAK, Manager, Program Operations

CELESTE A. NAYLOR, Information Management Associate

MARGARET A. KNEMEYER, Financial Officer

RADAKA LIGHTFOOT, Financial Associate

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

2 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Sandra H. Magnus, Georgia Institute of Technology. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies.

___________________

1 Member, National Academy of Sciences.

2 Member, National Academy of Medicine.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Flying in the COVID-19 Era: Science-based Risk Assessments and Mitigation Strategies on the Ground and in the Air: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26426.
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The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on February 4th and 5th, 2021 to review the issues related to safety of passengers and employees in commercial air transportation, for domestic and international travel, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The workshop explored best practices to assess and mitigate COVID-19 transmission risks experienced during the travel chain, from the departure airport entrance to the destination airport exit. The workshop also identified areas where more research is needed to address gaps in understanding. This publication documents the presentations and discussions held during the workshop, and is presented as a synthesis of the workshop.

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