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Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation (2022)

Chapter:Glossary of Terms

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Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26451.
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26451.
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Glossary of Terms." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26451.

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48 This glossary provides a list of social media terms that are used in the report. The definitions of the words are brief, and users can explore appropriate literature to get a full understanding of some of the technical terms. Application: computer software that operates a specific function on a computer and handheld devices such as smartphones; also known as an app. Archive Social: a cloud-based analytics technology that enables its clients to keep records of their social media history. Blog: an online journal that is updated on a regular basis. Blogs are typically the interactive plat- forms for discussion or informational content published on the World Wide Web. Blog posts are usually displayed in reverse chronological order. Blog is short for “web log.” Facebook: a social networking website that allows its users to sign up for personal profiles; connect with other users; and exchange messages, pictures, music, videos, and other articles. Facebook creates a network of various e-commerce companies, brands, organizations, and gov- ernment agencies, making them accessible for followers and constituents. Flickr: a website owned by Yahoo!; an online community that allows users to publish and share photographs. Foursquare: an independent location-data-based mobile platform that enables users to connect with other users in their contacts, Facebook, and Twitter accounts. The Foursquare smartphone application enables users to check in to locations or text message. Users can also collect points and virtual badges and become the mayor by visiting new places or certain locations frequently. Hootsuite: a social media management platform that supports social network integrations for Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, and YouTube. Instagram: a social network service for sharing photos and videos only. The Instagram applica- tion has features likes photo editing, filters, hashtags, and geographical tagging. Medium: an electronic publishing platform used for blogging and social journalism. Metadata: the set of data that provide information about other data. For example, in case of media items, such as a blog post or a photograph, the metadata refers to the titles, descriptions, tags, keywords, and captions. Microblog: an online broadcasting medium where users can exchange small elements of con- tent only. For example, Twitter allows 280 characters per post. Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms 49   Natural Language Processing: an umbrella term for technologies that are used to understand, categorize, classify, and create computationally viable models and algorithms to work with human languages in their natural form. Pinterest: a social media platform for sharing images, videos, and GIFs, designed to enable content saving within the site and discover creative ideas on the Internet. Platform: a framework or system for content management that operates software and presents virtual content. Podcast: a digital audio file available on the Internet for downloading to a personal device for playback, usually streamed via podcasting applications to the subscribers of individual artists, companies, radio networks, TV networks, and so forth; a portmanteau of iPod and broadcast. Quora: a question-and-answer website where users can ask questions and provide answers factually or in the form of opinions. Users can also edit, upvote, or downvote the answers. Really Simple Syndication (RSS): a standardized, computer-readable format for delivering web-based content directly to users without them having to visit websites. People use an RSS reader or news aggregator for subscribing to their favorite web feeds or updates. Reddit: an online forum used for social news aggregation, content rating, and discussion. Reg- istered subscribers can submit content to the site, which is upvoted or downvoted by other subscribers. Retweet: a repost of a tweet on the Twitter website or the process of reposting a tweet on Twitter. Sentiment analysis: the process of determining the sentiment of the text using different natural language processing algorithms. Sentiment analysis first trains the model using a known data set with known emotional scores and then tries to find the similarities of those data with unknown test data and thus statistically rank the unknown data. Social media: online interactive technologies that allow people to create, publish, and exchange content, including text, audio, video, or multimedia via virtual communities. Social network: a virtual community connected through a medium of dedicated websites or applications that allows users to create individual profiles, join with friends, communicate with others, and share content. Examples of social media networks include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Instagram. Sprout Social: a social media management and optimization platform that provides a single hub for social media publishing, analytics, and engagement across all social profiles of their client brands and agencies. Telegram: an instant messaging software based on freeware, cross platform, and cloud com- puting. The distinctive feature of Telegram is security. Telegram offers end-to-end encryption and allows users to set self-destruct timers on shared contents. Text mining: the process of extracting unknown information by analyzing the text using struc- tured algorithms. TikTok: a social networking service used to create and share a variety of short-form videos encompassing genres of dance, comedy, and education. Topic model: the technique of extracting the topic from a collection of text documents using various natural language processing algorithms. Using the underlying semantic structures, topic modeling algorithms try to determine the key content from a large text document.

50 Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation Tumblr: a social networking website based on the idea of microblogging. Tumblr also allows users to post multimedia and other contents to a short-form blog. Tweet: a post on the Twitter website or the process of writing a post on Twitter. Twitch: a video livestreaming service focused on streaming live video games and e-sports com- petitions. Twitch has music broadcast and creative content sharing features too. Twitter: a microblogging network that allows users to write posts or tweets of no more than 280 characters. Vimeo: an online platform for hosting and sharing high-definition video across different devices. Vimeo also allows subscribers to use tools for video creation, editing, and other profes- sional services. WeChat: a Chinese multipurpose messaging platform and mobile payment app. WeChat has features like hold-to-talk voice messaging, broadcast messaging, video conferencing, video games, and location sharing. Wiki: a collaborative website aimed at crowdsourcing the process of content creation and modi- fication for a given cause or event using a web browser. Yelp: an online business directory that allows users to find, connect, and review businesses. YouTube: a video-hosting social media website where users can upload and watch videos. Zoho Social: a social media management platform that helps business companies and agencies schedule posts, create custom dashboards, monitor mentions, and so forth.

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A high percentage of transit agencies believe social media is important for increasing ridership, improving customer satisfaction, and improving agency image.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Synthesis 156: Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation updates 2012's TCRP Synthesis 99: Uses of Social Media in Public Transportation and again explores the use of social media among transit agencies. It documents innovative and effective practices in the United States and Canada.

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