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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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放射源

应用和替代技术

放射源委员会:应用和替代技术

核与辐射研究委员会

地球与生命研究部

共识研究报告

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
华盛顿特区
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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本活动由 National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC 第 2091228 号奖项赞助支持。本出版物中表达的任何意见、发现、结论或建议不代表为该项目提供支持的任何组织或机构的观点。

国际标准书号-13:978-0-309-44791-1
国际标准书号-10:0-309-44791-7
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版权所有 2021 National Academy of Sciences。版权所有。

美国印刷

封面:工业灭菌中伽马、电子束和 X 射线辐射源的操作示意图。由伊利诺伊州巴达维亚 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Thomas Kroc 提供。经 AIP Publishing 许可,从 Miller(2003 版)基础上复制和修改。

建议引用:National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2021. Radioactive Sources:Applications and Alternative Technologies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26121.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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Image

National Academy of Sciences 于 1863 年依据林肯总统签署的国会法案下成立,属于私人非政府机构,就与科学和技术相关的问题向国家提供建议。成员以对研究的杰出贡献经同行选举加入。Marcia McNutt 博士现任院长。

National Academy of Engineering 于 1964 年根据 National Academy of Sciences 章程成立,旨在为国家提供工程实践方面的建议。成员以对工程的非凡贡献经同行选举加入。John L. Anderson 博士现任院长。

National Academy of Medicine(前身为 Institute of Medicine)于 1970 年根据 National Academy of Sciences 章程成立,旨在就医疗和健康问题向国家提供建议。成员以对医学和健康的杰出贡献经同行选举加入。Victor J. Dzau 博士现任院长。

三大科学院作为 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 共同合作,为国家提供独立、客观的分析和建议,并开展其他活动以解决复杂的问题并为公共政策决策提供信息。国家科学院同样鼓励教育和研究,表彰对知识的杰出贡献,并提高公众对科学、工程和医学问题的理解。

更多关于 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 的资讯请访问 www.nationalacademies.org

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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Image

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 发表的共识研究报告记录了专家编写委员会关于研究任务陈述达成的以证据为基础的共识。报告通常包括以委员会收集的信息和委员会的审议为基础得出的结果、结论和建议。每份报告都经过严格、独立的同行评审,代表了国家科学院对任务陈述的立场。

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 出版的会议记录翔实记载了在研讨会、专题讨论会或国家科学院召集的其他活动中的演讲和讨论。会议记录中包含的陈述和意见是参与者个人的陈述和意见,未经其他参与者、计划委员会或国家科学院认可。

有关国家科学院其他产品和活动的资讯,请访问 academies.org/about/whatwedo

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
×

COMMITTEE ON RADIOACTIVE SOURCES: APPLICATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES

BONNIE D. JENKINS主席1),Women of Color Advancing Peace and Security,华盛顿特区

THOMAS K. KROC主席2),伊利诺伊州巴达维亚 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

ROBERT A. BARI,纽约厄普顿 Brookhaven National Laboratory

DEBORAH W. BRUNER (NAM),佐治亚州亚特兰大 Emory University

HUBERT K. FOY,加纳阿克拉 African Center for Science and International Security

PAMELA J. HENDERSON,内华达州里诺 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(已退休)

P. ANDREW KARAM,纽约州纽约市 Karam Consulting LLC

LINDA A. KROGER,萨克拉门托戴维斯 University of California

MICHAEL O. McWILLIAMS,加利福尼亚州斯坦福 Stanford University(名誉)

CATHLEEN (KATE) M. ROUGHAN,International Atomic Energy Agency(已退休),奥地利维也纳

STEPHEN J. WAGNER,马里兰州克罗威尔 American Red Cross (已退休)

DAVID L. WEIMER,University of Wisconsin–Madison

JOHN A. WILLIAMSON,佛罗里达州卫生部,奥兰多

职员

OURANIA KOSTI,研究主任(2020 年 10 月起

CHARLES D. FERGUSON,董事会董事兼研究总监(至 2020 年 10 月

LAURA D. LLANOS,金融业务合伙人

MELISSA FRANKS,高级项目助理

DARLENE GROS,高级项目助理

___________________

1 辞去委员会职务,自 2021 年 1 月 13 日起生效。

2 担任委员会主席,自 2021 年 1 月 21 日起生效。

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
×

NUCLEAR AND RADIATION STUDIES BOARD

GEORGE APOSTOLAKIS主席),Massachusetts Institute of Technology(名誉),加利福尼亚州洛杉矶

JAMES A. BRINK副主席),Massachusetts General Hospital,波士顿

SALLY A. AMUNDSON,Columbia University,纽约,纽约州

STEVEN M. BECKER,Old Dominion University,诺福克,佛吉尼亚

AMY BERRINGTON DE GONZÁLEZ,National Cancer Institute,贝斯达,马里兰州

PAUL T. DICKMAN,Argonne National Laboratory,华盛顿特区

BONNIE D. JENKINS,1Women of Color Advancing Peace and Security,华盛顿特区

STEPAN KALMYKOV,Russian Academy of Sciences,莫斯科

ALLISON M. MACFARLANE,The George Washington University,华盛顿特区

R. JULIAN PRESTON,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,北卡罗来纳州教堂山

HENRY D. ROYAL,Washington University School of Medicine,圣路易斯,密苏里

WILLIAM H. TOBEY,Harvard University,剑桥,马萨诸塞州

职员

CHARLES D. FERGUSON,董事

JENNIFER HEIMBERG,高级项目官员

OURANIA KOSTI,高级项目官员

LAURA D. LLANOS,金融业务合伙人

MELISSA FRANKS,高级项目助理

DARLENE GROS,高级项目助理

___________________

1 辞去董事会职务,自 2021 年 1 月 13 日起生效。

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
×

致谢

许多个人和组织为本报告的成功完成做出了贡献。委员会特此感谢以下人员:

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia)National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) 为本项研究提供赞助,并提供了有关辐射安全和替代技术推广活动的信息。Jodi Lieberman (Sandia) 作为委员会的赞助联络人,出色、有效地协调了委员会的多项信息收集演示,包括对 Sandia 的虚拟参观。Michael Itamura 博士和 Holly Dockery 博士协助委员会获得与 Sandia 活动和分析相关的所需信息。Lance Garrison 博士、Kristin Hirsch 和 Malika Taalbi 向委员会提供了有关放射源安保、替代技术推广以及废弃放射源清除和处置等活动的信息。Garrison 博士另与委员会与 NNSA 内的其他办公室和其他能源部 (DOE) 办公室保持联络。我们还要感谢 DOE 的 Kristina Hatcher 帮助国家科学院的工作人员构思研究和工作计划。

U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 工作人员,特别是 Margaret Cervera 和 George Smith,针对委员会请求的该机构保护和跟踪放射源程序的信息作出回复。

International Atomic Energy Agency 工作人员就与放射源安全和安保相关的问题以及医疗、研究和商业应用中使用的替代技术向委员会集体提供了长达数小时的简报。委员会特别感谢 Karen Christaki、Ian Gordon、Muhammad Khaliq、Hilaire Mansoux、Debbie van der Merwe、Joao Osso, Jr.、Ronald Pacheco、Rui Cardoso Pereira、Rebecca Robbins、Alessia Maria Rodriguez y Baena、Jose Garcia Sainz、Valeriia Starovoitova 和Muhammad Waseem。Andrew Parker (已退休)针对委员会请求的昆虫不育技术相关资讯作出回复。

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC),特别是 Eric Lemoine 和 Edmund Wong 提供了有关CNSC 放射源跟踪系统的信息。

多位医疗专业人员向委员会提供了关于在低收入和中等收入国家采用的替代技术相关信息;特别是,埃塞俄比亚 Black Lion Hospital 的 Wondemagegnhu Tigeneh 博士和 Eskadmas Yinesu Belay 博士;加纳 Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital 的 Eric Addison 博士;危地马拉 Liga Nacional Contra el Cancer/Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia 的 Edgar Ruiz 博士、Angel Velarde 博士、Vicky de Falla 博士、Carlos Garcia 博士、Javier Figueroa

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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博士、Kirk Najera、Milton Ixquiac 和 Franky Reyes;尼日利亚 National Hospital Abuja 的 Taofeeq A. Ige 博士;塞内加尔达喀尔 Aristide Hospital Dantec 的 Magatte Diagne 博士;赞比亚 Cancer Diseases Hospital 的 Mulape Kanduza,和 National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research 的 Prudence Katongo Mutale。我们另外想要感谢 Andrea Barleze 博士和 William Trinca。

华盛顿大学圣路易斯分校的医学专业人士分享了对危地马拉采用调强放射治疗的合作项目的看法。分别是 Bin Cai 博士、Hiram Gay 博士、Lauren Henke 博士、Eric Laugeman、Jeff Michalski 博士和 Jacaranda van Rheenen 博士。

John Miller,(International Source Suppliers and Producers Association)和 Paul Wynne (International Irradiation Association) 为委员会安排了几次行业简报,并提供了自己的观点。

World Institute for Nuclear Security 的 Pierre Legoux 也向委员会提供了观点,并邀请委员会的一个小组参加该研究所组织的两次圆桌讨论。

Tyler Bernstein 和 Steven Krahn 博士提供了有关 Zeno Power System 的下一代放射性同位素电源系统的信息。

American Society for Radiation Oncology 的 Cindy Tomlinson 提供了有关在美国采用电子近距离放射治疗的信息。

印度 Observer Research Foundation 的 Rajeswari (Raji) Pillai Rajagopalan 博士提供了有关印度开发和使用玻璃化铯 137 进行血液和食品辐照的信息。

委员会还感谢在公开会议期间发表高质量演讲的讲解者和演讲者,具体名单如附件 B 中所列。

委员会感谢 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine(国家科学院)Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board (NRSB) 的工作人员组织和推进本项研究。研究负责人 Ourania Kosti 博士和董事会董事 Charles Ferguson 博士组织了委员会会议,并协助委员会收集撰写报告所需的信息。Melissa Franks 和Darlene Gros 负责管理会议的后勤工作、报告审查和出版。其他协助报告编制的国家科学院工作人员:地球与生命研究部的 Eric Edkin 协助图片设计,美国国家科学院研究中心的 Rebecca Morgan 和 Maya Thomas 协助参考文献检查。

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
×

审稿人

本共识研究报告由基于不同观点和技术专长而选择的个人审查草本。本次独立审查的目的是提供坦率的、批判的意见,以帮助 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 保证每份发布的报告尽可能合理,且符合机构在质量、客观和证据方面的标准,及提高对研究任务的响应度。审查意见和手稿草稿保密,以保护审议过程的完整性。

我们感谢以下人员对本报告的审阅:

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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虽然上列审稿人提供了大量建设性的意见和建议,但并未要求其认可本报告的结论或建议,审稿人也未在发布前查阅最终稿。本报告的审查由 University of Chicago 的 MARYELLEN GIGER (NAE) 和Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors 的 RUTH E. McBURNEY 监督。上述方负责保证针对这份报告的独立审查是按照国家科学院的标准进行的,并且所有审查意见都经过仔细考虑。最终内容的责任完全由编委会和国家科学院承担。

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies: Chinese Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26452.
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Radioactive Sources: Applications and Alternative Technologies assesses the status of medical, research, sterilization, and other commercial applications of radioactive sources and alternative (nonradioisotopic) technologies in the United States and internationally. Focusing on Category 1, 2, and 3 sources, this report reviews the current state of these sources by application and reviews the current state of existing technologies on the market or under development that are or could be used to replace radioisotopic technologies in those applications. Radioactive Sources will support existing and future activities under the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Radiological Security program to reduce the use of high-risk radiological materials in commercial applications.

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