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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26460.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface Committee on the Chemistry of Urban Wildfires Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies Consensus Study Report PREPUBLICATION COPY—UNCORRECTED PROOF

NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHSN263201800029I. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26460 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26460. Prepublication Copy

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Copy

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication Copy

COMMITTEE ON THE CHEMISTRY OF URBAN WILDFIRES Members DAVID T. ALLEN (NAE), Chair, University of Texas at Austin OLORUNFEMI ADETONA, The Ohio State University MICHELLE BELL (NAM), Yale University MARILYN BLACK, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. JEFFEREY L. BURGESS, University of Arizona FREDERICK L. DRYER (NAE), University of South Carolina AMARA HOLDER, US Environmental Protection Agency ANA MASCAREÑAS, Independent Consultant FERNANDO L. ROSARIO-ORTIZ, University of Colorado Boulder ANNA A. STEC, University of Central Lancashire BARBARA J. TURPIN, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill JUDITH T. ZELIKOFF, New York University Staff MEGAN E. HARRIES, Study Director (until August 2022) BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant EMILY J. BUEHLER, Consultant KESIAH CLEMENT, Research Associate (until July 2021) CHARLES FERGUSON, Senior Board Director MEGHAN HARRISON, Senior Program Officer (until July 2021) ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar (until April 2021) JEREMY T. MATHIS, Board Director (until March 2021) MARILEE SHELTON-DAVENPORT, Senior Program Officer (until January 2021) ABIGAIL ULMAN, Research Assistant (until May 2022) BENJAMIN ULRICH, Senior Program Assistant (until March 2022) LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer Sponsors CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY Prepublication Copy v

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members SCOTT COLLICK, Co-chair, DuPont JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS, Co-chair, University of California, Davis GERARD BAILLELY, Procter and Gamble RUBEN G. CARBONELL (NAE), North Carolina State University JOHN FORTNER, Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science KAREN I. GOLDBERG (NAS), University of Pennsylvania JENNIFER M. HEEMSTRA, Emory University JODIE L. LUTKENHAUS, Texas A&M University SHELLEY D. MINTEER, University of Utah AMY PRIETO, Colorado State University MEGAN L. ROBERTSON, University of Houston SALY ROMERO-TORRES, Thermo Fisher Scientific REBECCA T. RUCK, Merck Process Research & Development ANUP K. SINGH, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory VIJAY SWARUP, ExxonMobil Staff CHARLES FERGUSON, Senior Board Director MEGAN E. HARRIES, Program Officer (until August 2022) LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer LINDA NHON, Associate Program Officer THANH NGUYEN, Finance Business Partner JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant AYANNA LYNCH, Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Tami Bond, Colorado State University Shoba Iyer, California Environmental Protection Agency and San Francisco Department of the Environment Sam Manzello, REAX Engineering Sarah McAllister, US Forest Service Birgitte Messerschmidt, National Fire Protection Association Jason Sacks, US Environmental Protection Agency David Sedlak, NAE, University of California Berkeley Carsten Warneke, US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Christine Wiedinmyer, University of Colorado Boulder Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Susan Brantley, The Pennsylvania State University and Martin-Jose J. Sepulveda, Florida International University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. This study would not have been successful without the assistance of many. The committee is grateful to the people who helped provide research support to the report, including Colette Schissel, University of Texas, Austin; Yosuke Kimura, University of Texas, Austin; and the staff of the National Academies Research Center. We are especially grateful to the numerous expert individuals who spoke to the committee during an open information-gathering session or otherwise provided input (Appendix D). Prepublication Copy vii

Abbreviations AQI the EPA’s Air Quality Index ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BBOP Biomass Burn Observation Project CAMS continuous air quality monitoring station CARB California Air Resources Board CDC the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDD chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin CE combustion efficiency CF combustion factor CI confidence interval CMAQ Community Multiscale Air Quality COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease CWS community water system DBP disinfection by-product DOM dissolved organic matter ED emergency department EF emission factor EPA US Environmental Protection Agency ER emission ratio FASMEE Fire and Smoke Model and Evaluation Experiment FIREX-AQ Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality GeoXO Geostationary Extended Observations GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite GREET Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Technologies HEPA high-efficiency particulate air HVAC heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer IMPROVE Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments ISO International Organization for Standardization IVOC intermediate-volatility organic compound MCE modified combustion efficiency MDA8 daily maximum eight-hour average MERV minimum efficiency reporting value MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards Prepublication Copy ix

Abbreviations NIEHS National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences NIFC National Interagency Fire Center NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NTU nephelometric turbidity unit OSB oriented strand board OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ether PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PCDD polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin PCDF polychlorinated dibenzofuran PFAS perfluoroakyl and polyfluoroakyl organic substance PiG plume-in-grid PM particulate matter PM10 coarse particulate matter; particles with diameters of 10 micrometers or less PM2.5 fine particulate matter; particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or less PTR-ToF-MS proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry PVC polyvinyl chloride RAP-Chem Rapid Refresh with Chemistry RISE Research Institute of Sweden RR relative rate Rx-CADRE Prescribed Fire Combustion-Atmospheric Dynamics Experiments SOA secondary organic aerosol SP SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden SVOC semi-volatile organic compound TCEP tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate TCPP tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate TEMPO Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution VIIRS Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite VOC volatile organic compound WE-CAN Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption, and Nitrogen WUI wildland-urban interface ϕ equivalence ratio x Prepublication Copy

Chemical Formulas BrO hypobromite ion C2H2 acetylene C2H4 ethylene C3H4O acrolein C6H6 benzene C7H8 toluene CF3Br bromotrifluoromethane CH2O or HCHO formaldehyde CH3Br bromomethane CH3Cl chloromethane CH4 methane CHOCHO glyoxal ClNO2 chlorine nitrite CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide COCl2 phosgene COF2 carbonyl fluoride H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide H2S hydrogen sulfide H2SO4 sulfuric acid H3PO4 phosphoric acid HBr hydrogen bromide HCHO; see CH2O HCl hydrogen chloride HCN hydrogen cyanide HF hydrogen fluoride HNO2 or HONO nitrous acid HNO3 nitric acid HO2 hydroperoxyl radical HO2NO2 peroxynitric acid HOCO hydrocarboxyl radical HONO, see HNO2 N2O5 dinitrogen pentoxide NH3 ammonia NO nitric oxide radical NO2 nitrogen dioxide Prepublication Copy xi

Chemical Formulas NO3 nitrate radical NOx nitrogen oxides O3 ozone OH hydroxyl radical POF3 phosphoryl fluoride SO2 sulfur dioxide SO3 sulfur trioxide SOx sulfur oxides xii Prepublication Copy

Contents SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 9 Wildfires at the WUI, 9 The Committee and Its Task, 10 The Committee’s Approach to Its Task, 10 The Committee’s Approach to Equity, 11 Prior Related Work by the National Academies, 12 Organization of This Report, 12 References, 13 2 DEFINING AND CONTEXTUALIZING WUI FIRES ....................................................................... 15 Defining the WUI, 15 Defining Spatial and Temporal Scales, 17 Factors Contributing to Increasing WUI Fires, 17 The Impacts of WUI Fires, 20 Using Examples to Contextualize WUI Fires, 24 Findings from Recent Examples of WUI Fires, 26 References, 26 3 MATERIALS, COMBUSTION, AND EMISSIONS IN WUI FIRES ................................................ 31 Materials, 31 Combustion, 45 Emissions, 51 References, 61 4 ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS ................................. 72 Primary Species with Toxic Potential Downwind of WUI Fires, 72 Atmospheric Transformations, 74 Current Practice in Modeling Far Plumes, 88 References, 92 5 WATER AND SOIL CONTAMINATION ......................................................................................... 105 Impacts to Water Quality Related to Community Water Systems, 106 Impacts to Groundwater and Soil Contamination, 113 Impacts of Atmospheric Wet and Dry Deposition, 114 References, 115 6 HUMAN EXPOSURES, HEALTH IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION .............................................. 120 Chemicals of Concern for Human Exposure, 122 Vulnerable Populations, Health Equity, and Environmental Justice, 122 Routes of Exposure, 126 Health Impacts, 135 Reducing Exposure Risks and Health Effects, 143 Conclusion, 151 References, 151 Prepublication Copy xiii

Contents 7 MEASUREMENT OF WUI FIRES: EMISSIONS AND EXPOSURES .......................................... 167 An Overview of Data and Measurement Systems for WUI Fires, 167 Detecting and Determining the Areal Extent of WUI Fires, 167 Measuring Fuels and Estimating Emissions, 169 Measuring Emissions in the Field, 170 Monitoring Emissions Using Continuous/Ambient Networks, 173 Assessing Exposure, 175 Sampling and Analytical Methods, 178 Coordinating Measurements of WUI Fires, 179 References, 179 8 THE FUTURE OF WUI FIRE RESEARCH ...................................................................................... 184 Research Agenda, 185 Cross-Disciplinary Coordination, 191 Information Dissemination, 191 APPENDIXES A GLOSSARY OF TERMS...................................................................................................................... 193 B COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES ............................................................................... 198 C AVAILABLE DATA FOR EXAMPLE FIRES ................................................................................. 201 D PUBLIC WORKSHOP AGENDA ...................................................................................................... 209 E ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS FOR TABLE 3-2 ..................................................................... 211 xiv Prepublication Copy

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The Chemistry of Fires at the Wildland-Urban Interface Get This Book
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Wildfires in America are becoming larger, more frequent, and more destructive, driven by climate change and existing land management practices. Many of these fires occur at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), areas where development and wildland areas overlap and which are increasingly at risk of devastating fires as communities continue to expand into previously undeveloped areas. Unlike conventional wildfires, WUI fires are driven in part by burning of homes, cars, and other human-made structures, and in part by burning vegetation. The interaction of these two types of fires can lead to public health effects that are unique to WUI fires.

This report evaluates existing and needed chemistry information that decision-makers can use to mitigate WUI fires and their potential health impacts. It describes key fuels of concern in WUI fires, especially household components like siding, insulation, and plastic, examines key pathways for exposure, including inhalation and ingestion, and identifies communities vulnerable to exposures. The report recommends a research agenda to inform response to and prevention of WUI fires, outlining needs in characterizing fuels, and predicting emissions and toxicants.

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