National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Appendix A: Committee Meeting Agendas
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

Appendix B
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members

Dietram A. Scheufele (Co-Chair) is the Taylor-Bascom Chair in Science Communication and the Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and in the Morgridge Institute for Research, and a Distinguished Research Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania’s Annenberg Public Policy Center. Dr. Scheufele’s work examines the social effects of emerging science and technology. He is an elected member of the German National Academy of Science and Engineering and a lifetime associate of the U.S. National Research Council. Dr. Scheufele is also an elected fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; the International Communication Association; and the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts & Letters. Dr. Scheufele currently co-chairs the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Standing Committee on Advancing Science Communication and serves on the National Academies’ Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Advisory Committee and the Health and Medicine Division’s Board on Health Sciences Policy. Since 2012, he has co-organized four National Academies’ Colloquia on the Science of Science Communication. He earned a Ph.D. in mass communications (1999) with a Ph.D. minor in political science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Abhi Veerakumarasivam (Co-Chair), the dean of the School of Medical and Life Sciences at Sunway University, is a University of Cambridge–trained geneticist, educator, and science communicator. His research in genetics involves the elucidation of components of the regulatory pathways that drive tumor recurrence and invasion as well as the dissection of Asian genetic variations that confer differences in disease risk and response to therapy. In 2016, he became the first Asian to be crowned as the Best Science Communicator at the International FameLab Finals at the Cheltenham Science Festival, United Kingdom. He is currently the co-chair of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Young Scientists Network, which represents top young scientists in the region who not only demonstrate academic excellence but also contribute toward nation building through science, technology, engineering, and mathematics promotion and advocacy. He also currently chairs the International Network for Government Science Advice Asia, which aims to support the use of scientific evidence in informing policy at all levels of government. He also sits on various national and regional science and educational policy committees and has co-authored various policy papers and reports. He also initiated and led Malaysia’s first nationwide program on Responsible Conduct of Research (inspired by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s initiative in the region) to create awareness and educate the Malaysian scientific community on the importance of research integrity.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

David B. Allison is the dean, a distinguished professor, and a provost professor at the Indiana University Bloomington School of Public Health. Prior, he was a distinguished professor, the Quetelet Endowed Professor, and the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Nutrition Obesity Research Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He completed his Ph.D. in clinical and school psychology at Hofstra University in 1990. He has been continuously funded by NIH as a principal investigator for more than 25 years and has authored more than 600 scientific publications. Much of his research, teaching, and writing focuses on promoting rigor, reproducibility, and transparency in scientific research and communication. He served on the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee on Reproducibility and Replicability in Science, and subsequently testified before Congress on the report. In 2012 he was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Medicine. His own research has ranged from laboratory model organism research to human clinical trials and epidemiology. He has received many awards, including the 2018 Harry V. Roberts Statistical Advocate of the Year Award from the American Statistical Association; the 2002 Lilly Scientific Achievement Award from The Obesity Society; the 2002 Andre Mayer Award from the International Association for the Study of Obesity; the 2009 TOPS research achievement award from The Obesity Society; and the National Science Foundation Administered 2006 Presidential Award for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring. In 2014, he was selected as the Atwater Lecturer by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the American Society for Nutrition. The W.O. Atwater Lectureship was established in 1968 to honor the memory of Wilbur Olin Atwater (1844–1907) and to recognize scientists who have made unique contributions toward improving the diet and nutrition of people around the world. He recently (2020) received $15 million in philanthropic funding to serve as the principal investigator of Aegis, a nationally vital COVID-19 immunity study. In 2020, he was awarded both the Don Owen Award from the American Statistical Association’s San Antonio Chapter for excellence in research, statistical consultation, and service to the statistical community and the Pfizer Award from the American Society of Nutrition. Dr. Allison is known as a staunch advocate for rigor in research methods and the uncompromising, unvarnished truthful communication of research findings.

Sonia Ben Ouagrham-Gormley is an associate professor in the Schar School of Policy and Government at George Mason University (GMU). She holds affiliations with GMU’s Biodefense Program, Center for Global Studies, and the Department of History and Art History’s Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies program. She received her Ph.D. in development economics from the Ecoles des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, a graduate degree in strategy and defense policy from the Ecoles des Hautes Etudes Internationales in Paris, a master’s degree in applied foreign languages (triple major in economics, law, and foreign languages—Russian and English) from the University of Paris X-Nanterre, and a dual undergraduate degree in applied foreign languages and English literature from the University of Paris X-Nanterre. She is fluent in French, English,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

Russian, and spoken Arabic, and possesses beginner competence in Kazakh. Prior to joining the GMU faculty in 2008, Professor Ben Ouagrham-Gormley was a senior research associate with the Monterey Institute of International Studies’ James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS). While at CNS, she spent 2 years at the CNS Almaty office in Kazakhstan, where she served as the director of research. She also was the founding editor-in-chief of the International Export Control Observer, a monthly publication focusing on proliferation developments and export controls around the globe. From 2004 to 2008, she was an adjunct professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, DC. Professor Ben Ouagrham-Gormley has conducted research and written on such topics as nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons proliferation; organization and management of weapons programs; weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) trafficking in states of the former Soviet Union; biosecurity and bioterrorism; bio-dissuasion: export controls; defense industry conversion; transfer mechanisms of WMD expertise; and redirection of WMD experts. She has received several grants from the U.S. Departments of Defense (DoD), State, and Energy and from the Nuclear Threat Initiative and the Carnegie Corporation of New York to conduct research on WMD proliferation and contribute to remediation programs such as the DoD-funded Cooperative Threat Reduction Program.

Chai Lay Ching is a senior lecturer at the Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. She is the chair of the Young Scientists Network–Academy of Sciences Malaysia. She is an active researcher with her research focus on improving the safety and security of the food system in the region. Dr. Chai has established numerous collaborative research projects with the food industry and governmental agencies to achieve her scientific endeavor. She was appointed as the scientific advisor of the International Life Science Institute Southeast Asia region for her active research and achievement in the food safety field. Dr. Chai is also a strong advocate for research integrity and is one of the key players in pushing for responsible conduct of research in Malaysia and the region. She is one of the main authors of the first Malaysian Module for Responsible Conduct of Research, which was published in 2018. In 2018, Dr. Chai was awarded the L’Oreal-UNESCO for Women in Science Malaysia award.

Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of South Florida (USF). He is interested in all problems arising from the interplay between people and computing systems, in particular the integrity of information in cyberspace and the trustworthiness and reliability of social computing systems. At USF, he leads the Computational Sociodynamics Laboratory. Prior to joining USF, he was at Indiana University as an assistant research scientist at the Indiana University Network Science Institute, and before that as a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, an analyst for the Wikimedia Foundation, and a research associate at the Professorship of Computational Social Science at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. His work has been

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

covered in major news outlets, including The Wall Street Journal, WIRED, MIT Technology Review, NPR, and CBS News, to cite a few.

Jeanne Marie Fair is a scientist in the Biosecurity & Public Health Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory with a focus in epidemiology and animal disease ecology. In 2009, Dr. Fair was a lead analyst for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s modeling of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on our Nation’s Critical Infrastructure. From 2013 to 2016 she was on assignment as a science program manager with the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Biological Threat Reduction Program working with Central Asia and the Middle East. Dr. Fair’s research interest is to support biosurveillance and zoonotic infectious disease detection capabilities in wildlife, animals, and humans. Dr. Fair is also dedicated to cooperative biological engagement for strengthening capabilities for biosurveillance around the world. This includes building research collaborative networks and learning and sharing how to foster strong scientific collaborations and research partnerships. Dr. Fair received her Ph.D. from the University of Missouri–St. Louis in biology and her M.S. in wildlife biology from Colorado State University.

Le Thi Thu Hien currently serves as the deputy director of the Institute of Genome Research and an associate editor of the Journal of Biotechnology within the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology. She is a member of the scientific board of the Institute and the head of the Genome Biodiversity Laboratory. Her research group applies DNA technologies and genomic tools to study the diversity and molecular systematics of genetic resources to identify markers for species discrimination. Dr. Hien has been actively promoting national and international collaboration activities, as well as conducting bilateral and multilateral scientific and technological projects with partners. She is also an associate professor and an affiliate lecturer at the Graduate University of Science and Technology and the University of Science and Technology of Hanoi. As an expert on biosafety, and access to genetic resource and benefit sharing (ABS), she has been deeply involved in the development of national biosafety and ABS regulations and frameworks. She has also been selected as a member of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Synthetic Biology by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

Pamela J. Hinds is the Fortinet Founders Chair and Professor of Management Science & Engineering; the co-director of the Center on Work, Technology, and Organization; and a member of the Director’s Council for the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford University. She studies the effect of technology on teams, collaboration, and innovation. Dr. Hinds has conducted extensive research on the dynamics of cross-boundary work teams, particularly those spanning national borders. She explores issues of culture, language, identity, conflict, and the role of site visits in promoting knowledge sharing and collaboration. She has published extensively on the relationship between national culture and work practices, particularly exploring how work practices or technologies created in one location are understood and employed at distant sites. Dr. Hinds also has a body of research on human–robot interaction in the work environment and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

the dynamics of human–robot teams. Most recently, Dr. Hinds has been looking at the changing nature of work in the face of emerging technologies, including the nature of coordination in open innovation, changes in work and organizing resulting from 3D printing, and the work of data analysts. Her research has appeared in journals such as Organization Science, Research in Organizational Behavior, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Annals, Academy of Management Discoveries, Human-Computer Interaction, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Dr. Hinds is a senior editor of Organization Science. She is also the co-editor with Sara Kiesler of the book Distributed Work (MIT Press). Dr. Hinds holds a Ph.D. in organizational science and management from Carnegie Mellon University

Shirley S. Ho is a professor of communication in the Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore. She is concurrently the research director for arts, humanities, education, and social sciences in the President’s Office at NTU. She is an internationally renowned scholar in science communication, for which her research focuses on understanding how human values, media, and other advanced modes of communication shape public attitudes toward emerging science and technologies, particularly in Southeast Asia. Her recent studies investigated factors motivating scientists’ public engagement and their roles in tackling misinformation about science. Professor Ho obtained her Bachelor of Communication Studies (1st Class Honors) at NTU in 2002, and her M.A. and Ph.D. in communication from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2005 and 2008, respectively. A multiple award–winning researcher, Professor Ho has received numerous prestigious Best Published Article of the Year Awards and Top Faculty Paper Awards from professional associations such as the International Communication Association and the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC). She is the 2018 recipient of the Hillier Krieghbaum Under-40 Award, conferred by AEJMC for outstanding achievements in research, teaching, and public service. She is the editor-in-chief of the journal Environmental Communication, a member of the AEJMC Elected Standing Committee on Research, and a member of the board of directors at the International Environmental Communication Association.

Rebecca L. Moritz is a biosafety and biosecurity expert with a B.S. in bacteriology and an M.S. in medical microbiology and immunology from the University of Wisconsin (UW)–Madison. She serves as the biosafety director at Colorado State University and is also the responsible official for the university’s Select Agent Program. Previously she was the responsible official and media spokesperson for the UW–Madison Select Agent Program. She was part of the team that responded to all media and community inquires and coordinated outreach efforts. In addition, she was the chair of UW–Madison’s Dual Use Research of Concern Subcommittee, served as the Institutional Contact for Dual Use Research, and was a lead member of the UW–Madison Biosecurity Task Force. She is a Certified Biosafety Professional with the American Biological Safety

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

Association International (ABSA) and a former ABSA Councilor. Currently, Moritz is the president-elect of ABSA and the co-chair of the executive steering committee for ABSA International’s 2021 Biosecurity Symposium. Additionally, she is a Specialist Microbiologist with the National Registry of Certified Microbiologists. Moritz has conducted research in both private-sector and academic laboratories, including in high containment laboratories.

Wibool Piyawattanametha received a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 2004. From 2005 to 2009, he was with the Bio-X Program, Stanford University, as a senior scientist and later become a research associate in 2010. Currently, he is a professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering and a director of the Advanced Imaging Research Center, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. He has authored or co-authored more than 200 peer-reviewed publications, and has contributed 7 book chapters and 5 patents. His h-index is 27. He gave more than 70 keynote or invited talks at prestigious meetings around the world. He is currently serving as the conference chair for the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) in Math Olympiads for Elementary and Middle Schools and Miniaturized Systems XVIII of The Photonics West Conference, California. In 2010, he co-founded and served as an executive member of the Global Young Academy based in Berlin, Germany. In 2011, he received the European Union Erasmus Mundus scholarship. In 2013, he was selected by the World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, to be one of the 40 top scientists. In 2014, he was selected to receive the prestigious Fraunhofer-Bessel Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Berlin, Germany. In 2015, he was awarded the Newton Fund Researcher Links from the British Council, United Kingdom. In 2017, he was selected to be a fellow in Leaders in Innovation Fellowships from The Royal Academy of Engineering, London, United Kingdom. He was appointed as an adjunct professor in the Institute for Quantitative Health Sciences & Engineering at Michigan State University, in 2018. In 2021, he was elected to SPIE fellow status.

Herawati Sudoyo is a member of the Indonesian Academy of Sciences. She is also the head of the Forensic DNA Laboratory and the principal investigator at the Genome Diversity and Diseases Laboratory. She specializes in mitochondria DNA as a powerful genetic marker for population studies. She has specific interests in fundamental information concerning the formation of functional mitochondria in order to understand mitochondrial diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Dr. Sudoyo also is passionate about studying the genetic diversity of Indonesian populations, particularly its association with disease resistance and susceptibility as well as tracing human migration. Her research team is dubbed “Gene Hunter” and has been collecting samples from many places throughout the archipelago, including very remote areas. Using DNA markers, Dr. Sudoyo also played a significant role in perpetrator identification of the 2004 Australian Embassy bombing case, which subsequently led her to establish the Forensic DNA Laboratory in the Eijkman Institute. She also

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

initiates research on Indonesian wildlife forensics and population studies. Dr. Sudoyo is an active member of various local and international organizations, consortia, and scientific panels on forensics DNA, biorisk and biosafety, human genetics, and molecular biology networks. Dr. Sudoyo is an Honorary Associate Professor from Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Australia.

Seema Yasmin is an Emmy Award–winning journalist, medical doctor, and author. Yasmin trained in medicine at the University of Cambridge and in journalism at the University of Toronto. She worked as a hospital doctor in the United Kingdom’s National Health Service before serving as an officer in the U.S. government’s Epidemic Intelligence Service at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she investigated disease outbreaks around the world and served as principal investigator for a number of epidemiologic studies. Yasmin is the director of the Stanford Health Communication Initiative, a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Medicine (division of primary care and population health) at Stanford University, and a visiting assistant professor of health crisis management and communication at the Anderson School of Management at the University of California, Los Angeles. She teaches advanced clinical communication skills to faculty and medical students, health and science journalism, and global health storytelling. Her research focuses on the spread of mis- and disinformation about disease and the ways that false information can fuel epidemics and impact public health. Working at the intersection of epidemiology and communications, she is mapping health information equity across the United States to understand how access to information—now understood to be a determinant of health—influences health outcomes. Yasmin was selected for the John S. Knight Fellowship in Journalism Innovation at Stanford University in 2017 where she studied the spread of false news during epidemics. Previously, she was a science reporter at The Dallas Morning News, and a professor of public health at The University of Texas at Dallas. Her writing on the spread of disease disinformation appears in The New York Times, WIRED, Scientific American, and other outlets. Yasmin was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in breaking news in 2017 for her team’s coverage of a mass shooting. Her unique combined expertise in epidemics, science communication, and journalism has been called on by The Aspen Institute and the Skoll World Forum. She offered expert testimony to the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues during its investigation of the role of journalism during the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic. Yasmin is the recipient of two writing awards from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, as well as writing scholarships and artist residencies from the Mid Atlantic Arts Council, The Millay Colony for the Arts, and others. Her first book, The Impatient Dr. Lange, is the biography of a pioneering AIDS scientist who was killed on Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 when it was shot down over Ukraine in 2014. She is the author of three other books including a popular science title about the spread of health mis- and disinformation.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page59
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page60
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page61
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page62
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page63
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page64
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page65
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26466.
×
Page66
Addressing Inaccurate and Misleading Information About Biological Threats Through Scientific Collaboration and Communication in Southeast Asia Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Misinformation about outbreaks, epidemics, and pandemics is a decades-old problem that has been exacerbated by the rise of the internet and the widespread use of social media. Some false claims may be addressed through sound scientific analysis, suggesting that scientists can help counter misinformation by providing evidence-based, scientifically defensible information that may discredit or refute these claims. This report explains how scientists can work collaboratively across scientific disciplines and sectors to identify and address inaccuracies that could fuel mis- and disinformation. Although the study focused on a scientific network primarily in Southeast Asia, it is relevant to scientists in other parts of the world. A companion "how-to-guide", available in print and in digital form, outlines practical steps that scientists can take to assess mis- or disinformation, determine whether and how they should address it, and effectively communicate the corrective information they develop.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!