Police Training to
Promote the Rule of
Law and Protect the
Committee on Evidence to Advance Reform in the
Global Security and Justice Sectors
Committee on Law and Justice
Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs of the U.S. Department of State, Award No. SINLEC20CA3213. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27751-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27751-5
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26467
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Police Training to Promote the Rule of Law and Protect the Population. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26467.
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COMMITTEE ON EVIDENCE TO ADVANCE REFORM IN THE GLOBAL SECURITY AND JUSTICE SECTORS
LAWRENCE W. SHERMAN (Chair), University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology
BEATRIZ ABIZANDA, Inter-American Development Bank
YANILDA MARÍA GONZÁLEZ, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
GUY GROSSMAN, University of Pennsylvania
JOHN L. HAGAN, Northwestern University
KAREN HALL, Rule of Law Collaborative, University of South Carolina
CYNTHIA LUM, George Mason University
EMILY OWENS, University of California, Irvine
JUSTICE TANKEBE, University of Cambridge Institute of Criminology
JULIE ANNE SCHUCK, Study Director
JESSALYN BROGAN WALKER, Study Director (through June 2021)
SARAH PERUMATTAM, Senior Program Assistant (through October 2021)
SUNIA YOUNG, Senior Program Assistant (from October 2021)
ABIGAIL ALLEN, Associate Program Officer (from November 2021)
EMILY P. BACKES, Associate Director, Committee on Law and Justice
MEGAN SNAIR, Technical Writer
COMMITTEE ON LAW AND JUSTICE
ROBERT D. CRUTCHFIELD (Chair), University of Washington (retired)
SALLY S. SIMPSON (Vice Chair), University of Maryland
ROD K. BRUNSON, University of Maryland
SHAWN D. BUSHWAY, University at Albany
PREETI CHAUHAN, John Jay College of Criminal Justice
KIMBERLÉ W. CRENSHAW, University of California, Los Angeles
MARK S. JOHNSON, Howard University
CYNTHIA LUM, George Mason University
JOHN M. MACDONALD, University of Pennsylvania
KAREN J. MATHIS, American Bar Association (retired), University of Denver
THEODORE A. MCKEE, United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
SAMUEL L. MYERS, JR., University of Minnesota
EMILY OWENS, University of California, Irvine
CYNTHIA RUDIN, Duke University
WILLIAM J. SABOL, Georgia State University
LINDA A. TEPLIN, Northwestern University Medical School
NATACHA BLAIN, Director
EMILY P. BACKES, Associate Director
This report would not have been possible without the contributions of many people. First, we thank the sponsor of this study, the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, for requesting and supporting this endeavor. We have admired the sponsor’s dedication to an evidence-led approach to further its programming.
Special thanks go to the members of the study committee, who dedicated extensive time, thought, and energy to this report. In addition to its own research and deliberations, the committee received input from several outside sources, whose willingness to share their perspectives and experience was essential to the committee’s work. We thank Eric Beinhart (U.S. Department of Justice, International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program), Rodrigo Canales (Yale School of Management), Hernán Flom (Trinity College), Grace Long (Nigeria Police Force), Tom Parker (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), Jerry Ratcliffe (Temple University), and Scott Wolfe (Michigan State University). The committee also gathered information through two commissioned papers. We thank Lorraine Mazerolle (University of Queensland, Australia) and Tamara D. Herold (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) for their papers and for contributing both to the discussion at the committee’s information gathering workshop and to findings in the report.
The committee also wishes to extend its gratitude to the staff of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, in particular to Jessalyn Brogan Walker who, as the study director through June 2021, identified and prepared commissioned paper authors and invited speakers for the committee’s workshop and began initial report preparations.
Thanks are also due to Julie Schuck who stepped into the study director role mid-project and provided substantive contributions in the conception, writing, and editing of the report. Emily Backes provided substantive writing and editing contributions and oversight and direction for the project. Sarah Perumattam provided key administrative and logistical support and made sure the committee process ran efficiently and smoothly. Sunia Young and Abigail Allen joined the staff while this report was underway and contributed to seeing it finalized while providing administrative support and background research for the activities in the committee’s remaining series of workshops and reports. From the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, we thank Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, who shepherded the report through the review process, and Douglas Sprunger and Dara Shefska, who assisted with the report’s communication and dissemination. We also thank technical writer Megan Snair for quickly summarizing the presentations and discussions from the committee’s workshop and editor Marc DeFrancis for their skillful writing and editing of the report manuscript.
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Margaret E. Beier, Psychological Sciences, Rice University; Andrew Faull, Justice and Violence Prevention Programme, Institute for Security Studies; Andrea Fischbach, Department for Social, Work, and Organizational Psychology, German Police University; Matthew J. Hickman, Department of Criminal Justice, Criminology & Forensics, Seattle University; George R. Milner, Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University; Peggy M. Schaefer, National Certification Program, International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training; Clifford Shearing, Department of Public Law, University of Cape Town, Griffith Institute of Criminology and School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University, and School of Criminology, University of Montreal; and Michael R. Smith, Department of Criminology & Criminal Justice, The University of Texas at San Antonio.
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alex R. Piquero,
Department of Sociology and Criminology, University of Miami, and Philip J. Cook, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.
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