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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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STRATEGIES and
INTERVENTIONS to
REDUCE SUICIDE

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Alexandra Andrada, Sharyl J. Nass, and Joe Alper, Rapporteurs

Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders

Board on Health Care Services

Board on Health Sciences Policy

Health and Medicine Division

images

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

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This activity was supported by Purchase Order No. 75FCMC19P0036 with the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and Contract No. HHSN263201800029I, Order No. HHSN26300025 with the National Institutes of Health and by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, American Psychological Association, Association for Behavioral Health and Wellness, Council on Social Work Education, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Optum Behavioral Health, Think Bigger Do Good Policy Series (a partnership of the Scattergood Foundation, Peg’s Foundation, Patrick P. Lee Foundation, and Peter & Elizabeth Tower Foundation), U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and Well Being Trust. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-27773-0
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-27773-6
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and interventions to reduce suicide: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26471.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR A WORKSHOP ON STRATEGIES AND INTERVENTIONS TO REDUCE SUICIDE1

MARY ROARY (Co-Chair), Director, Office of Behavioral Health Equity, Office of the Intergovernmental and External Affairs, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

MATTHEW TIERNEY (Co-Chair), President, American Psychiatric Nurses Association; Clinical Professor, University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing; Clinical Director of Substance Use Treatment and Education, University of California, San Francisco, Office of Population Health

ERIN BAGALMAN, Director, Division of Behavioral Health Policy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

MICHAEL F. HOGAN, Principal, Hogan Health Solutions LLC

ANDREW MOON, Associate Director, Education and Training, Suicide Prevention Program, Office of Mental Health and Suicide Prevention, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

JANE PEARSON, Special Advisor to the Director on Suicide Research, National Institute of Mental Health

Project Staff

ALEXANDRA ANDRADA, Director, Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders, and Program Officer

ADRIENNE FORMENTOS, Research Associate (from July 2021)

ANESIA WILKS, Senior Program Assistant

SHARYL NASS, Senior Director, Board on Health Care Services

ANDREW M. POPE, Senior Director, Board on Health Sciences Policy

Consultant

JOE ALPER, Consulting Writer

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the workshop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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FORUM ON MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS1

COLLEEN L. BARRY (Co-Chair), Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

HOWARD H. GOLDMAN (Co-Chair), University of Maryland School of Medicine

MARGARITA ALEGRÍA, Harvard Medical School

ERIN BAGALMAN, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CARLOS BLANCO, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health

DARLA SPENCE COFFEY, Council on Social Work Education

CHRIS M. CROWE, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

W. PERRY DICKINSON, University of Colorado

SYLVIA K. FISHER, Health Resources and Services Administration

RICHARD G. FRANK, Harvard Medical School

PAMELA GREENBERG, Association for Behavioral Health and Wellness

KRISTIN KROEGER, American Psychiatric Association

HUSSEINI K. MANJI, Janssen Research and Development, LLC

R. KATHRYN McHUGH, Harvard Medical School and Mclean Hospital

BEN MILLER, Well Being Trust

ANNIE PETERS, National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers

KATHY PHAM, American College of Clinical Pharmacy

JOE PYLE, Scattergood Foundation

DEIDRA ROACH, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health

MARY ROARY, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

MARTIN ROSENZWEIG, Optum Behavioral Health

GLORINDA SEGAY, Indian Health Service

RUTH SHIM, University of California, Davis

MATTHEW TIERNEY, University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing and Office of Population Health (representing the American Psychiatric Nurses Association)

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

Reviewers1

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

Although the reviewers listed provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by HUGH TILSON, University of North Carolina. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

___________________

1 This text was changed after prepublication release.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

Acknowledgments

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders wishes to express its sincere gratitude to the planning committee co-chairs Mary Roary and Matt Tierney for their valuable contributions to the development and organization of this workshop. The forum wishes to thank all of the members of the planning committee, who collaborated to ensure a workshop complete with informative presentations and rich discussions. Finally, the forum wants to thank the speakers and moderators, who generously shared their expertise and their time with workshop participants.

Support from the many sponsors of the Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders is critical to the forum’s work. The sponsors include the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, American Psychiatric Nurses Association, American Psychological Association, Association for Behavioral Health and Wellness, Council on Social Work Education, Janssen Research & Development, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Optum Behavioral Health, Think Bigger Do Good Policy Series (a partnership of the Scattergood Foundation, Peg’s Foundation, Patrick P. Lee Foundation, and Peter and Elizabeth Tower Foundation), U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, and Well Being Trust. We also thank staff member Ana Ferreras for reading and providing helpful comments on this manuscript.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ASL American Sign Language
ASQ Ask Suicide-Screening Questions
C-SSRS Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CLAS Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CSRE VA Comprehensive Suicide Risk Evaluation
EHR electronic health record
FCC Federal Communications Commission
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
IHS Indian Health Service
IRR incidence rate ratio
LGBTQIA+ lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and/or questioning, intersex, and asexual and/or ally
LOG natural logarithm
MIRECC Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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NIMH National Institute of Mental Health
NOSI Notice of Special Interest
PICOT Population, Intervention, Comparison or Control, Outcome, and Time Period
QPR question, persuade, and refer
Risk ID VA Suicide Risk Identification Strategy
SA/SI suicide attempt/suicide ideation
SAMHSA Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
SWAT Special Weapons and Tactics
TTY teletypewriter
VA U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26471.
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The persistent trends in suicide necessitate action among mental health care providers and payers, researchers, and community leaders. Health care settings provide an important opportunity for suicide intervention and prevention, but they cannot yet fully manage suicide risk because of a lack of training, knowledge gaps, and reimbursement challenges. School, workplace, and community-based interventions can help reduce the incidence of suicidal behavior, as can better access to care and reduced access to lethal means of suicide.

To better understand the strategies to improve access to effective interventions to prevent suicide, the Forum on Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a two-part virtual public workshop, Strategies and Interventions to Reduce Suicide, on June 22, 2021, and July 28, 2021. The first webinar examined the scope of the public health problem, discussed implementation of effective approaches for suicide prevention care, and addressed known barriers to health care access. The second webinar focused on building 9-8-8, the new nationwide emergency number designated to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. Participants discussed current crisis systems, gaps, challenges, and needs for marginalized populations. This Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred during the workshops.

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