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37Â Â American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Roadway Lighting Design Guide, GL-7. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 2018. American Medical Association. Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode Community Lighting, CSAPH Report 2-A-16, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, 2016. Bhagavathula, R., R. B. Gibbons, and M. A. Nussbaum. âEffects of Intersection Lighting Design on Nighttime Visual Performance of Drivers,â Leukos, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2018, pp. 25â43. Bullough, J. D. Lighting Answers: Dynamic Outdoor Lighting, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 2010. Bullough, J. D., E. T. Donnell, and M. S. Rea. âTo Illuminate or Not to Illuminate: Roadway Lighting as it Affects Traffic Safety at Intersections,â Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 65â77. Bullough, J. D., and M. S. Rea. âIntelligent Control of Roadway Lighting to Optimize Safety Benefits per Overall Costs,â 14th Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC, Oct. 5â7, 2011. Buntjer, J. âNobles County Gets Grant for Intersection Lighting,â Worthington Daily Globe, May 23, 2018. Burkhalter, E. âCommission Approves Street Lighting for Alabama 202/Bynum-Leatherwood Intersection,â Anniston Star, Aug. 11, 2016. Cai, H. Kansas Highway LED Illumination Manual: A Guide for the Use of LED Lighting Systems, K-TRAN: KU-15-6, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 2015. Caltrans. âTraffic Signals and Lighting,â In Traffic Manual, Caltrans, Sacramento, CA, 1996. City and County of Denver. Street Lighting Design Guidelines and Details, City and County of Denver, Denver, CO, 2019. City of Lewiston. Street Lighting Policy, City of Lewiston, Lewiston, ME, 2011. Civil, H. âFlorida DOT Investigates Nighttime Street Light Safety at Intersections,â Northwest Florida Daily News, Aug. 6, 2007. Civil Science, Inc. Rural Intersection Conflict Warning System Guidelines, Utah Department of Transportation, Richfield, UT, 2018. Colorado Department of Transportation. âChapter 9: Intersections,â In CDOT Roadway Design Guide, Colorado Department of Transportation, Denver, CO, 2005. Delaware News Desk. âConstruction at Cedar Lane Road, Marl Pit Road Intersection Begins Oct. 14,â Middle- town Transcript, Oct. 11, 2019. Department of Energy. Street Lighting and Blue Light: Frequently Asked Questions, Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 2017. DX3 Head Office. Rural Intersection Solar Lighting Project, Edmonton, AB, DX3 Head Office, 2011. Edwards, C. Lighting Levels for Isolated Intersections: Leading to Safety Improvements, 2015-05, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 2015. Federal Highway Administration. FHWA Lighting Handbook, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012. Findlay, P. âSouth Carolina Leads Nation in Fatality Rate for Rural Roads, Study Says,â Charleston Post and Courier, Jun. 27, 2017. Fitzpatrick, K., S. Chrysler, S. Sunkari, J. Cooper, B.-J. Park, and L. Higgins. Modern Traffic Control Devices to Improve Safety at Rural Intersections, FHWA/TX-12/0-6462-1, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2011. Florida Department of Transportation. Florida Intersection Design Guide 2013, Florida Department of Transporta- tion, Tallahassee, FL, 2013. Frering, D. C., J. D. Bullough, K. Chiang, and L. Boodlal. Web-Based Training for FHWA Roadway Lighting Workshop â Module 4: Other Roadway Lighting Topics, FHWA-SA-18-036, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2018. References
38 Lighting Practices for Isolated Rural Intersections Fuller, K. âState-of-the-Art Conflict Warning System Opens in Brown County,â Highland County Press, Jun. 21, 2019. Gates, T., P. Savolainen, R. Avelar, S. Geedipally, D. Lord, A. Ingle, and S. Stapleton. Safety Performance Functions for Rural Road Segments and Rural Intersections in Michigan, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 2018. Government of Alberta. Safety Measures at Rural Stop-Controlled Intersections, Government of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, 2011. Green, E. R., K. R. Agent, M. L. Barrett, and J. G. Pigman. Roadway Lighting and Driver Safety, KTC-03-12/ SPR247-0201F, Kentucky Transportation Center, Lexington, KY, 2003. Hallmark, S. L., and N. Hawkins. Tech Brief: Intersection Lighting, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 2014. Harford County. Street Lights. Harford County, Bel Air, MD, 2019. Hawaii Department of Transportation. Hawaii Pedestrian Toolbox, Hawaii Department of Transportation, Honolulu, HI, 2013. Hayes, M., and D. Leuer. A Study of the Rural Intersection Conflict Warning System (RICWS), Minnesota Depart- ment of Transportation, St. Paul, MN, 2019. HDR. Independent Technical Review of RICWS Evaluation, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MS, 2019. Hunter, S. 2019. âSister Seeks Safer Kent Intersection where Brother was Killed,â Federal Way Mirror, Sept. 5, 2019. Illinois Department of Transportation. Bureau of Design and Environment Manual, Illinois Department of Transportation, Springfield, IL, 2020. Illuminating Engineering Society. Recommended Practice for Design and Maintenance of Roadway and Parking Facility Lighting, RP-8-18, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY, 2018. Illuminating Engineering Society. IES Board Position on AMA CSAPH Report 2-A-16, Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting, PS-09-17, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY, 2017a. Illuminating Engineering Society. Nomenclature and Definitions for Illuminating Engineering, RP-16, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY, 2017b. Illuminating Engineering Society. Luminaire Classification System for Outdoor Luminaires, TM-15-11, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY, 2011. Illuminating Engineering Society. American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting, RP-8-00, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY, 2000. Institute of Transportation Engineers. âInstall Intersection Lighting,â In Unsignalized Intersection Improvement Guide, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 2014. Iowa Department of Transportation. Rural Intersection and Destination Lighting, Iowa Department of Transpor- tation, Des Moines, IA, 2013. Isebrands, H. N., S. L. Hallmark, W. Li, T. McDonald, R. Storm, and H. Preston. âRoadway Lighting Shows Safety Benefits at Rural Intersections,â Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 11, 2010, pp. 949â955. Isebrands, H., S. Hallmark, Z. Hans, T. McDonald, H. Preston, and R. Storm. Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections â Part II, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN, 2006. Jefferson County Department of Public Works. County Road Intersection Lighting Engineering Study and Report, Jefferson County Department of Public Works, Hillsboro, MO, 2018. Kitsap County. Kitsap County Road Standards, Kitsap County, Port Orchard, WA, 2007. Larimer County. âStreet Lighting,â In Larimer County Urban Area Street Standards, Larimer County, Fort Collins, CO, 2016. Leedy, N. âCrab Orchard Residents Ask for Caution Lights at Dangerous Intersection; State Says No,â Interior Journal, March 14, 2019. Leipholtz, B. âLighting Placed at 15 Rural Intersections: Study Says Lights Improve Safety,â Alexandria Echo Press, Dec. 11, 2017. Lighting Research Center. Response to the 2016 AMA Report on LED Lighting, Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 2016. Lighting Research Center. New Lighting Technologies and Roadway Lighting: An Informational Brochure, New York State Department of Transportation, Albany, NY, 2012. Lund, V., and J. Jackels. âDevelopment of a New Intersection Conflict Warning System in St. Louis County, Minn.,â Roads and Bridges, June 5, 2019. Marks, V. J. Effects of Reduced Intersection Lighting on Nighttime Accident Frequency, HR-1003A. Iowa Depart- ment of Transportation, Ames, IA, 1977. Martin, A. âOfficials Consider Traffic Light at Highway, Gravel Road Intersection,â Dickinson Press, Oct. 10, 2010. Maryland State Highway Administration. âLighting Design,â In Traffic Control Devices Design Manual, Maryland State Highway Administration, Annapolis, MD, 2017. Maze, T. H., J. L. Hochstein, R. R. Souleyrette, H. Preston, and R. Storm. NCHRP Report 650: Median Intersection Design for Rural High-Speed Divided Highways, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2010.
References 39Â Â McColgan, M. Lighting Answers: Light Pollution, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, 2003. Morelli, B. A. âDeadly Urbana Crash Site Wasnât on DOT Radar,â The Gazette, Apr. 14, 2015. Nebraska Department of Transportation. Roadway Design Manual, Nebraska Department of Transportation, Lincoln, NE, 2006. New Hampshire Department of Transportation. Highway Lighting Design Manual, New Hampshire Department of Transportation, Concord, NH, 2010. New Jersey Department of Transportation. Roadway Design Manual, New Jersey Department of Transportation, Trenton, NJ, 2015. New Mexico Department of Transportation. âIllumination,â In New Mexico Department of Transportation Design Manual, New Mexico Department of Transportation, Santa Fe, NM, 2020. North Dakota Department of Transportation. NDDOT Traffic Operations Manual, North Dakota Department of Transportation, Bismarck, ND, 2020. Oregon Department of Transportation. Oregon Intersection Safety Implementation Plan, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, OR, 2012. Pierce County Public Works and Utilities. Manual on Design Guidelines and Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction in Pierce County, Pierce County, Tacoma, WA, 2011. Poon, L. âWhere Light Pollution is Seeping into the Night Sky,â CityLab, Feb. 11, 2020. Preston, H., and T. Schoenecker. Safety Impacts of Street Lighting at Isolated Rural Intersections, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN, 1999. Preston, H., R. Storm, M. Donath, and C. Shankwitz. Review of Georgiaâs Rural Intersection Crashes: Application of Methodology for Identifying Intersections for Intersection Decision Support (IDS), MN/RC 2007-28, St. Paul, MN, 2007. Rea, M. S., J. D. Bullough, C. R. Fay, J. A. Brons, J. Van Derlofske, and E. T. Donnell. Review of the Safety Benefits and Other Effects of Roadway Lighting. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, 2009. Rochester Post-Bulletin. âEight Rural Intersections to Get Lighting,â Rochester Post-Bulletin, Apr. 7, 2010. Rummel, Klepper & Kahl. Intersection Control Beacon Effectiveness Study, Delaware Department of Transpor- tation, Dover, DE, 2019. Russell, J. âPublic Hearing Planned for May 13 on Ind. 2/Heavilin Road Intersection Improvements,â Munster Times, May 6, 2019. Sand, E. âMore Safety Improvements Planned for U.S. Highway 12 West of Aberdeen,â American News, Jan. 11, 2018. South Carolina Department of Transportation. Roadway Design Manual, South Carolina Department of Trans- portation, Columbia, SC, 2017. Stanley Consultants. Lighting Justification Report: SR 847 / NW 47th Avenue, Florida Department of Transporta- tion, Miami, FL, 2013. St. Maryâs County. Street Lighting and Traffic Signals, St. Maryâs County, Leonardtown, MD, 2020. TendersInfo News. âUnited States: Lighting to be Installed at the Intersection of Highways 218, Highway 251,â TendersInfo News, Apr. 11, 2010. Tennessee Department of Transportation. âRoadway and Intersection Lighting,â In Traffic Design Manual, Tennessee Department of Transportation, Nashville, TN, 2018. Texas Department of Transportation. Texas Highway Illumination Manual, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2018. Thomas, R., and A. Kemker. âIberville Sheriff Calls on DOTD to Study Section of LA 1after Numerous Wrecks, Pedestrian Fatalities,â WAFB.com, Aug. 6, 2019. Thompson, J. âSupervisors Approve Street Light at New College Hill Roundabout,â Oxford Eagle, Mar. 4, 2020. Torbic, D. J., D. J. Cook, J. M. Hutton, K. M. Bauer, and J. M. Sitzmann. Advancing Innovative Intersection Safety Treatments for Two-Lane Rural Highways, FHWA-SA-16-003, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2015. Transport Canada. Rural Intersection Safety Handbook, Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON, 2006. TRIP. Rural Connections: Challenges and Opportunities in Americaâs Heartland. TRIP, Washington, DC, 2019. U.S. Official News. âTexas: Office of the Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts Issues Solicitation for âState Let Construction Contract, Safety Lighting at Intersection,â U.S. Official News, Nov. 15, 2017. U.S. Official News. âMinnesota: Rural Intersection Overhead Lighting Installation Begins April 30,â U.S. Official News, Apr. 26, 2012. Utah Department of Transportation. Roadway Lighting Design Guidelines, Utah Department of Transportation, Salt Lake City, UT, 2020. Van Schalkwyk, I., and J. Milton. Part C Quick Reference Guide, Highway Safety Manual. Transportation Research Board Highway Safety Performance Committee, Washington, DC, 2010. Vermont Agency of Transportation. Lighting Design Guide, Vermont Agency of Transportation, Montpelier, VT, 2015.
40 Lighting Practices for Isolated Rural Intersections Virginia Department of Transportation. Roadway Lighting, IIM-TE-390, Virginia Department of Transportation, Richmond, VA, 2019. Vogt, A. Crash Models for Rural Intersections: Four-Lane by Two-Lane Stop-Controlled and Two-Lane by Two-Lane Signalized, FHWA-RD-99-128, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999. Weixel, G. âBismarck Wants Signal for Yegen Intersection,â Bismarck Tribune, Jan. 17, 2017. Wickett, M. âRequest for Intersection Lighting,â Salmon Arm Observer, Apr. 28, 2015. Williams, A. B. âSafety of Van, Intersection Questioned,â News-Press, Apr. 2, 2015. Wisconsin Department of Transportation. Traffic Engineering, Operations and Safety Manual, Wisconsin Depart- ment of Transportation, Madison, WI, 2005. Worthington Daily Globe. âBrief: Work to Begin on Minnesota 60,â Worthington Daily Globe, June 25, 2009. Wortman, R. H., M. E. Lipinski, L. B. Fricke, W. P. Grimwade, and A. F. Kyle. Development of Warrants for Rural At-Grade Intersection Illumination, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1972. Wright County. Rural Intersection Street Lighting Policy, Wright County, Buffalo, MN, 2002. Yakima Herald-Republic. âState Route 410 Repair Work to Begin in June,â Yakima Herald-Republic, Mar. 2, 2012. Zhao, G., S. Li, and Y. Liang. Safety and Cost Performance of Intersection Lighting, FHWA/IN/JTRP-2016/17, West Lafayette, IN, Purdue University, 2016.