National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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2022 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 969 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Washington, DC i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Northeastern University Boston, MA Accessible Design for the Blind Asheville, NC Wayne State University Detroit, MI Subscriber Categories Highways • Pedestrians and Bicyclists • Design Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation, under Agree- ment No. 693JJ31950003. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs iden- tified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the FHWA. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 969 Project 03-133 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-09431-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2021951039 © 2022 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; the FHWA; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 03-133, “Traffic Signal Design and Operations Strategies for Non-Motorized Users,” by Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Northeastern Univer- sity; Accessible Design for the Blind; and Wayne State University. Kittelson & Associates, Inc., was the contractor for this study. The work undertaken by other project team members occurred under subcon- tracts with Kittelson & Associates, Inc. Kevin Lee, Principal Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc., was the principal investigator. Bastian Schroeder, Principal Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc., was project principal. The other authors of this report are Burak Cesme, Senior Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Jennifer Musselman, Senior Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Molly McMormick, Engineering Associate, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Ryan Casburn, Transportation Analyst, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Rachel Grosso, Transportation Analyst, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Tom Urbanik, Senior Principal Engineer, Kittelson & Associates, Inc.; Peter Furth, Professor, Northeastern University; Ray Saeidi, Northeastern University; Janet Barlow, Principal, Accessible Design for the Blind; and Steven Lavrenz, Assistant Professor, Wayne State University. The project team acknowledges Peter Furth, Professor, Northeastern University, for his significant role in the project. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 969 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Waseem Dekelbab, Associate Program Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Camille Crichton-Sumners, Senior Program Officer Tyler Smith, Senior Program Assistant Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Lisa Whittington, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 03-133 PANEL Field of Traffic—Area of Operations and Control David J. Hirsch, Oregon DOT, Bend, OR (Chair) Nithin Agarwal, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL Matthew J. A. Buckley, Whitman, Requardt and Associates, LLP, Wilmington, DE Joanne K. Chalom, In Focus Mobility, Inc., Coral Springs, FL Zachary T. Clark, North Carolina DOT, Garner, NC R. Marshall Elizer, Jr., Gresham Smith & Partners, Nashville, TN Hua Xiang, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD Eddie Curtis, FHWA Liaison

NCHRP Research Report 969: Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists provides practical tools to aid in traffic signal design and the selection of operations strategies for varied geometric design configurations. The guide places emphasis on accessibility for pedestrians and bicyclists, reflecting the increased demand for active and sustainable trans- portation. It will be of immediate use to practitioners responsible for traffic signal design and operations. Pedestrians and bicyclists share the road with motor vehicles, making short trips that traverse signalized intersections in urban and rural settings. Traffic signal timing is typi- cally optimized for motor vehicles, and delays at signalized intersections tend to affect pedestrians disproportionately when compared to motor vehicles. Such delays may be attributed to many factors, including the traditional focus on prioritizing vehicular move- ment, geometric features and constraints, or other infrastructure-related limitations at sig- nalized intersections. TRB’s Highway Capacity Manual: A Guide for Multimodal Mobility Analysis states that delays greater than 30 seconds are associated with increased frustration and risky behaviors, leading to pedestrian noncompliance. In an effort to reduce fatalities and injuries, state and local transportation agencies seek to improve traffic signal timing for non-motorized users. Under NCHRP Project 03-133, “Traffic Signal Design and Operations Strategies for Non- Motorized Users,” Kittelson & Associates, Inc., evaluated trends in traffic signal design and operations strategies for signalized intersections with multimodal infrastructure and inter- sections with varied geometric design configurations, then developed a guide to address the needs of non-motorized users. The research team identified tools, performance measures, and related policy issues aimed to help agencies design and operate signalized intersections in a way that improves safety and service for pedestrians and bicyclists while balancing the needs of all road users. In addition to the published report, three PowerPoint presentations are available on TRB’s website at www.trb.org by searching for “NCHRP Research Report 969.” The presentations are as follows: Summary Overview Integrating Pedestrians and Bicycles at Signalized Intersections Pedestrian Recall and Actuation Research: Preliminary Findings The contractor’s conduct of research report is available for practitioners on the project webpage (http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=4357). F O R E W O R D By Camille Crichton-Sumners Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Guidebook Contents 3 1.2 Using the Guidebook 4 Chapter 2 Understanding User Needs and Establishing Priorities 4 2.1 Identifying and Prioritizing Non-motorized Users 5 2.2 Pedestrian and Bicyclist Needs 8 2.3 Establishing Objectives and Priorities 9 2.4 Understanding Agency Capabilities 10 Bibliography 11 Chapter 3 Performance Measures Related to Serving Pedestrians and Bicyclists 11 3.1 Crash and Other Safety Data 12 3.2 Pedestrian, Bicycle, and Conflicting Vehicle Counts 13 3.3 Average Pedestrian Delay 13 3.4 Pedestrian Delay Formulas for Pretimed, Actuated, and Multistage Crossings 16 3.5 Bicycle Delay and Average Operating Speed 16 3.6 Accessibility and Intersection Layout Measures 16 3.7 Performance Data from Traffic Signal Systems 19 Bibliography 20 Chapter 4 Signal Timing Basics 20 4.1 Understanding Signal Systems 20 4.2 Pedestrian Intervals 22 4.3 Pedestrian Call Modes: Actuated or Recall 23 4.4 Accessible Pedestrian Signals 24 4.5 Signal Timing Principles for Bicycles 24 4.6 Traffic Signal Controller Elements Overview 26 Bibliography 27 Chapter 5 Introduction to Treatments 27 5.1 Treatment Organization 28 5.2 Overview of Treatments 31 Chapter 6 Treatments that Reduce or Eliminate Conflicts with Turning Traffic 32 6.1 Protected-Only Left Turns to Address Non-motorized User Conflicts 39 6.2 Concurrent-Protected Crossings 45 6.3 Exclusive Pedestrian and Bicycle Phases 50 6.4 Channelized Right Turns/Delta Islands 57 6.5 Leading Pedestrian Intervals C O N T E N T S

64 6.6 Delayed Turn/Leading Through Intervals 71 6.7 Pedestrian Overlaps with Leading Pedestrian Intervals and Vehicular Holds 75 6.8 No Turn on Red 79 6.9 Flashing Pedestrian and Bicycle Crossing Warnings 85 Chapter 7 Treatments that Reduce Pedestrian and Bicycle Delays 86 7.1 Short Cycle Length 91 7.2 Reservice 95 7.3 Maximizing Walk Interval Length 100 7.4 Pedestrian Clearance Settings for Better Serving Slower Pedestrians 106 7.5 Pedestrian Recall versus Actuation 110 7.6 Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons 115 Chapter 8 Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 116 8.1 Pedestrian Countdown 119 8.2 Call Indicators 124 8.3 Independently Mounted Pushbuttons 128 8.4 Accessible Signals without Pushbutton Actuation 131 Chapter 9 Treatments Addressing Special Bicycle Needs 132 9.1 Minimum Green and Change Interval Settings for Bicycle Clearance 139 9.2 Signal Progression for Bicycles 144 9.3 Two-Stage Left-Turn Progression for Bicycles 149 9.4 Bicycle Detection 153 9.5 Bicycle Wait Countdown 155 9.6 Easing Bicycle Right Turn on Red Restrictions 160 Chapter 10 Techniques for Multistage Crossings 161 10.1 Multistage Crossings 166 10.2 Left-Turn Overlap for Pedestrian Half-Crossings 171 10.3 Single-Pass Bicycle Crossings with Two-Stage Pedestrian Crossings

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In the United States, traffic signal timing is traditionally developed to minimize motor vehicle delay at signalized intersections, with minimal attention paid to the needs of pedestrians and bicyclists. The unintended consequence is often diminished safety and mobility for pedestrians and bicyclists.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 969: Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists is a guidebook that provides tools, performance measures, and policy information to help agencies design and operate signalized intersections in a way that improves safety and service for pedestrians and bicyclists while still meeting the needs of motorized road users.

Supplemental to the report are presentations of preliminary findings, strategies, and summary overview.

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