National Academies Press: OpenBook

Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists (2022)

Chapter: Chapter 5 - Introduction to Treatments

« Previous: Chapter 4 - Signal Timing Basics
Page 27
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Introduction to Treatments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Introduction to Treatments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
×
Page 28
Page 29
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Introduction to Treatments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
×
Page 29
Page 30
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 - Introduction to Treatments." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Page 30

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27   This guidebook describes a toolbox of treatments to better address the needs of non-motorized users at signalized intersections. This chapter introduces the treatments and provides additional instruction on treatment selection. 5.1 Treatment Organization The treatments presented in the toolbox can be categorized in a multitude of ways, including by user, implementation types, and supported operational and safety objectives. For this docu- ment, the primary categorization is based on intended outcome. Each of the following chapters covers a different intended outcome, organized as follows: Chapter 6: Treatments that Reduce or Eliminate Conflicts with Turning Traffic Treatments in this chapter address conflicts with turning traffic, an important safety con- cern for both pedestrians and bicycles. There is a range of treatments, including some that fully separate pedestrians and bicycles from turning-vehicle movements in time, some that separate them for an initial interval (when the conflict is most intense), and warning treatments aimed at improving yield compliance. Chapter 7: Treatments that Reduce Pedestrian and Bicycle Delays This chapter describes treatments aimed at reducing delay for pedestrians and bicycles and at accommodating slower pedestrians. The treatments are grouped by those that reduce effec- tive red time, treatments that increase effective green time for pedestrians, and treatments that emphasize demand responsiveness to balance vehicle and pedestrian impacts. Chapter 8: Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience This chapter describes treatments aimed at providing information to pedestrians and bicycles to reduce traveler stress and uncertainty, as well as treatments aimed at improving the physical convenience of crossing a street. Chapter 9: Treatments Addressing Special Bicycle Needs This chapter describes treatments that address needs specific to bicyclists including change interval settings, signal progression, and detection. Chapter 10: Techniques for Multistage Crossings This chapter describes techniques for reducing delay and improving safety at multistage crossings. C H A P T E R 5 Introduction to Treatments

28 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists The content for each treatment follows a consistent structure to make it easy to use and utilizes the following categories: • Basic Description: Alternative Names; Description and Objective; Variations; and Operating Context; • Applications and Expected Outcomes: National and International Use; Benefits and Impacts; • Considerations: Accessibility Considerations; Guidance; Other Instruction; Relationships to Relevant Treatments; and • Implementation Support: Equipment Needs and Features; Phasing and Timing; Signage and Striping; Geometric Elements. Examples are embedded within each treatment description. 5.2 Overview of Treatments Although the treatments are organized into sections by their primary objective, a given treat- ment may help address several objectives. Exhibit 5-1 lists the 28 treatments and whether they apply to pedestrians and/or to bicycles; the primary objective(s) they address; and whether their application is likely to require new equipment or geometric changes. Requirements indi- cated in this table are for the most probable, anticipated applications, given that there may be applications with greater or fewer requirements.

Introduction to Treatments 29   Section Treatment Implementation Strategy Mode User Needs Sa fe ty a nd C om fo rt M in im iz in g De la y Im pr ov in g Ea se o f U se a nd In fo rm ati on Ac ce ss ib ili ty 6. Re du cti on or E lim in at io n of Co nfl ic ts w ith T ur ni ng T ra ffi c 6.1 Protected-Only Left Turns to Address Non-motorized User Conflicts Operational Pedestrians and bicycles X 6.2 Concurrent-Protected Crossings Operational Pedestrians and bicycles X 6.3 Exclusive Pedestrian and Bicycle Phases Operational Pedestrians and bicycles X X 6.4 Channelized Right Turns/Delta Islands Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians and bicycles X 6.5 Leading Pedestrian Intervals Operational Pedestrians X 6.6 Delayed Turn/Leading Through Intervals Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians and bicycles X 6.7 Pedestrian Overlaps with Leading Pedestrian Intervals and Vehicular Holds Operational Pedestrians X X 6.8 No Turn on Red Geometric/equipment Pedestrians and bicycles X 6.9 Flashing Pedestrian and Bicycle Crossing Warnings Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians and bicycles X X 7. Re du cti on o fP ed es tr ia n an d Bi cy cl e De la y 7.1 Short Cycle Length Operational Pedestrians and bicycles X 7.2 Reservice Operational Pedestrians and bicycles X 7.3 Maximizing Walk Interval Length Operational Pedestrians X X 7.4 Pedestrian Clearance Settings for Better Serving Slower Pedestrians Operational Pedestrians X X 7.5 Pedestrian Recall versusActuation Operational Pedestrians X X 7.6 Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians X X X X Exhibit 5-1. Toolbox treatments. (continued on next page)

30 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists Section Treatment Implementation Strategy Mode User Needs Sa fe ty a nd C om fo rt M in im iz in g De la y Im pr ov in g Ea se o f U se a nd In fo rm ati on Ac ce ss ib ili ty 8. A dd ed In fo rm ati on a nd Co nv en ie nc e 8.1 Pedestrian Countdown Geometric/equipment Pedestrians X X 8.2 Call Indicators Geometric/equipment Pedestrians and bicycles X X X 8.3 Independently Mounted Pushbuttons Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians X X X 8.4 Accessible Signals without Pushbutton Actuation Geometric/ equipment Pedestrians X X 9. S pe ci al B ic yc le N ee ds 9.1 Minimum Green and Change Interval Settings for Bicycle Clearance Operational Bicycles X 9.2 Signal Progression for Bicycles Operational Bicycles X 9.3 Two-Stage Left-Turn Progression for Bicycles Geometric/ equipment Bicycles X X X 9.4 Bicycle Detection Geometric/equipment Bicycles X X 9.5 Bicycle Wait Countdown Geometric/equipment Bicycles X 9.6 Easing Bicycle Right Turn on Red Restrictions Operational Bicycles X 10 .M ul tis ta ge C ro ss in gs 10.1 Multistage Crossings Geometric/equipment Pedestrians X 10.2 Left-Turn Overlap for Pedestrian Half-Crossings Operational Pedestrians X 10.3 Single-Pass Bicycle Crossings with Two-Stage Pedestrian Crossings Operational Bicycles X Exhibit 5-1. (Continued).

Next: Chapter 6 - Treatments that Reduce or Eliminate Conflicts with Turning Traffic »
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In the United States, traffic signal timing is traditionally developed to minimize motor vehicle delay at signalized intersections, with minimal attention paid to the needs of pedestrians and bicyclists. The unintended consequence is often diminished safety and mobility for pedestrians and bicyclists.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 969: Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists is a guidebook that provides tools, performance measures, and policy information to help agencies design and operate signalized intersections in a way that improves safety and service for pedestrians and bicyclists while still meeting the needs of motorized road users.

Supplemental to the report are presentations of preliminary findings, strategies, and summary overview.

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