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Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists (2022)

Chapter: Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 8 - Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26491.
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115   This chapter describes treatments aimed at providing pedestrians with information to reduce traveler stress and uncertainty, as well as treatments aimed at improving the physical conven- ience of crossing a street: C H A P T E R 8 Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience Primary Function Section Treatment Name Information 8.1 Pedestrian Countdown 8.2 Call Indicators Convenience and information 8.3 Independently Mounted Pushbuttons 8.4 Accessible Signals without Pushbutton Actuation Pedestrian Countdown (Section 8.1). Pedestrian countdowns have become mainstream within the last decade, though they are still not employed everywhere. Section 8.1 discusses, among other things, the practice followed by at least one American city to run the count- down during the Walk interval as well as during FDW, thus providing more informa- tion—and more certainty—to crossing pedestrians. Call Indicators (Section 8.2). This treatment describes call indicators, lights that come on when a call is registered. They can be used with pushbuttons for pedestrians and with pas- sive detection using inductive loops for bicycles. In both cases, the waiting pedestrian or cyclist is reassured that a call has been registered, leading to less stress and greater compliance. Independently Mounted Pushbuttons (Section 8.3). This section defines independently mounted pushbuttons as mounted on their own pole rather than on a pole supporting other traffic signal equipment. That way, pushbuttons for the two crosswalks that typically meet at a corner can be ideally situated to improve pedestrians’ convenience and make it unambiguous as to which pushbutton goes with which crossing. Situating pushbuttons to avoid ambiguity is particularly important for visually impaired pedestrians who rely on audible signals—typically housed in pushbutton units—to know when it is safe to cross. Accessible Signals without Pushbutton Actuation (Section  8.4). This treatment covers pedestrian signals that provide audible and tactile signals for a pedestrian phase on recall, without creating the expectation that pedestrians must push a button in order to be served. In today’s market, accessible signal functions are typically packaged within pushbutton units, creating confusion as to whether pedestrian recall is compatible with accessibility and creating a challenge for how to provide accessibility without misleading pedestrians.

116 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists 8.1 Pedestrian Countdown 8.1.1 Basic Description 8.1.1.1 Alternative Names None. 8.1.1.2 Description and Objective Pedestrian countdowns display the number of seconds remaining until the end of the Flashing Don’t Walk (FDW) interval. The countdown typically starts at the beginning of FDW, called the “pedestrian clearance interval” in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD, 2009). Providing this information aims to improve pedestrian compliance and safety and to make the crossing experience less stressful. 8.1.1.3 Variations While the MUTCD says that the countdown should begin with FDW, some locations begin the countdown at the beginning of the Walk interval. 8.1.1.4 Operating Context According to the MUTCD, Section 4E.07, all pedestrian signals must have a countdown display if their FDW interval (called “pedestrian change interval” in the MUTCD) is longer than 7 s. There is no prohibition on countdowns that run for 7 s or less. This rule, which took effect with the 2009 edition of the MUTCD, applies to any signal that is new or substantially modified. 8.1.2 Applications and Expected Outcomes 8.1.2.1 National and International Use The use of pedestrian countdowns is widespread throughout the United States. At many intersections in Washington, DC, and a few locations elsewhere in the U.S., the countdown runs during the Walk interval as well as the FDW. The District of Columbia is the only jurisdiction to adopt a modified MUTCD guideline allowing countdown timing during the Walk interval (District of Columbia, 2008). 8.1.2.2 Benefits and Impacts Many studies have found that countdowns reduce pedestrian crashes and conflicts. One study found a crash modification factor (CMF) of 0.75 for pedestrian crashes when traditional Walk/ Don’t Walk pedestrian signals were replaced with pedestrian countdown signal heads (Markowitz et al., 2006). Another study found CMFs of 0.45 to 0.30 and also found that countdown timers reduced pedestrian–vehicle conflicts by 55%–70% (Van Houten et al., 2012). A recent study of more than 300 intersections in Philadelphia, PA, and Charlotte, NC, found that after count- down signals were installed, total crashes fell by 8% and pedestrian-related crashes fell by 9%. These improvements were statistically significant at 95% and 90% confidence levels, respectively (Srinivasan et al., 2019). One meta-study found that countdowns led to pedestrian crash rate reductions ranging from 70% (citywide in Detroit, MI) to no statistically significant effect, as cited in PedSafe (Huitema et al., 2014; Markowitz et al., 2006; and Camden et al., 2011). One large Toronto, Ontario, study found that installing pedestrian countdowns resulted in an overall reduction in crashes but with mixed results by age group (Rothman et al., 2017). Another Toronto study found an almost

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 117   32% reduction in crashes, with consistent results by age and severity except for a particularly large decrease in crashes involving pedestrians age 65 and older (Kwigizile et al., 2016). PedSafe’s review of the evidence finds mixed results on the impact of pedestrian countdown on Walk signal compliance, with some studies showing a decrease in compliance and some studied sites showing an increase. A decline in compliance as measured by pedestrian depar- tures after the Walk interval ends should not be surprising—with a countdown, people see the remaining time and decide whether to cross based on that and their own walking speed. How- ever, pedestrian countdowns are likely to improve compliance when measured by the number of pedestrians who failed to clear the intersection before conflicting traffic is released. California recently changed its traffic code so that pedestrians are no longer considered non-compliant if they clear the intersection before conflicting traffic is released, even if they did not begin to cross during the Walk interval. A study in Washington, DC, found there were no statistically significant changes in pedes- trian behavior between intersections whose countdown starts with the Walk interval and those whose countdown starts with FDW. They also found that most pedestrians prefer the count- down to start during the Walk interval (Arhin et al., 2011). 8.1.3 Considerations 8.1.3.1 Accessibility Considerations When a countdown starts with the Walk interval, pedestrians with low vision may have prob- lems distinguishing the countdown numbers from the flashing hand since both are orange and both flash. Displaying the countdown numbers with the walking man indication may cause confusion (Harkey et al., 2007). At this time, the MUTCD does not allow an audible countdown, although some manu- facturers offer that option. According to the MUTCD (2009), Section 4E.11, Paragraph 25: “Standard: Following the audible Walk indication, accessible pedestrian signals shall revert to the pushbutton locator tone (see Section 4E.12) during the pedestrian change interval.” The main reason for this is that the continuous sound of the countdown speech may mask vehicular sounds that pedestrians who are visually impaired need to be able to hear. 8.1.3.2 Guidance Per the MUTCD (2009), Section 4E.07, Standard, all pedestrian signal heads used at cross- walks where the pedestrian change interval is more than 7 s shall include a pedestrian change interval countdown display to inform pedestrians of the number of seconds remaining in the change interval. 8.1.3.3 Relationships to Relevant Treatments Countdown device limitation can affect pedestrian clearance settings for serving slower pedestrians (see Section 7.4). Countdowns must be configured to reach their zero point at the moment the FDW interval ends. The software that controls countdowns often allows them to be configured with a zero point at the start of yellow or end of yellow, but not in between. As explained in Section 7.4, it can be desirable to have FDW end partway through the yellow interval, but this limitation prevents that. Countdown manufacturers could easily remove this limitation. 8.1.3.4 Other Considerations Not applicable for this treatment.

118 Trafc Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists 8.1.4 Implementation Support 8.1.4.1 Equipment Needs and Features is treatment requires pedestrian signal heads with countdowns. e countdown should be displayed simultaneously with the ashing upraised hand (symbolizing Don’t Walk) signal indication for that crosswalk, as shown in Exhibit 8-1. 8.1.4.2 Phasing and Timing Not applicable for this treatment. 8.1.4.3 Signage and Striping Not applicable for this treatment. 8.1.4.4 Geometric Elements Not applicable for this treatment. Bibliography Arhin, S. A., Noel, E. C., & Lakew, M. (2011). Evaluation of Two Countdown Pedestrian Signal Displays for Pedestrian Safety. WIT Transactions on the Built Environment, 117, 349–359. Camden, A., Buliung, R., Rothman, L., Macarthur, C., & Howard, A. (2011). e Impact of Pedestrian Count- down Signals on Pedestrian–Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Injury Prevention, 18(4), 210–215. District of Columbia. (2008). Municipal Regulation 18 §2100.2(b). Harkey, D. L., Carter, D. L., Barlow, J. M., & Bentzen, B. L. (2007). NCHRP Web-Only Document 117A: Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Huitema, B., Van Houten, R., & Manal, H. (2014). An Analysis of the Eects of Installing Pedestrian Countdown Timers on the Incidence of Pedestrian Crashes in the City of Detroit, Michigan (No. 14-0227). Kwigizile, V., Boateng, R. A., Oh, J. S., & Lariviere, K. (2016). Evaluating the Eectiveness of Pedestrian Count- down Signals on the Safety of Pedestrians in Michigan (No. 16-4159). Manual on Uniform Trac Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (2009). FHWA, U.S. DOT. http://mutcd. wa.dot.gov/ Markowitz, F., Sciortino, S., Fleck, J. L., & Yee, B. M. (2006). Pedestrian Countdown Signals: Experience with an Extensive Pilot Installation. ITE Journal, 76(1), 43. Rothman, L., Cloutier, M. S., Macpherson, A. K., Richmond, S. A., & Howard, A. W. (2017). Spatial Distribu- tion of Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions Before and Aer Pedestrian Countdown Signal Installation in Toronto, Canada. Injury Prevention, 25(2), 110–115. Srinivasan, R., Lan, B., Carter, D., Smith, S., Signor, K., & Persaud, B. (2019). Safety Evaluation of Pedestrian Countdown Signals (No. FHWA-HRT-19-045). Oce of Safety Research and Development, FHWA. Source: MUTCD (2009), Figure 4E-1. Exhibit 8-1. Typical pedestrian signal indication with Walk countdown.

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 119   omas, L., irsk, N. J., & Zegeer, C. V. (2016). Application of Pedestrian Crossing Treatments for Streets and Highways (No. Project 20-05 [Topic 46-10]). U.S. Access Board. (2001). Building a True Community: Final Report, Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee. Washington, DC. Van Houten, R., LaPlante, J., & Gustafson, T. (2012). Evaluating Pedestrian Safety Improvements (Report RC-1585). Michigan Department of Transportation. 8.2 Call Indicators 8.2.1 Basic Description 8.2.1.1 Alternative Names Pilot light. 8.2.1.2 Description and Objective A call indicator is a light that provides real-time feedback to bicycles or pedestrians, con- rming that their call for service has been registered (see Exhibit 8-2). Call indicators are gen- erally used in connection with elevator pushbuttons, but in the U.S., they have only recently become common in connection with pedestrians calling for a crossing phase. e purpose of call indicators is to reassure pedestrians and cyclists that their call has been received and that their phase will come up. is helps improve pedestrian comfort and can also lead to an increase in pedestrian and cyclist red-light compliance. Without a call indicator, pedestrians may not know whether they need to push a button to get service. One example is when another pedestrian has already arrived, yet he or she did not press the button; new arrivals may assume that the button has been pressed. At intersections where the pedestrian phase is on recall for only part of the day, a person accustomed to getting the Walk signal without pushing the button during one period of the day may be surprised when Exhibit 8-2. Typical American accessible pedestrian signal with the call indicator illuminated.

120 Trafc Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists the same does not happen in another period of the day. Another example is when a pedestrian phase is on recall, but a pushbutton is present as part of an accessible pedestrian signal (APS) (see Section 8.4). In these situations, a call indicator informs pedestrians of their need to push the button and helps ensure that pedestrians receive a crossing phase. 8.2.1.3 Variations Most call indicators are part of a pushbutton assembly. Call indicators can also be indepen- dent of a pushbutton when another means of detection is used, such as cameras or in-pavement loop detectors for detecting bicycles. 8.2.1.4 Operating Context Call indicators for pedestrian crossings should be considered wherever there is a pedestrian pushbutton. Likewise, call indicators for bicycle crossings should be considered wherever bicycle phases are actuated (i.e., anywhere a bicycle phase might be skipped if a bicycle is not detected). 8.2.2 Applications and Expected Outcomes 8.2.2.1 National and International Use In many European countries, call indicators have long been integrated with pedestrian push- buttons. In the United Kingdom, the standard pedestrian pushbutton includes a large, lighted “Wait” message that illuminates aer the button is pressed (see Exhibit 8-3). In the Netherlands, pedestrian pushbuttons have indicator lights either above or surrounding the pushbutton. In the U.S., call indicators are present wherever APS are used. When pressed, a voice says “Wait” and a small red light illuminates and stays lit until the Walk phase begins. e indicator lights on common APS models are small and dark, so pedestrians may not notice or understand them. Source: Jim Ellwanger/CC BY-NC 2.0. Exhibit 8-3. Standard pushbutton in the United Kingdom.

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 121   Call indicators for bicycles are unknown in the U.S. outside of Portland, OR. In the Nether- lands, they are used at all intersections where a bicycle phase depends on detection (bicycles are typically detected using in-pavement inductive loops, with a pushbutton as backup). e call indicator is part of the pushbutton assembly. It illuminates when a call is registered, whether the bicycle was detected by the pushbutton or by the loop detector. If the loop detector works as intended, bicyclists will see the call detector illuminate before they stop and will know that they do not need to push the button. e following photo shows the bicycle pushbutton assembly (yellow), an illuminated call indicator (red light at the top of the pushbutton assembly), and sealed cuts in the pavement indicating an in-pavement loop detector (see Exhibit 8-4). Portland has developed a different kind of call indicator for bicycles: a blue LED (light- emitting diode) placed next to the bicycle signal. An example is shown in Exhibit 8-5, in which the indicator is triggered by an in-pavement inductive loop bicycle detector. Because bicycle signals are located on the far side of the intersection, the indicator light is relatively bright. is style of call indicator repurposes the blue “spy” light that controllers oer as an option for enforcement—the spy light illuminates when a signal is red, shining in the opposite direction so that police ocers downstream can know when a trac signal is red. Portland uses this kind of bicycle call indicator at several intersections. 8.2.2.2 Benets and Impacts Where there are no call indicators, it is common to see pedestrians anxiously press the pushbutton repeatedly. Call indicators reduce this behavior, which supports the idea that they increase pedestrian comfort. Where pedestrians fail to push the button because they did not know it was necessary— perhaps because they think other pedestrians have already pushed it or because they are used to the phase coming up automatically—they may cross anyway when the concurrent phase’s green begins, creating the danger of being caught within the intersection if the phase ends earlier Source: Peter Furth. Exhibit 8-4. Bicycle pushbutton assembly, illuminated call indicator, and in-pavement loop detectors in the Netherlands.

122 Trafc Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists than needed for pedestrians to clear. Van Houten et al. (2006) found that call indicators help avoid this unsafe situation by increasing both button usage and signal compliance. Call indica- tors also help reduce extraneous button pressing, which may improve the lifespan of the buttons. Portland has made some eort to educate cyclists about their blue indicator lights. Boudart et al. (2016) found that nearly 75% of cyclists understood their meaning. Additionally, a before- and-aer study found that bicycle red-light compliance improved signicantly at all nine of the locations studied (Alviani, 2014). 8.2.3 Considerations 8.2.3.1 Accessibility Considerations For signals to be accessible, per the MUTCD (2009), each pushbutton actuation should be accompanied by the speech message, “Wait.” is provides an audible conrmation that a call has been registered, complementing the visible conrmation of a call indicator light. 8.2.3.2 Guidance e MUTCD (2009) states that a call indicator installed with a pedestrian pushbutton must not be illuminated until actuated, and once actuated, it must remain illuminated (i.e., the indicator should be “latching”) until the Walk signal indication is displayed. Note that when a pedestrian phase is on recall, it is actuated by the system—typically when the pedestrian clearance time ends. erefore, using an indicator light with a pedestrian phase that is on recall is consistent with this standard if the light goes out during the Walk interval and then re-illuminates aer it ends. e MUTCD does not provide specic guidance for bicycle call indicators. 8.2.3.3 Relationships to Relevant Treatments Call indicators are helpful for having accessible signals without pushbuttons (see Section 8.4) and in connection with bicycle detection (see Section 9.4). Source: Jonathan Maus/BikePortland. Exhibit 8-5. Bicycle call indicator using blue LED in Portland.

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 123   8.2.4 Implementation Support 8.2.4.1 Equipment Needs and Features Call indicators are usually part of a pushbutton assembly. The only known exception is Portland’s blue-light bicycle call indicators. Pushbuttons for APS also have call-indicator lights and provide audible call conrmations (“Wait”). In addition, there are MUTCD-compliant pushbuttons that come with call indica- tors that can be retrotted into an existing two-wire pushbutton system. ese pushbuttons have their own control unit and are programmed to provide the latching call-indicator func- tion. No special controller features are required. e pedestrian button control unit in the cabinet will monitor the pedestrian phase outputs and provide detector input for the pedes- trian phases. Some pushbutton controllers may require custom programming to illuminate a call indicator based on a system actuation in which the pedestrian phase is on recall. Some pushbuttons on the market allow for an indicator light to be non-latching, meaning it is only lit while the button is depressed. is setting is not currently permitted in the MUTCD for signalized crossings. 8.2.4.2 Phasing and Timing With call indicators that are lit whenever a call is registered, including a system-initiated call, it becomes easier to consider having a pedestrian phase on recall for only part of the day (e.g., daytime or school hours) because the call indicator lets the public know, at all times, when they need to push the button for service. 8.2.4.3 Signage and Striping Because Portland’s blue-light bicycle call indicators are not part of a pushbutton assembly, the City of Portland has added signage to inform cyclists of the meaning of blue light (see Exhibit 8-6). Some agencies use the MUTCD’s Bicycle Detector Pavement Marking to indicate the optimum position for a cyclist to actuate the signal. Source: Jonathan Maus/BikePortland. Exhibit 8-6. Blue-light bicycle call indicator sign to inform cyclists in Portland.

124 Trafc Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists 8.2.4.4 Geometric Elements Not applicable for this treatment. Bibliography Alviani, C. (2014, October 28). e Trac Signal Knows You’re ere. Re:Form. https://medium.com/re-form/ the-trac-signal-knows-youre-there-d9e6d690de Boudart, J., Foster, N., Koonce, P., Maus, J., & Okimoto, L. (2016). Improving the Bicycle Detection Pavement Marking Symbols to Increase Comprehension at Trac Signals. Presented at 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Hagen, L. T. (2005). Selecting the Most Eective ITS Application for Pedestrian Safety in Florida. Florida Depart- ment of Transportation. Harkey, D. L., Carter, D. L., Barlow, J. M., & Bentzen, B. L. (2007). NCHRP Web-Only Document 117A: Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Huang, H. F., & Zegeer, C. V. (2001). An Evaluation of Illuminated Pedestrian Push Buttons in Windsor, Ontario (No. FHWA-RD-00-102). FHWA. Manual on Uniform Trac Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (2009). FHWA, U.S. DOT. http://mutcd. wa.dot.gov/ Van Houten, R., Ellis, R., Sanda, J., & Kim, J.-L. (2006). Pedestrian Push-Button Conrmation Increases Call Button Usage and Compliance. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1982(1), 99–103. 8.3 Independently Mounted Pushbuttons 8.3.1 Basic Description 8.3.1.1 Alternative Names Not applicable for this treatment. 8.3.1.2 Description and Objective Independently mounted pushbuttons are mounted on their own pole or a pole supporting only pedestrian signals (see Exhibit  8-7), rather than on a pole supporting other signal Source: U.S. Access Board (2011b). Exhibit 8-7. Independent poles with pedestrian displays and pushbuttons only.

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 125   equipment. The purpose is to locate pushbuttons for user convenience, to keep push buttons far enough apart that users at a corner can tell which button should be pressed to cross which leg, and to help visually impaired pedestrians better associate audible signals with the correct crosswalk. Independently mounted pushbuttons can be especially valuable where bicyclists use a pushbutton. Bicyclists have less lateral mobility than pedestrians and therefore need a push- button that can be reached from their queuing position. If a pushbutton is too close to the curb, a bicyclist may not be able to reach it without the bicycle’s front wheel encroaching on the street. 8.3.1.3 Variations Not applicable for this treatment. 8.3.1.4 Operating Context Independently mounted pushbuttons can be considered at almost any crossing, particularly at crossings with APS and where bicycles use a pushbutton. 8.3.2 Applications and Expected Outcomes 8.3.2.1 National and International Use In the Netherlands, it is common for bicycle pushbuttons to be on their own short pole (see Exhibit 8-4) and for pedestrian pushbuttons to be on a pole shared only by a pedestrian/bicycle signal. In the U.S., pushbuttons are most often located on poles supporting other signal control equipment, which are often not ideally placed for user functionality. Often, pushbuttons for both crossings at a corner are located on the same pole, making it difficult for users to dis- tinguish which pushbutton corresponds with which crossing. Since 2009, the MUTCD has recommended separating pushbuttons in Section 4E.08, especially where APS are installed. Independently mounted pushbuttons are now a standard product, though still not widely used. On shared-use paths and other locations where cyclists are expected to push a button for service, pushbuttons are often located in such a way that bicyclists cannot reach them without leaving a queuing position (at the ramp) or without encroaching on the roadway if the push- button is too close to the curb. The U.S. currently has no standards for pushbutton locations that serve bicyclists. 8.3.2.2 Benefits and Impacts Independently mounted pushbuttons improve user convenience and decrease confusion about which button to press. They can increase the number of users who use the pushbutton, increase accessibility by allowing pushbuttons to be closer to the curb ramp, and decrease unneeded pedestrian phases caused by users pressing the wrong button or all buttons. A reduc- tion in required pedestrian timing may be possible with a relocated pushbutton if the existing pushbutton is more than 6 ft from the edge of the curb. APS with pushbuttons located close to the curb ramp greatly reduce errors made by visually impaired pedestrians in identifying the correct time to enter a given crosswalk. On corners with independently mounted pushbuttons aligned with the ramp and approximately 3 ft from the curb, the error rate (percent of trials with the pedestrian raising their hand when it was not a Walk signal) was about a third the error rate of all other trials (Harkey et al., 2007).

126 Trafc Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists 8.3.3 Considerations 8.3.3.1 Accessibility Considerations Independently mounted pushbuttons can increase accessibility in several ways. ey can reduce the distance from pushbutton to curb ramp, shortening the eective crossing distance for those who wait by the pushbutton for an audible or vibrotactile signal. ey can also make it easier for pushbuttons to have the separation needed for visually impaired pedestrians to match an audible signal with the right crosswalk. Guidance from the U.S. Access Board (2001) on pushbutton location (see Exhibit 8-8) states that if there are two accessible pushbuttons at a corner, they should be at least 10  apart. And while these guidelines allow pushbuttons to be as much as 5  oset from the edge of the curb ramp, a lateral oset that large is inconvenient to all. If pushbuttons require pedestrians who are visually impaired to deviate from their course of travel to reach the button, they lose some of the orientation gained as they approached the intersection. Intersections where signals are pretimed can still have pushbuttons as part of APS. ose pushbuttons must be located in accordance with guidance on APS, which can require installa- tion of new poles. is issue is particularly common at downtown locations with wide sidewalks and pretimed pedestrian phases, which were not designed with pushbuttons in mind; when they are retrotted for APS, new poles are oen needed. If there is not enough room at an intersection to place the pushbuttons 10  or more apart, they may be placed together on the same pole (U.S. Access Board, 2001). If APS are closer than 10  apart, the audible messages must include the street name, and there must be an additional pushbutton information message providing the street name. 8.3.3.2 Guidance Not applicable for this treatment. 8.3.3.3 Relationships to Relevant Treatments Not applicable for this treatment. The push button shall be mounted adjacent to a clear ground space or a landing on the pedestrian access route leading to the crosswalk. The push button shall be mounted no further than 5 feet from the extension of the crosswalk lines and within 10 feet of the curb. When located at a curb ramp, the push button shall be placed within 24 inches of the top corner of the curb ramp, on the side furthest from the center of the intersection of the roadway. Where there are two accessible pedestrian signals on the same corner, the push buttons shall be mounted on poles separated by at least 10 feet. Source: U.S. Access Board (2001). Exhibit 8-8. Curb ramps at an intersection with APS zones.

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 127   8.3.3.4 Other Considerations Not applicable for this treatment. 8.3.4 Implementation Support 8.3.4.1 Equipment Needs and Features Pedestrian pushbuttons can be placed on short “stub” poles. For example, Florida Depart- ment of Transportation (DOT) (2015) recommends a 4-in. outer diameter aluminum pipe about 5.5  tall for a pedestrian pushbutton post. Putting pedestrian signal heads on their own pole with the pedestrian pushbutton can be an even better solution because it optimally locates both the pushbutton and the pedestrian display (see Exhibit 8-9). 8.3.4.2 Phasing and Timing Not applicable for this treatment. 8.3.4.3 Signage and Striping MUTCD signing requirements for pedestrian pushbuttons in general apply to independently mounted pushbuttons. 8.3.4.4 Geometric Elements e MUTCD (2009) has guidelines regarding pushbutton placement, including the recom- mendation that pushbuttons at a corner serving two crosswalks be placed at least 10  apart, and it provides useful graphics about pushbutton installation with various curb ramp congura- tions. Another resource on APS pushbutton location and curb ramps is Chapter 6 of the Special Report: Accessible Public Rights-of-Way Planning and Design for Alterations at https://www. access-board.gov/prowag/planning-and-design-for-alterations/ (U.S. Access Board, 2007). Where pushbuttons are intended for bicycle use, they should be oset from the edge of the ramp enough that they are not an obstruction but close enough that bicyclists can reach them without going out of their way. ey should be located where a bicyclist can reach the button and wait without encroaching on the road or standing on a steep ramp. Source: U.S. Access Board (2011a). Exhibit 8-9. Independently mounted pushbutton pole example.

128 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists Bibliography Florida Department of Transportation. (2015). Pedestrian Detector Assembly Installation Details. Harkey, D. L., Carter, D. L., Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B. L., Meyers, L., & Scott, A. (2007). NCHRP Web-Only Docu- ment 117B: Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Final Report. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (2009). FHWA, U.S. DOT. http://mutcd. fhwa.dot.gov/ Scott, A. C., Myers, L., Barlow, J. M., & Bentzen, B. L. (2005). Accessible Pedestrian Signals: The Effect of Push- Button Location and Audible “Walk” Indications on Pedestrian Behavior. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1939(1), 69–76. U.S. Access Board. (2001). Building a True Community. Final Report, Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee. Washington, DC. U.S. Access Board. (2007). Special Report: Accessible Public Rights-of-Way Planning and Design for Alterations. Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee. https://www.access-board.gov/prowag/planning-and- design-for-alterations/ U.S. Access Board. (2011a). https://www.access-board.gov/research/prow/common-problems-aps-installation/ introduction/ U.S. Access Board. (2011b). http://accessforblind.org/aps/aps-installation-recommendations/ 8.4 Accessible Signals without Pushbutton Actuation 8.4.1 Basic Description 8.4.1.1 Alternative Names None. 8.4.1.2 Description and Objective For crossings with pedestrian recall, pretimed control, and non-intrusive detection, pedes- trians do not need to push a button to call the pedestrian signal; however, visually impaired pedestrians still need information about the pedestrian phase. APS can provide feedback to pedestrians without requiring that pedestrian phases be actuated. 8.4.1.3 Variations There are no variations to this treatment. 8.4.1.4 Operating Context Accessible signals without pushbutton actuation should be used wherever pedestrian recall or pretimed control is the preferred operating mode and should be used in connection with non- intrusive pedestrian detection, especially when a high number of visually impaired or elderly pedestrians is expected. Designers should be aware that guidelines and local mandates for installing APS—which typically include pushbuttons as an essential element—do not mandate that crossings be pushbutton actuated. 8.4.2 Applications and Expected Outcomes 8.4.2.1 National and International Use Many U.S. cities use APS in connection with crossings that are pretimed or on recall. NYC DOT is installing 150 APS intersections per year, nearly all of them at pretimed locations (D. Nguyen, personal communication, August 16, 2019). In New York, the average cost per unit (including installation) is approximately $1,000, and each four-leg intersection has eight units. 8.4.2.2 Benefits and Impacts APS offer improved accessibility for individuals who are visually impaired at signals where the pedestrian phase is pretimed or on recall. An audible and vibrotactile Walk indication is

Treatments Offering Added Information and Convenience 129   provided whenever the Walk signal is displayed. e pushbutton locator tone helps pedestrians who are visually impaired nd the crosswalk and proper starting location and use the other features of the pushbutton. A tactile arrow aligned with the direction of travel on the crosswalk allows a pedestrian who is visually impaired or who is deaf-blind to conrm which crosswalk the audible and tactile signals correspond to. Research has found that APS improve crossing performance for visually impaired pedestrians since the devices allow more accurate judgments of the onset of the Walk interval, improving safety for visually impaired pedestrians and also reducing their delay (Harkey et al., 2007). Holding in the pushbutton for more than 1 s (an extended button press) may provide addi- tional information, such as a speech message with intersection names, additional intersection geometry information, a louder signal during the next pedestrian phase, or longer pedestrian timing. 8.4.3 Considerations 8.4.3.1 Accessibility Considerations APS help people who are visually impaired and people who have low vision and/or hearing impairments know when the Walk signal is being displayed. ese signals use sound, tactile arrows, and vibrotactile feedback to communicate with pedestrians (see Exhibit 8-10). While most APS pushbuttons are designed to serve a dual function as both standard pedestrian push- buttons and APS, they can be used for their accessible features only, or similar units that lack the pedestrian actuation function can be provided. 8.4.3.2 Guidance Many U.S. cities—including New York, Portland, San Francisco, CA, and Seattle, WA—have policies to install APS when requested by a member of the public and when the location meets other requirements. ese requirements typically mandate that the location is already signalized. Source: San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. Exhibit 8-10. Accessible pedestrian signal example.

130 Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists Minnesota, Maryland, San Francisco, and many municipalities install APS at all reconstructed or newly signalized intersections. The MUTCD (2009) provides guidance on APS, including a requirement that APS clearly indicate which pedestrian crossing is served by each device. Guidance on pushbutton location is provided in Section 8.3 and in the MUTCD, Sections 4E.09–4E.11. 8.4.3.3 Relationships to Relevant Treatments When installing APS, practitioners should consider independently mounted pushbutton place- ment (see Section  8.3). All APS currently on the market in the U.S. provide a latching call indicator or pilot light (see Section 8.2), which allows sighted pedestrians to observe that a call has already been placed. The call indicator can be programmed to illuminate when the system places a call for the pedestrian phase (as it does once every cycle) to let sighted pedestrians know that they do not need to push the button. 8.4.3.4 Other Considerations Not applicable for this treatment. 8.4.4 Implementation Support 8.4.4.1 Equipment Need and Features Standard APS equipment may be used with a button that does not provide pedestrian detec- tion; instead, the button can simply provide additional information for pedestrians with disabili- ties. The call indicator (pilot light or actuation indicator) should be programmed to illuminate automatically each cycle based on the pedestrian phase’s call status. APS may be set to provide the audible and vibrotactile Walk indication whenever the visual Walk indication is displayed (i.e., not only in cycles when its pushbutton is pressed). This pro- vides audible Walk information to all users and has been shown to increase the efficiency of the signal timing. The MUTCD (2009) allows APS to be programmed to provide audible fea- tures only when actuated by the pushbutton; however, this requires pedestrians who are visually impaired to find and use the pushbutton, which can be difficult at some intersections where there are often many pedestrians. 8.4.4.2 Phasing and Timing Not applicable for this treatment. 8.4.4.3 Signage and Striping Signs are sometimes used to communicate that pushing the button is not required to call for a Walk signal. 8.4.4.4 Geometric Elements Not applicable for this treatment. Bibliography Harkey, D. L., Carter, D. L., Barlow, J. M., & Bentzen, B. L. (2007). NCHRP Web-Only Document 117A: Accessible Pedestrian Signals: A Guide to Best Practices. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways. (2009). FHWA, U.S. DOT. http://mutcd. fhwa.dot.gov/

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In the United States, traffic signal timing is traditionally developed to minimize motor vehicle delay at signalized intersections, with minimal attention paid to the needs of pedestrians and bicyclists. The unintended consequence is often diminished safety and mobility for pedestrians and bicyclists.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 969: Traffic Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians and Bicyclists is a guidebook that provides tools, performance measures, and policy information to help agencies design and operate signalized intersections in a way that improves safety and service for pedestrians and bicyclists while still meeting the needs of motorized road users.

Supplemental to the report are presentations of preliminary findings, strategies, and summary overview.

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