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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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Enhancing Operational Effectiveness
of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly
Degraded Environments

Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned
Aircraft Systems

Abbreviated Version of Full Report

_____

Committee on Maintaining Operational
Effectiveness for U.S. Naval Forces in Highly
Degraded Environments: Ensuring Trusted,
Resilient Data in the Face of Data Warfare (Phase 2)

Naval Studies Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences


Consensus Study Report

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Navy (ref. N00189-16-G-Z001, Delivery Order N0018920F0612). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-29489-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-29489-4
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26493

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26493.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×

COMMITTEE ON MAINTAINING OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS FOR U.S. NAVAL FORCES IN HIGHLY DEGRADED ENVIRONMENTS: ENSURING TRUSTED, RESILIENT DATA IN THE FACE OF DATA WARFARE (PHASE 2)

DONNA M. GREGG, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Co-Chair

KATHERINE A. RINK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, Co-Chair

ARTHUR H. (TRIP) BARBER III, Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc.

MAY CASTERLINE, NVIDIA Corporation

WILLIAM E. GORTNEY, ADM, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant

WILMAN J. GUEVARA, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

WESLEY L. HARRIS, NAE,1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

TERRY P. LEWIS, Booz Allen Hamilton

SCOTT G. LITTLEFIELD, Scientific Systems Company, Inc.

THOMAS G. MACDONALD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory

WEN C. MASTERS, The MITRE Corporation

JEFFREY PICCIOTTO, The MITRE Corporation

MIKEL RODRIGUEZ, The MITRE Corporation

NILS R. SANDELL, JR., Independent Consultant

DENNIS P. SHEA, CNA

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Study Director (beginning July 2021)

CHERIE CHAUVIN, Study Director (December 2020–July 2021)

CHARLES F. DRAPER, Study Director (June 2020–December 2020)

MARTA V. HERNANDEZ, Associate Program Officer

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

RAYMOND S. WIDMAYER, Senior Program Officer (until December 2021)

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×

NAVAL STUDIES BOARD

GARY ROUGHEAD, ADM, USN (Ret.), Hoover Institution, Stanford University, Chair

ARTHUR H. (TRIP) BARBER III, Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc.

JAMES G. BELLINGHAM, NAE,1 Johns Hopkins Institute for Assured Autonomy

WILLIAM E. GORTNEY, ADM, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant

DONNA M. GREGG, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

CECIL D. HANEY, ADM, USN (Ret.), Independent Consultant

STEVEN B. LIPNER, NAE, SAFECode

WEN C. MASTERS, The MITRE Corporation

KATHERINE A.W. MCGRADY, CNA

JOSÉ M.F. MOURA, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University

KATHERINE A. RINK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory

SEAN J. STACKLEY, L3Harris Technologies

MICHAEL STEVENS, MCPON, USN (Ret.), Navy League of the United States

SCOTT SWIFT, ADM, USN (Ret.), The Swift Group, LLC

Staff

ELLEN CHOU, Director (beginning December 2020)

CHARLES F. DRAPER, Director (until December 2020)

CHERIE CHAUVIN, Associate Director/Senior Program Officer (until July 2021)

MARTA V. HERNANDEZ, Associate Program Officer

MARGUERITE SCHNEIDER, Administrative Coordinator

RAYMOND S. WIDMAYER, Senior Program Officer (until December 2021)

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Sharon Beermann-Curtin, STRATCON, LLC,

Priscilla E. Guthrie, Institute for Defense Analyses,

Jeffrey E. Kline, Naval Postgraduate School,

Heidi C. Perry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory, and

Stephen Wallach, NAE,1 Independent Consultant.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Gen. Lester Lyles, USAF (Ret.), NAE. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

__________________

1 Member, National Academy of Engineering.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
PageR7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Enhancing Operational Effectiveness of U.S. Naval Forces in Highly Degraded Environments: Autonomy and Artificial Intelligence in Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Abbreviated Version of Full Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26493.
×
PageR8
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At the request of the Chief of Naval Operations, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conducted a classified study that examined U.S. Naval Forces' capabilities to maintain operational effectiveness in the face of an adversary's efforts to deny and degrade mission-critical data. This abbreviated version of the report includes the information available for the public.

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