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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

2022 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 233 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation • Railroads • Safety and Human Factors Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Volume 2: Research Overview Jeffery E. Warner Dahye Lee Amber B. Trueblood James C. Cline, Jr. Neal A. Johnson Andrew Christjoy Texas A&M Transportation Institute The Texas A&M University System College Station, TX

TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 233, VOLUME 2 Project A-44 ISSN 2572-3782 ISBN 978-0-309-68697-6 © 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the graphical logo are trade- marks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FTA, GHSA, NHTSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transporta- tion Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board does not develop, issue, or publish standards or speci- fications. The Transportation Research Board manages applied research projects which provide the scientific foundation that may be used by Transportation Research Board sponsors, industry associations, or other organizations as the basis for revised practices, procedures, or specifications. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names or logos appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement out- lining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooper- ating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engi- neering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, des- ignated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Com- mission. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Commission to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Commission defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to https://www.mytrb.org/MyTRB/Store/default.aspx Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation improvements and innovation through trusted, timely, impartial, and evidence-based information exchange, research, and advice regarding all modes of transportation. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 8,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 233, VOLUME 2 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Mariela Garcia-Colberg, Senior Program Officer Emily Griswold, Program Coordinator Natalie Barnes, Director of Publications Heather DiAngelis, Associate Director of Publications Kami Cabral, Editor TCRP PROJECT A-44 Field of Operations David C. Wilcock, VHB, Boston, MA (Chair) Sarah A. Kline, Operation Lifesaver, Inc., Washington, DC Rodney P. Massman, Missouri Public Service Commission, Columbia, MO Michael J. Moore, Sr., LA Metro (retired), Altadena, CA Jahmal M. Pullen, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Raleigh, NC Ian P. Savage, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Justin R. Vonashek, MTA Metro North Railroad, New York, NY Kurt Wilkinson, Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District, Portland, OR George Good, FTA Liaison Steven Schuster, FTA Liaison Brian Thomas Alberts, APTA Liaison The research reported herein was performed under TCRP Project A-44 by the Texas A&M Transporta- tion Institute (TTI), part of The Texas A&M University System. Jeffery E. Warner, TTI associate research scientist, was the principal investigator. The other authors of this report were Dahye Lee, Amber Trueblood, Jim Cline, Neal Johnson, and Andrew Christjoy. The work was performed under the general supervision of Mr. Warner. The authors wish to acknowledge the many agencies and individuals that contributed to this research by participating in the online surveys and case study meetings, assisting with the proposal, and providing resources or information throughout the project; and the TTI personnel who contributed throughout the project. The online survey agencies, including 22 U.S. agencies and 14 non-U.S. agencies, are identified in Chapter 3. Case study meetings were held at the following agencies and with the following participants: • Maryland Transit Administration – Douglas “Chase” Aiken-Brown – Eric Bowser – George Brooks – William Brown – Catrice Davis – Dean Del Peschio – Linda Edy – Royland Fraser – Forrest Freeland – Michael Gilhooly – Steve Gladstone – Dale Green-Worrell – Wesley Hackley – Jeff McCormack – Joshua McCormack – Tim Tyran – Wilson Wallace AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

• Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metro-North Railroad – Ed Cassese – John Kesich – John Longobardi – Deidre Mitchell – Matthew Mitchell – Matthew Peloso – Chuck Pisanelli – Bruce Pollack – Jami Spordone – Christopher Taft – Maureen Taylor • Utah Transit Authority – Carolyn Anderson – Tina Bartholomew – Martin Cocker – Ron Kendell – Travis King – Sheldon Shaw • Dallas Area Rapid Transit – Paul Bourzikas – Tammy Doran – Anthony Fuller – Kris Gandham – Bonnie Murphy – Jessica Powers – Jerry Reynolds – Megan Tang • Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority – Jennifer Arndt – Rachel Barlow – Jonetta Burnette – Jacqueline Gonzalez – Vijay Khawani – Stephen Lino – Susan Walker • ProRail, the Netherlands – Roald van der Valk • Transport for London, London Underground – Simon Abernethy • Secondary case studies – Karl Meyer and Rachael Bishop, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Long Island Rail Road – Michelle Jennings, Amtrak – Ed Abel, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority – Luke Chisenhall, Texas Department of Transportation The following provided proposal and project assistance: • Emani Lee-Odai, American Public Transportation Association • Israel Herevia, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Austin) • Carolyn Cook, Federal Railroad Administration • Frank Frey, Federal Railroad Administration • Michail Grizkewitsch, Federal Railroad Administration • Monica Shaw, Federal Railroad Administration • Lieutenant Cheryl Southwell, Houston Police Department • Joshua Katz, Illinois Department of Transportation • Grigore Havârneanu, PhD, International Union of Railways • Jessica Devorsky, Texas Operation Lifesaver • Jodi Godfrey, University of South Florida Center for Urban Transportation Research • Lisa Staes, University of South Florida Center for Urban Transportation Research • Bruce Cardon, Utah Transit Authority • Scott Gabree, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center • Joyce Rose, WSP USA The following TTI researchers provided support (non-authors): • Bjorn Birgisson, PhD • Kay Fitzpatrick, PhD • Brianne Glover, JD • Nicole Katsikides, PhD • Curtis Morgan • Leonard Ruback • Allan Rutter • Mike Vickich • Michael Walk AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Continued)

TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Com- muter Rail Rights-of-Way describes the techniques and treatments that transit agencies deploy to address trespasser issues and provides strategies to deter trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail exclusive and semi-exclusive rights-of-way, including within station areas outside designated pedestrian crossings. This work will provide proven trespasser prevention strategies to both transportation agencies and regulatory bodies for consistent implementation. The report, guidebook, and interactive spreadsheet will be of immediate use to designers of new rail systems, existing rail transit and commuter rail agencies, plan- ning groups, local development firms, local municipalities, and other stakeholder entities that influence the rail system and local land development adjacent to the rail transit and commuter rail right-of-way. The final deliverables also include a summary video that high- lights the importance of using all the available tools to counteract trespassing. The rail transit and commuter rail industries face a continuing problem with trespass- ing incidents that occur on systems throughout the United States. Trespassers are at great risk of being struck and fatally injured or severely hurt while on the rights-of-way. Most of these accidents and deaths are preventable, and rail transit and commuter rail agencies have deployed a variety of techniques and treatments to address the trespasser issue. These techniques and treatments have ranged from physical barriers to public outreach and edu- cation with varying levels of success. The goal of this research was to catalog ways to deter trespassing on rail transit and com- muter rail rights-of-way. The research had four main objectives: review research on current trespasser mitigation strategies; catalog current approaches to preventing trespassing on the rights-of-way; analyze trespasser mitigation strategies to ascertain overall outcomes and effectiveness and make recommendations; and document best practices. The final deliverables for TCRP Project A-44, “Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way,” include a guidebook, published as TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Com- muter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 1: Guidebook, the contractor’s final report, published as TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview, an interactive spreadsheet, and a summary video. Volume 1 presents the guidebook, including six chapters and two appendices. Appendix A contains the countermeasure summary matrix, and Appendix B contains instructions for the interactive spreadsheet. Volume 2 presents the research activities conducted to produce the guidebook and the interactive spreadsheet. The report F O R E W O R D By Mariela Garcia-Colberg Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

is organized into seven chapters; the initial chapters include a review of relevant literature, an explanation of trespassing characteristics, and a description of trespassing counter- measure strategies and current practices. Subsequent chapters review the existing guidelines, make recommendations for addressing trespassing issues, and highlight case studies. The report concludes with summations of the research findings and the guidebook. An inter- active spreadsheet and a summary video were also prepared as part of this research. All these deliverables are available on the National Academies Press website (www.nap.edu) by searching for TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way.

1 Summary 4 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 Importance of the Issue 4 Research Objectives 5 Research Approach 5 Report Structure 7 Chapter 2 Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Characteristics 7 Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Systems in the United States 10 Trespassing Characteristics 19 Chapter 3 Online Survey of Practitioners 19 Survey Methodology 20 Survey Findings 49 Summary of Key Survey Findings 52 Chapter 4 Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 53 Engineering and Physical Measures—Fencing, Channelization, and Barriers 56 Engineering and Physical Measures—Landscaping 58 Engineering and Physical Measures—Anti-trespass Guard Panels 60 Engineering and Physical Measures—Platform Screen Doors 62 Engineering and Physical Measures—Surveillance and Detection 68 Engineering and Physical Measures—Lighting 70 Engineering and Physical Measures—Approaching Train Alerts 72 Engineering and Physical Measures—Track Retrieval Device 73 Education and Engagement—Signage 75 Education and Engagement—Community-Based Collaboration 77 Education and Engagement—Public and Industry Events and Campaigns 79 Education and Engagement—Employee Intervention Training 81 Education and Engagement—Hope Poles 83 Enforcement—Law Enforcement and Patrol 85 Chapter 5 Review of Existing Guidelines and Recommendations for Addressing Trespassing Issues 85 Review of Countermeasure Strategy Standards and Guidelines 90 Decision-Making Process Guidance 96 Legal Considerations and Guidance C O N T E N T S

97 Chapter 6 Case Study Selection Methodology and Findings 97 Introduction and Methodology 99 Primary Case Study Summaries 144 Secondary Case Study Summaries 153 Summary of Case Study Findings 157 Chapter 7 Recapitulation 157 Contents of the Guidebook 157 Summary of Research Findings 161 Acronyms 162 References and Other Resources

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Trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way is a longstanding issue impacting every agency.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview provides guidance on strategies to deter trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way.

This report is a supplement to TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 1: Guidebook.

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