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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Other Resources." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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162 1. Federal Railroad Administration (2018). Accident Query. Office of Safety Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. https://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/Default.aspx. 2. American Public Transportation Association (March 2020). 2020 Public Transportation Fact Book, 71st Edi- tion. Washington, DC. 3. Cherrington, L., A. Rutter, C. Morgan, E. Horowitz, J. Stoetzel, and S. Brown (2018). TCRP Research Report 200: Contracting Commuter Rail Services, Volume 1: Guidebook. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 4. Federal Transit Administration (2020). National Transit Database 2020 Policy Manual. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 5. Korve, H.W., J.I. Farran, D.M. Mansel, H.S. Levinson, T. Chira-Chavala, and D.R. Ragland (1996). TCRP Report 17: Integration of Light Rail Transit into City Streets. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. 6. Federal Transit Administration (2018). National Transit Database (NTD). https://www.transit.dot.gov/ntd. 7. Federal Railroad Administration (2011). Federal Railroad Administration Guide for Preparing Accident/ Incident Reports. FRA Report D-17/02. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 8. Topel, K. (January 2019). Transportation Research Circular (E-C242): A Literature Review of Rail Trespassing and Suicide Prevention Research. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 9. Federal Railroad Administration (October 2018). Report to Congress: National Strategy to Prevent Tres- passing on Railroad Property. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 10. Federal Transit Administration (January 2020). National Transit Database 2020 Safety and Security Policy Manual. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 11. Illinois Department of Transportation (September 2019). Special Study of Trespassing on the Chicago Transit Authority. State Safety Oversight Authority. 12. Skladana, P., P. Skladany, P. Tucka, M. Bidovsky, and B. Sulikova (2016). Trespassing Railway Property— Typology of Risk Localities. Transportation Research Procedia, 14, 2091–2100. 13. Federal Railroad Administration (2019). 4.11—Suicide Casualties by State/Railroad. Office of Safety Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/OfficeofSafety/publicsite/ Query/suiabbr.aspx. 14. Havârneanu, G., M.-H. Bonneau, and J. Colliard (May 2016). Lessons Learned from the Collaborative European Project RESTRAIL: Reduction of Suicides and Trespasses on RAILway Property. European Transport Research Review, 8, 16. 15. Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation (2019). Trespass/Self-Harm. Project number PF14. 16. Federal Railroad Administration (July 2018). Characteristics of Trespassing Incidents in the United States (2012–2014). U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 17. Federal Railroad Administration (March 25, 2014). Critical Incident Stress Plans: Final Rule. Federal Register, 79(57). 18. Federal Railroad Administration (November 2014). Trespass Event Risk Factors. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 19. Federal Railroad Administration (2013). Rail Trespasser Fatalities: Demographic and Behavioral Profiles. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 20. RESTRAIL (2012). Current Knowledge of Railway Suicides and Trespassing Accidents. http://www.restrail. eu/IMG/pdf/restrail_wp1_kau_wop_001_310712_a_final_draft.pdf. 21. Stanchak, K., F. Foderaro, and M. DaSilva (2015). High-Security Fencing for Rail Right-of-Way Applica- tions: Current Use and Best Practices. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-14-08. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. References and Other Resources

References and Other Resources 163   22. Gabree, S.H., D. Hiltunen, and E. Ranalli (2019). Railroad Implemented Countermeasures to Prevent Suicide: Review of Public Information. DOT/FRA/ORD-19/04. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 23. Silla, A., and J. Luoma (2011). Effect of Three Countermeasures against the Illegal Crossing of Railway Tracks. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43(3), 1089–1094. 24. Fitzpatrick, K., J. Warner, M.A. Brewer, B.L. Bentzen, J.M. Barlow, and B. Sperry (2015). TCRP Report 175: Guidebook on Pedestrian Crossings of Public Transit Rail Services. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. 25. Global Railway Alliance for Suicide Prevention (November 2019). Notes from International Meetings: November 2019. Volpe Center, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.volpe.dot.gov/sites/volpe. dot.gov/files/docs/our-work/safety-management-and-human-factors/transportation-human-factors/ 64231/grasp-meeting-notes-november-2019.pdf. 26. Silla, A., and J. Luoma (2009). Trespassing on Finnish Railways: Identification of Problem Sites and Char- acteristics of Trespassing Behaviour. European Transport Research Review, 1(1), 47–53. 27. Horton, S., and F. Foderaro (2016). Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing. DOT- VNTSC-FRA-14-07. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 28. Ceccato, V., and A. Uittenbogaard (2016). Suicides in Commuting Railway Systems: The Case of Stockholm County, Sweden. Journal of Affective Disorders, 198, 206–221. 29. Law, C.K., P.S. Yip, W.S. Chan, K. W. Fu, P.W. Wong, and Y.W. Law (2009). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Barrier Installation for Preventing Railway Suicides in Hong Kong. Journal of Affective Disorders, 114(1–3), 254–262. 30. Silla, A., and J. Luoma (2012). Main Characteristics of Train-Pedestrian Fatalities on Finnish Railroads. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 45, 61–66. 31. Korve, H.W., B.D. Ogden, J.T. Siques, D.M. Mansel, H.A. Richards, S. Gilbert, E. Boni, M. Butchko, J.C. Stutts, and R.G. Hughes (2001). TCRP Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC. 32. Cleghorn, D., A. Clavelle, J. Boone, M. Masliah, and H.S. Levinson (2009). TCRP Report 137: Improving Pedestrian and Motorist Safety Along Light Rail Alignments. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. 33. RESTRAIL (July 17, 2019). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 10.1 Removal of Vegetation to Increase Visibility. http:// www.restrail.eu/toolbox/spip.php?article112. 34. L.B. Foster (n.d.). Anti-trespass Panels Info Sheet. https://www.lbfoster.com/perch/resources/Products/ antitrespasspanelcutsheet-1.pdf. 35. Ngamdung, T., and M.P. DaSilva (2019). Effect of Anti-trespass Guard Panels on Pedestrian Behavior. DOT/ FRA/ORD-19/23. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 36. RESTRAIL (n.d.). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 8.5 Anti-trespass Panels. http://www.restrail.eu/toolbox/spip. php?article106. 37. Thompson, A., and B. Kennedy (2016). Engineering Design for Pedestrian Safety at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 38. RESTRAIL (2014). Evaluation of Measures, Recommendations and Guidelines for Further Implementation— Pilot Test #5: A Combination of Measures at Ayden Station—TCDD. 39. Law, C.K., and P.S. Yip (2011). An Economic Evaluation of Setting Up Physical Barriers in Railway Stations for Preventing Railway Injury: Evidence from Hong Kong. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(10), 915–920. 40. Hunter-Zaworski, K., D. Anderson, U. Rutenberg, E. Tomaszewska, and J. McConnell (2017). TCRP Research Report 189: Manual to Improve Rail Transit Safety at Platform/Vehicle and Platform/Guideway Interfaces. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 41. RESTRAIL (July 22, 2019). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 8.4 Sliding Doors at Platforms. http://www.restrail.eu/ toolbox/spip.php?article105. 42. METROBITS (August 3, 2019). Platform Screen Doors. http://mic-ro.com/metro/platform-screen-doors. html. 43. Global Railway Alliance for Suicide Prevention (August 2018). Notes from International Meetings: August 2018. Volpe Center, U.S. Department of Transportation. https://www.volpe.dot.gov/sites/volpe.dot.gov/ files/docs/our-work/safety-management-and-human-factors/transportation-human-factors/63141/ graspmeetingnotes06august2018.pdf. 44. Barker, E., K. Kolves, and D. De Leo (2017). Rail-Suicide Prevention: Systematic Literature Review of Evidence-Based Activities. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 9(3), e12246. 45. Utah Transit Authority (n.d.). Rail Trespass and Suicide Prevention: Safety, Research and Demonstration Grant. Presentation.

164 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way 46. DaSilva, M., W. Baron, and A. Carroll (2012). Railroad Infrastructure Trespassing Detection Systems Research in Pittsford, New York. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 47. RESTRAIL (January 28, 2021). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 11.1 Intelligent CCTV Combined with Sound Warnings. http://www.restrail.eu/toolbox/spip.php?article113. 48. Kallberg, V.P., and A. Silla (2017). Prevention of Railway Trespassing by Automatic Sound Warning—A Pilot Study. Traffic Injury Prevention, 18(3), 330–335. 49. Federal Railroad Administration (2012). Guidance on Pedestrian Crossing Safety at or near Passenger Stations. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 50. Federal Transit Administration (May 2017). Report to Congress on Innovative Safety and Security Technology Solutions for Alternative Transportation Facilities. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 51. Zaman, A., B. Ren, and X. Liu (2019). Artificial Intelligence-Aided Automated Detection of Railroad Tres- passing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2673(7), 25–37. 52. Zhang, Z., C. Trivedi, and X. Liu (2018). Automated Detection of Grade-Crossing—Trespassing Near Misses Based on Computer Vision Analysis of Surveillance Video Data. Safety Science, 110, 276–285. 53. Keating, B., and C. Gordon (2018). Preventing Railway Suicide: An Open-Systems Perspective and Appli- cation. 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 54. Sherry, P. (2016). Remedial Actions to Prevent Suicides on Commuter and Metro Rail Systems. MTI Report 12-41. Mineta Transportation Institute, San Jose, CA. 55. Catalano, A., F.A. Bruno, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo, and A. Cusano (2014). An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Sensors, 14(10), 18268–18285. 56. DH News Vancouver (December 19, 2017). Are Glass Sliding Platform Edge Doors Feasible for SkyTrain Stations? https://dailyhive.com/vancouver/glass-sliding-platform-screen-doors-feasible-skytrain-stations. 57. Federal Railroad Administration (2007). Alternative Rail Intruder and Obstacle Detection Systems. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 58. American Public Transportation Association (2009). Security Lighting for Transit Passenger Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 59. Matsubayashi, T., Y. Sawada, and M. Ueda (2013). Does the Installation of Blue Lights on Train Plat- forms Prevent Suicide? A Before-and-After Observational Study from Japan. Journal of Affective Disorders, 147(1–3), 385–388. 60. Ichikawa, M., H. Inada, and M. Kumeji (2014). Reconsidering the Effects of Blue-Light Installation for Prevention of Railway Suicides. Journal of Affective Disorders, 152, 183–185. 61. Havârneanu, G.M. (2017). Behavioural and Organisational Interventions to Prevent Trespass and Graffiti Vandalism on Railway Property. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 231(10), 1078–1087. 62. Baron, W., and M. DaSilva (2019). Effects of In-Pavement Lights on Driver Compliance with Grade Cross- ing Safety Equipment. DOT-VNTSC-FRA-18-06. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 63. Campbell, T., B. Parida, J.C. Ross, A.K. Zaouk, and M. Harris (2019). Acoustical Warning Devices as Emer- gency Warning Systems, Phase 1. DOT/FRA/ORD-19/40. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Depart- ment of Transportation, Washington, DC. 64. RESTRAIL (February 23, 2018). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 11.2 Detection Systems Triggering with Sound Warnings. http://www.restrail.eu/toolbox/spip.php?article114. 65. Transport for London, London Underground (n.d.). Material provided via email from Simon Abernethy, Jan. 11, 2021. 66. Havârneanu, G. (2019). Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Community-Based Trespass Prevention Model. TR News, No. 322, July–August, 16–22. 67. Vonashek, J., D. Mitchell, L. Ebbighausen, K. Meyer, and L. Katz (2019). Safety Education and Commu- nity Outreach Initiatives for Trespasser Prevention: Metro-North and Long Island Rail Road. TR News, No. 322, July–August, 36–38. 68. Federal Railroad Administration (2019). Development of Railroad Trespass and Grade Crossing Training Aids Research. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 69. Waterson, P., and V. Kendrick (2017). Teenage Trespass on the Railways—A Systems Approach. Transport, 170, TR5, 287–295. 70. Canadian National Railway (2007). Railway Safety in the Community. Canadian National Railway submis- sion to the Railway Safety Act Review Panel. 71. Network Rail (2019). Vandalism and Trespass. https://www.networkrail.co.uk/running-the-railway/ looking-after-the-railway/delays-explained/vandalism-and-trespass/.

References and Other Resources 165   72. Silla, A., and V.-P. Kallberg (2015). Effect of Railway Safety Education on the Safety Knowledge and Behav- iour Intention of Schoolchildren. Evaluation and Program Planning, 55, 9–16. 73. Federal Transit Administration (November 2019). Safety Considerations Associated with Rail Transit Grade Crossings. Safety Bulletin 19-03. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 74. Federal Highway Administration (2004). Secretary’s Action Plan for Highway-Rail Crossing Safety and Trespass Prevention. Secretary of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 75. American Public Transportation Association (2017). Rail Transit Grade Crossing Public Education. APTA RT-RGC-RP-002-02, Rev. 2. APTA Rail Transit Grade Crossings Working Group, Washington, DC. 76. Silla, A. (2012). Improving Safety on Finnish Railways by Prevention of Trespassing. Thesis, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. 77. Operation Lifesaver, Inc. (2018). Best Practices for Rail Transit Safety Education. Washington, DC. 78. Operation Lifesaver, Inc. (March 13, 2019). Applications Open for Operation Lifesaver, Inc., Rail Transit Safety Education Grants. https://oli.org/about-us/news/applications-open-operation-lifesaver-inc-rail- transit-safety-education-grants. 79. Operation Lifesaver, Inc. (n.d.). About Us. https://oli.org/about-us/who-we-are. 80. Federal Transit Administration (February 2020). Transit Advisory Committee for Safety, 2020 TRACS. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. https://www.transit.dot.gov/regulations-and-guidance/ safety/transit-advisory-committee-safety-tracs. 81. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (2015). Make the Safe Choice: Respect the Train. https://septa.org/safety/respect-the-train.html. 82. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (2019). Watch Their Step: You Can Prevent a Track Fall. https://www.septa.org/safety/watchtheirstep.html. 83. Sposato, S., P. Bien-Aime, and M. Chaudhary (2006). Public Education and Enforcement Research Study. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 84. Lobb, B., N. Harre, and T. Suddendorf (2001). An Evaluation of a Suburban Railway Pedestrian Crossing Safety Programme. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33(2), 157–165. 85. TrackSAFE Foundation (2019). Rail Safety Week. https://tracksafefoundation.com.au/rail-safety-week/. 86. Gabree, S.H., S. Chase, A. Doucette, and M. Martino (2014). Countermeasures to Mitigate Intentional Deaths on Railroad Rights-of-Way: Lessons Learned and Next Steps. DOT/FRA/ORD-14/36. Federal Rail- road Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 87. Gabree, S.H., and D. Hiltunen (2019). Review of Suicide Intervention Training Programs. DOT/FRA/ ORD-19/31. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 88. RESTRAIL (June 9, 2014). RESTRAIL Toolbox: 24.1 Training of Staff to Identify Different Trespassers. http://www.restrail.eu/toolbox/spip.php?article143. 89. ELERTS (n.d.). ELERTS Flyer. https://elerts.com/assets/ELERTS-transit-flyer-2017-2.pdf. 90. MARTA (n.d.). MARTA Mobile Apps—See & Say. https://www.itsmarta.com/marta-see-say.aspx. 91. American Public Transportation Association (2009). Fencing Systems to Control Access to Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 92. American Public Transportation Association (2010). Chain Link, Mesh, or Woven Metal Fencing Systems to Control Access at Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 93. American Public Transportation Association (2010). Ornamental Fencing Systems to Control Access at Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 94. Fijalkowski, J., G. Filosa, J. Young, A. Lucivero, A. Ferster, E. Griffin, and K. Pack (March 2020). Rails-with- Trails Best Practices and Lessons Learned. Federal Highway Administration, Federal Railroad Administra- tion, Federal Transit Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 95. Coffel, K., J. Parks, C. Semler, P. Ryus, D. Sampson, C. Kachadoorian, H. Levinson, and J. Schofer (2012). TCRP Report 153: Guidelines for Providing Access to Public Transportation Stations. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. 96. American Public Transportation Association (2010). Gates to Control Access to Revenue and Nonrevenue Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 97. Transportation Research and Education Center, Portland State University (2017). Manual on Pedestrian and Bicycle Connections to Transit. Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 98. American Public Transportation Association (2004). 12. Standard for Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) Inspection, Testing and Maintenance. APTA Rail Transit Standards project team, Washington, DC. 99. Thomas, L.W. (2018). TCRP Legal Research Digest 52: Legal Implications of Video Surveillance on Transit Systems. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.

166 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way 100. American Public Transportation Association (2009). Security Lighting for Nonrevenue Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 101. American Public Transportation Association (2010). Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) for Transit Facilities. APTA Transit Infrastructure Security Working Group, Washington, DC. 102. American Public Transportation Association (2009). Security Awareness Training for Transit Employees. SS-SRM-RP-005-12. APTA Security Risk Management Working Group, Washington, DC. 103. American Public Transportation Association (2019). Rail Transit System Station Procedures. APTA RT-OP-RP-009-04. APTA Operating Practices Working Group, Washington, DC. 104. American Public Transportation Association (2009). Identifying Suspicious Behavior in Mass Transit. APTA SS-SRM-RP-009-09. APTA Security Risk Management Working Group, Washington, DC. 105. Roberts, H., R. Retting, T. Webb, A. Colleary, B. Turner, X. Wang, R. Toussaint, G. Simpson, and C. White (2015). TCRP Report 174: Improving Safety Culture in Public Transportation. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. 106. Boyle, D. (2016). TCRP Synthesis 121: Transit Agency Practices in Interacting with People Who Are Homeless. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 107. Federal Railroad Administration (2007). FRA Approach to Managing Gap Safety. Office of Safety, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 108. DaSilva, M., and T. Ngamdung (2014). Trespass Prevention Research Study—West Palm Beach, FL. Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 109. Federal Railroad Administration (2007). Collision Hazard Analysis Guide: Commuter and Intercity Pas- senger Rail Service. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 110. Federal Railroad Administration (2019). Highway-Rail Grade Crossing and Trespass Prevention: Com- pliance, Procedures, and Programs Manual. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 111. American Public Transportation Association (2006). Manual for the Development of System Safety Program Plans for Commuter Railroads. APTA Commuter Rail Safety Management Program, Washington, DC. 112. International Union of Railways (September 2014). Reduction of Suicides and Trespasses on Railway Prop- erty (RESTRAIL) Practical Guide. 113. Havârneanu, G.M., Burkhardt, J-M., and Silla, A. (2016). Optimizing suicide and trespass prevention on railways: A problem-solving model from the RESTRAIL project. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 24(4), 469–486, doi:10.1080/17457300.2016.1232275 114. Federal Transit Administration (November 2019). Hazard Management versus Safety Risk Management Guide. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 115. Federal Transit Administration (August 2019). Guide to Developing the Safety Risk Management Compo- nent of a Public Transportation Agency Safety Plan. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 116. Federal Transit Administration (August 2019). Sample Hazard Classification System—Public Trans- portation Agency Safety Plan (PTASP) Implementation, Version 1. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 117. Federal Transit Administration (September 2019). Sample Safety Risk Assessment Matrices for Rail Transit Agencies, Version 1. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 118. Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority (n.d.). Incident Management System (IMS). Provided through correspondence with Israel Herevia, June 5, 2019. 119. Chase, S., and D. Hiltunen (April 2020). Consistent Trespasser Intent Determination Criteria Pilot Project. Office of Railroad Policy and Development, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Trans- portation, Washington, DC. 120. Federal Railroad Administration (2011). Community Trespassing Prevention Guide. Office of Railroad Safety, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 121. RESTRAIL (n.d.). RESTRAIL Toolbox. http://restrail.eu/toolbox/. 122. Thomas, L.W. (2015). NCRRP Legal Research Digest 2: Railroad Legal Issues and Resources. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC. 123. Federal Railroad Administration (2014). Compilation of State Laws and Regulations Affecting Highway- Rail Grade Crossings, 6th Edition. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. 124. Maryland Transit Administration (n.d.). Transit Maps. https://www.mta.maryland.gov/transit-maps. 125. Maryland Department of Transportation, Maryland Transit Administration (n.d.). Material provided via email from Chase Aiken-Brown, Jan. 12, 2021. 126. 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References and Other Resources 167   129. Utah Transit Authority (n.d.). Material provided via email from Tina Bartholomew, Jan. 28, 2021. 130. Dallas Area Rapid Transit (n.d.). Rail System Map. https://www.dart.org/maps/printrailmap.asp. 131. Dallas Area Rapid Transit (n.d.). Material provided via email correspondence, Feb. 1, 2021. 132. Federal Transit Administration (November 30, 2020). Real-Time Transit Infrastructure and Rolling Stock Condition Assessment Research and Demonstration Program. https://www.transit.dot.gov/research- innovation/real-time-transit-infrastructure-and-rolling-stock-condition-assessment-research. 133. Metro Transit (n.d.). How to Ride Metro Rail. https://www.metro.net/riding/guide/how-ride-rail/. 134. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (n.d.). Material provided via email from Vijay Khawani, Jan. 8, 2021. 135. ProRail (n.d.). About Us. https://www.prorail.nl/over-ons. 136. ProRail (2020). Rail Map. https://www.prorail.nl/siteassets/homepage/reizen/documenten/spoorkaart- 2020-webversie.pdf. 137. ProRail (n.d.). Material provided via email from Roald van der Valk, Jan. 14, 2021. 138. London Underground (n.d.). Paragraph provided via email from Simon Abernethy, Jan. 13, 2021. 139. Transport for London (n.d.). What We Do. https://tfl.gov.uk/corporate/about-tfl/what-we-do?intcmp=2582. 140. Transport for London (July 2017). Tube Map Showing Tunnels. http://content.tfl.gov.uk/tube-map-with- tunnels.pdf. 141. @allontheboard (December 18, 2020). Instagram Post. 142. Amtrak (n.d.). Material provided via email from Michelle Jennings, Jan. 22, 2021. 143. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (n.d.). SEPTA System Safety Twitter Page. https:// twitter.com/SEPTASafety.

Abbreviations and acronyms used without de nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration GHSA Governors Highway Safety Association HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation

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Trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way is a longstanding issue impacting every agency.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview provides guidance on strategies to deter trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way.

This report is a supplement to TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 1: Guidebook.

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