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Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview (2022)

Chapter: Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 4 - Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26503.
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52 This chapter puts strategies to deter trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights- of-way into three categories: engineering and physical measures; education and engagement; and enforcement. Following the literature review, stakeholder survey, case studies, and internal discussions with the panel members, the research team updated the list of countermeasures throughout the project. The final 14 countermeasure subcategories are as follows: • Engineering and Physical Measures – Fencing, channelization, and barriers – Landscaping – Anti-trespass guard panels – PSDs – Surveillance and detection – Lighting – Approaching train alerts – Track retrieval device • Education and Engagement – Signage – Community-based collaboration – Public and industry events and campaigns – Employee intervention training – Hope Poles • Enforcement – Law enforcement and patrol Each trespassing countermeasure subcategory feature provides a description of the counter- measure strategy, examples of current use applications, an account of the stated level of effective- ness, and a summary of findings. C H A P T E R 4 Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 53   Source: Jeffery Warner, TTI. Description Fencing is used to separate the railroad right-of-way from a highway or other property lines (21, 22). Fencing is one of the most widely used countermeasures in the nation to prevent access to the railway along the tracks from unauthorized people (23). There are various types of fencing systems, including standard chain-link, intertrack, welded-wire, expanded metal, and steel tubular fencing (21). Also, fencing could be used as one of the channelization treatments to guide pedestrians to designated crossing locations (24). High-security fencing is increasingly being used. High-security fencing is reinforced fencing to prevent trespasser incursions or breaches, like expanded metal grating fencing. High-security fencing is more formidable than standard fencing (like standard chain-link fencing) and more expensive (21). Current Use According to the survey, 92% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that they are currently using fencing. Of those that are currently using fencing, 63% reported using fencing at more than half of the locations within the agency. The following list provides a sample of current practices of fencing in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: Engineering and Physical Measures—Fencing, Channelization, and Barriers

54 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way • LIRR—LIRR uses high-security fencing extensively with the following characteristics: expanded metal gratings for each section with an upstand at the top to prevent climbing; 8 feet wide for each section, which consists of two 4-foot panels overlapped with bolts; and posts buried 4 to 6 feet deep with concrete-encased poles (21). LIRR has been using high- security fencing for over 15 years and has found only one cut. The expanded metal grating fencing has an anti-cut, anti-climb design with easy installation, low maintenance costs, and low repair costs. However, the cost per linear foot is still a major issue compared with a traditional fencing system. • NJ Transit—In 2002, NJ Transit first installed high-security fencing on a line with a single-track right-of-way that had a high trespassing frequency rate (21). A year later, NJ Transit added 20,000 linear feet of high-security fencing to its right-of-way. • CTA—CTA uses fencing along its at-grade rights-of-way, rail yards, and maintenance facilities (11). In general, the fencing is over 6 feet high and includes top guards such as razor or barbed wire. The design and materials of fencing vary by location. CTA security is increasing the number of routine fence inspections. Also, CTA has begun replacing cut chain-link fencing with cut-resistant fencing. • Palo Alto, California, and Caltrain—In 2017, the City of Palo Alto and Caltrain agreed to install an 8-foot fence (formerly, the fences were 3 feet high) with 18-inch cable winglets to restrict access to the train tracks. Vegetation removal was included as a part of this process. The overall estimated cost was $150,000 (22). • SunRail, Florida—In 2017, the Florida Department of Transportation and SunRail announced a plan to install 6-foot fencing along 2 miles of track in areas with high pedestrian volume. The overall estimated cost for the project was $235,000 (22). • Finland—Fences were installed on both sides of the railway line approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) high and extended 100 meters (328 feet) from the unofficial path in both directions. The researchers collected video data for 11 days to assess its effectiveness. They found a significant reduction in the frequency of daily trespasses by almost 95% compared with landscaping and prohibitive signs (23). • Sweden—Fencing is implemented as a suicide prevention strategy. Fences are 2 meters high to prevent climb-over (25). Effectiveness According to the literature, fencing the tracks is one of the most effective measures to prevent trespassing (26). A case study in Finland found that fencing shows the most substantial reduction in the frequency of daily trespasses (95%) (23). Fences and barricades can be effective when installed at suitable locations, including known shortcuts, pathways across the tracks, and popular recreation areas (27). Suicide rates decrease along tracks with barriers (25, 28). According to the survey, among the U.S. rail agency respondents that are currently using fencing at their agencies, 59% reported using fencing at most locations, and 94% of them classified fencing as an effective measure. Fencing is currently being used in overall rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations and is considered effective. Of the six non-U.S. stakeholders, five believed fencing to be very effective, and one believed it to be somewhat effective. Among the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies, for the question as to which one strategy the survey participants would choose, fencing garnered the most responses. Overall, effectiveness and ease of implementation were the two highest selected reasons. For the non-

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 55   U.S. stakeholders, fencing was also the highest selected strategy. The survey participants listed effectiveness and cost as reasons for selecting fencing. Summary Analyzing high-security fencing costs, developing a trespass hazard analysis framework, and conducting fencing effectiveness studies before and after the implementation are needed to justify the use of high-security fencing (21). Also, stakeholder and community support and regular maintenance are critical to the successful implementation of fencing (8, 23). Restricting access to railway lines may not be effective in reducing suicide attempts (29, 30). However, fencing could shift the location to public access, such as grade crossings and pedestrian platforms, and may reduce the idea of using railroads for a suicide attempt by increasing the difficulty or delaying enough to allow the moment of crisis to pass. Fencing was rated as effective in almost all submissions from all operation types for those agencies that indicated use at most locations. For responses that indicated use at only some locations, several responses, including agencies with each type of operations responded that fencing was ineffective as a mitigation strategy. Still, 94% of the survey responses by U.S. rail transit or commuter rail agencies indicated using fencing. When survey participants were asked to select one mitigation strategy, fencing was the top strategy from both transit and non-transit agencies. For the non-U.S. stakeholders, all the mitigation strategies were rated as neutral or effective, with fencing receiving the highest number of very effective or somewhat effective ratings. The survey participants identified with the labor community had different perspectives on the effectiveness of several mitigation strategies compared with the transit agency personnel, except fencing. Fencing was the only strategy that both parties agreed was effective. The survey respondents also added that installing fencing at key locations along the rights- of-way resulted in a lower number of trespassers. Partnering with various types of stakeholders to investigate and identify areas of concern was reported to be effective in determining areas to invest in the installation of high-security fencing. Fencing, combined with law enforcement, was reported as one of the most effective anti-trespassing measures.

56 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Jeffery Warner, TTI. Description Landscaping includes removing vegetation and the existing path across the railway line; steepening the sides of the railway line; planting trees, bushes, or ground cover to form a natural barrier; and decorating the side slopes with a few large stones (5, 23, 24, 31, 32, 33). Landscaping, like other physical barriers, such as fencing, aims to deter access to the railroad rights-of-way and to encourage crossing at designated locations. Also, removing a source of concealment could make pedestrians more visible around the railway premises (33). Current Use According to the survey, 50% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that they are currently using landscaping. Of those that are currently using or previously used landscaping, 32% reported using landscaping at more than half of the locations within the agency. Following is a sample of the current practices of landscaping in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • TCRP Reports 17, 69, 137, and 175—These reports, focused on pedestrian safety around public rail transit services, investigated the use of landscaping by U.S. and other agencies. All the reports document landscaping in combination with other treatments to properly guide pedestrian movements to designated crossings and deter crossing at inappropriate locations (5, 24, 31, 32). TCRP Report 69: Light Rail Service: Pedestrian and Vehicular Safety highlights the need for regular maintenance to maintain sight distances (31). • Finland—In a study in Finland, landscaping included removing the existing path across the railway line, steepening the sides of the railway line, planting trees and bushes to form a natural fence, planting grass, and decorating the sides with a few large stones. The landscaping was installed approximately 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) high and 200 meters (656.2 feet) long. The researchers collected video data for 10 days to assess its effectiveness, which revealed that landscaping reduced the number of trespasses by over 91% during this period (23). • RESTRAIL—In Belgium and Norway, vegetation removal was successfully employed to improve the railway track visibility for pedestrians and train operators. Environmental laws and nature should be respected and taken into consideration (33). Engineering and PhysIcal Measures—Landscaping

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 57   Effectiveness According to the literature review, a case study from Finland discovered that landscaping reduced the number of trespasses by over 91% (23). The action of removing vegetation was proven to be an effective countermeasure in reducing casualties in Norway (33). In the survey, among the U.S. rail agency respondents that are currently using landscaping at their agencies, 35% reported using landscaping at most locations and considered landscaping an effective measure. Fifty-three percent of respondents reported using landscaping at some locations, and 44% of them classified landscaping as effective. According to the survey respondents, landscaping tends to be more extensively used in the commuter and light rail systems than the heavy rail system, and 60% of the respondents from each operation type classified landscaping as effective. Of the six non-U.S. stakeholders, two believed landscaping to be very effective and three believed it to be somewhat effective. However, when participants were asked which trespasser mitigation strategy they would be least likely to select, landscaping was one of the most identified strategies. There is concern that landscaping could create a line-of-sight issue for train operators and restrict access to the right-of-way for maintenance and other purposes. Summary Landscaping is often combined with fencing and other treatments to guide pedestrians to cross rail tracks at designated locations. The use of landscaping, however, requires regular maintenance to be effective consistently (23, 30). Also, communication with neighbors for public acceptance is crucial for successful implementation. Removing vegetation (i.e., tree clearing) had an opposite effect on animal-train collisions in Norway and Sweden. While Norway found a reduction in moose casualties after implementing vegetation removal, Sweden had increased moose and roe deer train collisions after tree clearing (33). The perceived level of effectiveness for landscaping declined with lower uses as a mitigation strategy. It was rated as effective in all responses where it was used in most locations.

58 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: L.B. Foster, Anti-trespass Panels Info Sheet (34). Source: Carolyn Cook, FRA. Permission provided by the owner. Description Anti-trespass guard panels are designed to prevent trespassers from accessing the track as well as inform people not to enter unauthorized places (35, 36, 37). The panels can be installed at platform ends, on- or off-track locations, and rail yard entrances (36, 38). Current Use According to the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents, the use of panels was split, with 29% currently using, 2% previously used, 39% never used, 18% unknown, and 12% missing answers. Of those that are currently using anti-trespass guard Engineering and Physical Measures—Anti-trespass Guard Panels panels, 27% reported using anti-trespass guard panels at more than half of the locations within the agency.

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 59   The following list is a sample of the current practices of anti-trespass guard panels in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • Arkansas and Missouri Railroad (Class III railroad)—Anti-trespass guard panels were installed at an entrance to the rail right-of-way at the West Dickson Street crossing in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The location was decided based on the results of the video monitoring at several problem areas. The researchers evaluated the effectiveness based on the collected video data for 30 days before and after the installation and determined that the panel installation effectively reduced the number of pedestrians who trespassed onto railroad right-of-way by 38%. The study recommended additional field testing and analysis before making recommendations for broader use (35). • CTA—CTA uses anti-trespass foot barriers with angled bucks to deter pedestrians and motorists from entering the track at highway-rail grade crossings (11). Currently, CTA is trying to update the anti-trespass barriers from angled wood slats to modern composite grids. • RESTRAIL—The reduction in the number of trespassers after the implementation of an anti-trespass guard panel in several countries, including Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden, reportedly ranged between 30% and 90%. The RESTRAIL Toolbox recommends installing the panels at least 3 meters wide (approximately 9 feet 10 inches) to prevent jumping over the railroad tracks (36, 38). The anti-trespass guard panels can be installed at platform ends, on- or off-track locations, and rail yard entrances. However, it could be challenging for railroad employees to access tracks due to the panels. Implementing the panels in combination with fences, warning signs, and surveillance cameras is highly recommended to enforce the effectiveness of the panels. Effectiveness Ngamdung and DaSilva reported that the panels were effective in reducing the number of pedestrians who trespassed onto railroad rights-of-way by 38% (35). According to RESTRAIL, a pilot study conducted in Belgium indicated that the number of trespassers decreased by 78% from the 3 months before to the 3 months after implementing the panels. The pilot study was performed in combination with fences, warning signs, and a surveillance camera. An evaluation conducted in the Netherlands reported a wide range of 30% to 90% reductions in trespassers. Sweden’s test results showed an overall 38% reduction in the number of trespassers (36). According to the survey, of the eight U.S. rail agency respondents that are currently using anti-trespass guard panels at their agencies, three reported using the panels in most locations. Five respondents reported that they are using anti-trespass guard panels in some locations, and four of them classified the panels as effective, while one had a neutral view on the efficacy of the measure. Summary The RESTRAIL Toolbox recommends installing the panels at least 3 meters wide (approximately 9 feet 10 inches) to prevent jumping over the railroad tracks (36). However, the panels do not affect where trespassers entered or exited the railroad right-of-way outside crossing locations where the panels are not installed (35). Also, it could be challenging for railroad employees to access the track due to the panels (36). A recent design of panels provides more flexibility and addresses the different site characteristics (34). Anti-trespass guard panels are currently being used in a small number of rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some locations and are largely considered effective. The responses for anti-trespass guard panels were positive for the limited use, except for one ineffective rating by an agency with heavy rail.

60 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Jim Cline, TTI. Description PSDs are located on the rail transit platform to prevent objects from falling onto railway tracks (39, 40, 41). Similar to PSDs, platform edge doors, platform gate doors, and platform edge fences can be full height or half height (8, 40). Current Use According to the survey, 74% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that they have never used PSDs. None of the respondents reported using PSDs at more than half of the locations within the agency. The following lists the current practices of PSDs in the international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the literature review: • Hong Kong—The Mass Transit Railway Corporation, which manages the underground railway network in urban Hong Kong, announced a plan to install 2,960 pairs of PSDs at all 71 platforms in 30 underground stations on the three prominent transit lines in 2000. Data were collected 5 years before and 5 years after the installation to observe changes in suicide cases. After the PSD installation, the study found a reduction of approximately 60% in railway suicides. Based on the results, the study recommended railway operators extend the coverage of PSDs to all railway stations in Hong Kong. The economic assessment revealed that it could be cost-effective from a broader societal perspective (29, 39). However, a more comprehensive evaluation is needed to reflect all the possible factors for measuring the cost-effectiveness of the PSD installation. Implementation could be challenging based on the different operating types of the railway. The failure rate for doors not opening should be as low as 0.1% to prevent a disruption of the logistic process (41). PSDs are primarily installed in underground systems around the world, including at more than 50 rail transit systems (40, 42). • Japan —The Ministry of Transport aimed to increase the number of stations with PSDs to 800 by 2020 to prevent pedestrians from falling from platforms (43). Because the PSDs are heavy, a station must be able to hold that amount of weight on the platform edge. Japan has various platform door designs to adapt to different rail types. Effectiveness Full-height PSDs are known to be very effective in deterring both suicide and trespassing (8). In Hong Kong, the installation of PSDs reduced railway injuries by approximately 69% (29, 39, 44). Engineering and Physical Measures—Platform Screen Doors

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 61   According to the survey, only one U.S. heavy rail agency reported that PSDs are currently being used at a few locations, and it classified the measure as effective. When the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency participants were asked which trespasser mitigation strategy they would be least likely to select, PSDs were the most identified strategy. The reasons for selecting PSDs as the least likely mitigation strategy ranged among all the options provided, including the difficulties of implementation, effectiveness, and cost. Comments provided in the other option included the fact that commuter railroads are an open system, so PSDs are not applicable. The non-U.S. stakeholders also chose PSDs as one of the least likely selected trespassing mitigation strategies. Moreover, a majority of the survey participants from non-rail transit and commuter rail agencies mentioned that they would be least likely to select PSDs. One of the reasons was they are difficult to apply on all main lines. Summary The strategy least likely to be selected was PSDs due to difficulties in implementation and maintenance as well as cost and overall effectiveness. According to the study performed in Hong Kong, Law and Yip estimated that the installation of PSDs would cost $237 million (39). The economic assessment revealed that it could be cost-effective from a broader societal perspective (39). One heavy rail agency respondent reported that platform barriers would be an effective deterrent because they isolate pedestrians from the railroad right-of-way.

62 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Utah Transit Authority, Rail Trespass and Suicide Prevention: Safety, Research and Demonstration Grant (45). Description Camera detection systems are designed to monitor unauthorized people accessing railroad rights-of-way. Once a camera or sensor detects a trespass event, the system sends audible and visual signals to the monitoring workstation or automatically gives a sound warning (22, 46, 47). The camera detection systems with an automatic sound warning could be efficient and cost-effective measures at locations where fencing or other barrier countermeasures are not a viable option (48). In other instances, audible and visual warnings can be used at or near passenger stations to guide pedestrians to proper crossing points (49). In most cases, camera detection systems are combined with a sound warning system or enforcement (46, 47). There are multiple video monitoring technologies for trespassing detection, including closed-circuit television (CCTV) with advanced analytics, thermal imaging, and laser detection (40). The enhanced digital technology applications, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, high-resolution cameras, and mobile CCTV systems, could improve the ability to detect unauthorized access to the railroad right-of-way. PTZ cameras and high-resolution cameras could provide a better angle and resolution in viewing surveillance scenes to an operator and law enforcement. Mobile CCTV systems can be mounted on trains for surveillance. Using tablets or smartphones, security personnel and law enforcement can use handheld CCTV monitors to surveil areas remotely (50). An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm automatically detects trespassing real-time events and sends an alert text message with a video clip of the trespassing event (51). A computer vision (CV) algorithm was developed to automatically detect trespassing near misses based on surveillance video footage of level crossings (52). For example, specially designed cameras to monitor intoxicated passengers have also been installed and used in Japan (40). Researchers from the Australian National University are developing an automated risk detection system, which considers the interaction between different rail service functions to monitor and respond to at-risk behavior. The research involves developing an approach for monitoring at-risk suicidal behavior using automated video analysis and a real-time warning system (53). Engineering and Physical Measures—Surveillance and Detection

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 63   A drone equipped with video monitoring systems can detect trespassing events and send an alert message to a central monitoring location or nearby law enforcement (22, 27, 54). The nighttime capabilities can be improved with drones mounted with infrared equipment (50). FRA is funding a research project at the Michigan Technology Institute using AI technology to analyze video captured by drones for trespassing. The main objective of non-camera electronic intrusion detection systems is to detect intrusions and protect railroad properties from unauthorized activities (40, 55). The pressure plate systems detect objects when they put pressure on the plate, sending an alert to a control center. The control center validates the events via CCTV or other video imaging systems (40, 56). The infrared radiation (IR) beam systems detect objects moving too close to the platform edge and issue a sound warning. The systems could detect objects that have fallen on the track and delay trains from entering the station until the objects are cleared (40). The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are bonded under a ribbed rubber mat to detect an intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat. The FBG accelerometers installed under the rails also detect intruders walking too close to the railroad tracks via acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps (55). Infrastructure/locomotive cooperation systems, such as wireless sensor networks and optical detection of obstacles (ODO), were developed to be implemented on the entire rail corridor (57). Wireless sensor networks use a mesh of low-power wireless sensors to detect, locate, and characterize objects on the railroad right-of-way. ODO technology uses fiber-optic-layered laser radar, which detects objects off the line of sight (e.g., curves and hills) (57). Current Use According to the survey, 47% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported currently using camera detection. Of those that are currently using camera detection, 39% use it at half or more locations within the agency. It was reported that 34% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents are currently using video analytics. Seventy-seven percent of those reported using video analytics at some or most locations within the agency. Thirty-four percent of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies responded that they are currently using electronic detection, and 23% of them use the detection system at half or more locations within the agency. The following lists a sample of the current practices of surveillance and detection systems in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • Pittsford, New York (CSX Transportation)—A bridge was selected based on two trespass fatalities in 1997, as well as its prior trespassing history (27, 46). Doyle Security developed an incident detection procedure designed to monitor unauthorized people accessing railroad right-of-way. Once a trespass event occurs, the system sends audible and visual signals to the Doyle Security attendant. If the attendant determines there is a trespasser, the bridge loudspeakers are activated through speed dials to give a sound warning. The overall system costs approximately $13,500, including design, installation, component, maintenance, and operating costs. • Hinsdale, Illinois—Remote monitoring cameras are installed along the rights-of-way, and the camera feeds run continuously into the Hinsdale Police Department headquarters. The system successfully reduced unintended trespassing events (27). • Palo Alto, California, and Caltrain—The City of Palo Alto initiated a pilot project to test an intrusion detection system in 2016 (22). The cameras include visible, thermal infrared

64 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way cameras in addition to other technologies. The cameras can detect objects up to 1,000 feet away in a range of lighting and weather conditions. The system is designed to detect specific behaviors of interest and transmit alerts to local law enforcement. The installation’s overall cost was approximately $1.5 million, with an additional $325,000 for annual maintenance and remote monitoring. Caltrain plans to install additional signage at each crossing that states the area is monitored by video surveillance. • Palo Alto, California, and Caltrain—The City of Palo Alto pilot-tested an AI-based camera system at two crossings (43). The system automatically detects trespassers and notifies a command center to give a verbal alarm to trespassers through a speaker at the crossing. Currently, no data are available on the effectiveness of the system. • Brunswick, Maine—The Brunswick Police Department partnered with FRA to use drones to detect trespassers along the Amtrak Downeaster line (22). If quadcopter drones detect an individual, an officer is dispatched to educate that person on rail trespass rather than take a punitive approach. • CTA—CTA’s camera system includes over 32,000 devices throughout the network, including in stations, on bus and rail vehicles, and in subways, facilities, and yards (11). Recently, CTA installed 1,000 high-definition cameras in the Red and Blue Line subways. CTA has planned to install cameras every 50 feet of the subway walls along with station platforms. The study concludes that CTA could benefit from expanding access to real-time camera footage and intrusion system alerts to detect and respond to trespassers more effectively. • Ashland, Virginia, and Thomasville, North Carolina—An AI framework automatically detects trespassing events in real time and sends an alert text message with a video clip of the trespassing event to a designated destination (51). The AI framework detected all trespassing events at the case study locations and achieved an accuracy of 100% during the study period. The study recommended applying the AI algorithm to detect trespassing from front-facing cameras on the locomotives to understand the behavior of individuals through AI to prevent suicide on railroad property. • New Jersey—An AI-aided CV algorithm was developed to automatically detect trespassing near misses (or precursor events) based on surveillance video footage of level crossings (52). • MARTA—A CCTV camera system programmed with video analytics software was installed throughout the rail system (50). The system can detect suspicious behavior and send an email alert to police communications dispatchers. • Connecticut—Infrastructure/locomotive cooperation systems that consist of wireless sensor networks and ODO were developed and implemented along the study rail corridors (57). A wireless sensor network employs a mesh of low-power wireless sensors to detect, locate, and characterize objects on the railroad rights-of-way. ODO technology uses fiber- optic-layered laser radar, which enables the detection of objects off the line of sight. • FRA—FRA is currently testing a large-scale trespass detection and deterrent system using drones equipped with cameras (25). Drones allow quick identification of suspicious events and provide safer means to approach the scene for law enforcement. The drones’ three- dimensional mapping capability will enable facilitating and investigation of the scene faster. • RESTRAIL—In Belgium, Infrabel tested a system that consists of a camera, infrared spotlight, and loudspeaker (47). Of the alarms, 30% were found to be false ones.

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 65   Trespassing events were reduced by 80% after the installation of the system. Finland pilot- tested a detection system composed of CCTV combined with sound warnings in 2014. In the Netherlands, speakers, in combination with video detection cameras, will be evaluated by ProRail. • Sweden—CCTV cameras were initially installed for suicide prevention, and 57 intelligent CCTVs are installed in 26 locations (25, 43). A person from the traffic control center is alerted by watching CCTV and notifies the police if a threat exists. • ProRail, Netherlands—AI analytics is being used to predict trespassing (25). • Finland—A system was installed at two sites in southern Finland, where an illegal footpath crossed a railway line (48). The system consists of an infrared sensor, an 18-W amplifier, a memory card with a prerecorded voice message, a loudspeaker, and a standard 12-V 60-Ah battery. The total cost of the system was approximately $3,000. The annual maintenance costs could exceed the cost of hardware due to the weekly battery change or recharging. The results showed a 44% and an 18% reduction in trespassing from the two test sites, respectively. • Italy—Researchers developed an optical-fiber sensing system composed of a network of FBG strain sensors combined with FBG accelerometer sensors (55). The FBG strain sensors are bonded under a ribbed rubber mat to detect an intruder break-in via the pressure-induced mat. The FBG accelerometers installed under the rails also enable the detection of intruders walking too close to the railroad tracks via acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. The system demonstrated that it could detect a human walking with speed and direction accurately. However, the sensing system itself could be subject to false positives, which could be minimized by combining multiple systems with different technologies (e.g., a video monitoring system with automatic detection algorithms). • Vancouver, Canada—Skytrain installed both IR beam and pressure plate systems to detect guideway intrusion (40). The IR beam systems detect objects that are too close to the platform edge and issue a warning sound. The systems could also identify objects that have fallen on the track and prevent trains from entering the station until the objects are cleared. The pressure plate systems detect objects when they put pressure on the plate and send an alert to a central control room. Central control validates the events via CCTV or other video imaging systems. Based on the level of sensitivity, the pressure plate tends to create false alarms. Effectiveness Researchers proved that video-based trespass monitoring and a deterrent system combined with audible warning were effective in deterring trespassing and saving lives (27, 46, 47). A camera-included system tested in Belgium showed an 80% trespassing reduction after installation (47). When a surveillance system was combined with an automatic sound warning system, study results from Finland showed a 44% and an 18% reduction in trespassing from two test sites, respectively (48). In one of Sweden’s case study areas, the number of fatalities dropped from 19 to five after installing CCTV cameras in combination with fencing (43). Cameras with motion detectors were found to be an efficient strategy for collecting information regarding trespassing (26, 47). According to the literature, the AI framework detected all trespassing events in the three U.S. case study locations and achieved an accuracy of 100% during the study period (51). Another study showed that the CV algorithm can support data-driven near-miss risk analysis and contribute to proactive safety improvements at level crossings (52). Among the U.S. rail agency respondents that are

66 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way currently using video analytics, 60% classified video analytics as effective. For the question as to which one strategy they would choose, two respondents chose video analytics because of its real-time capability. According to the survey, among the U.S. rail agency respondents that are currently using camera detection at their agencies, 50% reported using the strategy in some or most locations and classified the strategy as effective. Of the U.S. labor community participants, the respondent whose job duties relate to equipment rated camera detection as a somewhat effective trespassing mitigation strategy. However, two non-U.S. stakeholders identified camera detection as the least likely to be selected as a mitigation strategy for several reasons, including cost, difficulties in implementation and maintenance, and the human workforce required to respond when a trespassing act is detected. The pressure plate systems were reported very effective in detecting rail guideway intrusion (40). Also, the FBG sensor systems demonstrated that they could detect a human walking with speed and direction without any false negatives (55). The online survey reported that 40% of the U.S. rail agency respondents are currently using electronic detection at some or most locations and classified the strategyas effective. For the question of which one strategy the survey participants would choose, electronic detection garnered the second most responses. However, there was also a concern regarding the time between notification and the law enforcement response, which makes both electronic detection and enforcement ineffective. The U.S. labor community participants indicated different perspectives on the efficacy of electronic detection based on their job duties. The respondent whose job duties relate to equipment rated electronic detection very effective, while the respondent whose job duties relate to maintenance-of-way considered electronic detection very ineffective. Half of the non-U.S. stakeholders who were able to specify the extent of use and the level of effectiveness considered electronic detection to be effective. Summary Different types of cameras can be used together for other purposes (e.g., a thermal imaging camera can be used during nighttime or in a low-light environment) (40, 47). Camera systems and track surveillance could help detect pre-suicidal behavior (e.g., walking or loitering close to or on tracks) in an early stage, and timely intervention could be activated, such as early braking of a train or intervention by station staff (30). Data generated by the AI algorithms will help researchers identify precursors, understand human factors, and prioritize risk mitigation strategies in railroad safety research (47, 52). Camera detection systems with an automatic sound warning could be efficient and cost-effective at locations where fencing or other barrier countermeasures are not viable options (48). The systems could be enhanced if combined with media campaigns or enforcement (46, 48). Researchers indicated that the false alarm rate and component reliability were two primary concerns with the surveillance system (22, 46). The pressure plates also tend to create false alarms based on the level of sensitivity (40, 56). Even with other sensing systems, there is always a chance of false alarms. Therefore, a combination of multiple countermeasures with different technologies could improve the discrimination ability, enhance efficiency, and minimize false alarms (55). The surveillance system may not be a cost-effective measure if trespassing is scattered along the railway corridor rather than concentrated in a limited number of sites (46, 47).

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 67   Privacy and legal protection issues for those who reside near the tracks being surveilled by drones, and data storage issues may need to be addressed in advance (22). Track surveillance could require several employees and could be expensive. Therefore, remote detection and implementation in known hotspots or at certain high-risk times are recommended (8). The current AI algorithm cannot differentiate between authorized personnel and trespassers. Future research on applying transfer learning techniques to enhance the recognition of authorized personnel is expected (51). Using AI algorithms to detect trespassing from front-facing cameras on the locomotives and understanding the behavior of individuals through AI to prevent suicide on railroad property are recommended (51). Camera and electronic detection systems are currently being used in the overall rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations. The effectiveness of camera and electronic detection is unclear because there were effective, neutral, and ineffective ratings for all operation types. However, for those agencies that indicated they use camera detection at most locations, the ratings were all designated effective. The survey shows that video analytics is used at agencies with all operation types and was rated effective or neutral in all nine responses from the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents that are currently using the strategy. In summary, video analytics is currently being used in a small number of light rail and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations and is classified as effective. One survey respondent provided another example of an effective and innovative technique to prevent trespass violations: using big data analytics to identify high-risk locations for trespassing.

68 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Illinois Department of Transportation, Special Study of Trespassing on the Chicago Transit Authority (11). Description Three basic types of security lighting can be installed at a transit agency: continuous, standby, and mobile. According to the APTA guideline, continuous lighting is the most common type of security lighting and consists of a series of fixed lights arranged to continuously light interior or exterior areas during hours of darkness (58). Luminaires of standby lighting are not continuously lit but are either turned on automatically when activity is detected or manually as necessary. Mobile lighting may supplement continuous or standby lighting. Mobile lighting can be used at special events and in emergencies during hours of darkness. Continuous lighting is most widely used, but standby lighting could be more efficient at critical and restricted access points (11). Increasing overall lighting at hotspots and pedestrian stations could reduce trespass occurrence (27). Smart lighting networks with advanced technology that can be programmed to control lighting levels and detect maintenance issues could improve the function, efficiency, and maintenance of lighting systems (50). Blue light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps are expected to calm those people who are agitated (59). A Japanese railway company installed blue LED lamps on railway platforms to prevent people from intruding on tracks intentionally (59). Current Use According to the survey, 76% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported currently using lighting. Of those currently using lighting, 72% reported using it at half or more locations within the agency. The following list provides a sample of the current practices of lighting in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • CTA—CTA has been replacing fluorescent lamps with LED lamps in subways (11). Most of the rail yards have already been upgraded to LED lighting, and aboveground rail stations will also be updated over the next 3 years. The study suggested that CTA could also use increased lighting to detect trespassers at potential paths near facilities and the rights-of-way. Implementing lighting systems in conjunction with video surveillance could be highly effective in reducing trespassers. • Japan—A Japanese railway company installed blue LED lamps at the ends of station platforms to prevent suicide (59, 60). The installation of blue lights might be an Engineering and Physical Measures—Lighting

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 69   inexpensive method of railway suicide prevention; however, it may not be effective on other types of railroad injuries and fatalities. Effectiveness According to the survey, 84% of the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies reported that they are currently using lighting. Among the respondents that are currently using lighting, 65% are using it in most locations, and 88% of them classified lighting as an effective measure. In an initial study in Japan, blue lights decreased the number of suicides by 74% (59). The follow-up study showed that the installation of blue lights on platforms has some effect in preventing nighttime suicides but would have a small impact on the overall prevention of railway suicides (44, 60). Summary Lighting systems could be useful because they provide a personal feeling of security and suggest that the area is under surveillance by the railroad agency (61). The strategy is currently being used in the overall rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations. As a mitigation strategy, lighting was perceived as mostly effective but did have several ineffective ratings. Lighting was reported to be used by 84% of the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency participants. Almost all the agencies that use it in most locations indicated lighting was effective. All of the agencies with heavy rail indicated the measure was effective. One survey respondent initiated a pilot project in a high-value area with sensor-initiated solar lights on top of 13-foot poles that light up suicide resource information signs. The project is expected to reduce the number of intentional trespasses.

70 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Jeffery Warner, TTI. Description Approaching train alerts can include in-pavement lights that activate for approaching trains at stations and grade crossings. For an investigated crossing location, train-activated in- pavement lighting activates red diodes that flash on and off for the first 5 seconds and then remain steady red until the signals are deactivated (62). Acoustical warning devices can be used as secondary emergency warning signals (EWSs) to warn trespassers and roadway workers of approaching trains (63). The verbal message could interrupt the impulsiveness of some suicidal people (64). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of approaching train alerts in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • WMATA—The agency started replacing the original platform edge warning lights with LED platform edge lights in heavy rail stations in 2007 (40). Lights are off when no train is approaching. The bulb burns steady at 50% power and flashes at 100% power when a train approaches or is at the station. • Elk City, Oklahoma, and Farmrail—The train-activated in-pavement lighting system activates red diodes that flash on and off for the first 5 seconds and then remain solid red until the signals are deactivated (62). The Smart Crosswalk™ in-roadway warning light system by LightGuard Systems of Santa Cruz, California, was chosen for the study. According to the study, in-pavement lighting was effective in improving driver compliance with the existing grade crossing safety equipment. The system is reliable; however, periodic maintenance and lamp replacement will be needed. Engineering and Physical Measures—Approaching Train Alerts

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 71   In-pavement lighting is known to be effective in improving driver compliance with the grade crossing signals (62). Summary An approaching train alert can include multiple engineering and physical strategies, such as a strobe light on the train, flashing lights on the ground, a message board, and a verbal message in the station. Campbell et al. recently released the Phase 1 report of a project to develop EWS sounds and determine detectability factors so that people wearing the latest listening devices, including earbuds, headphones, and headphones with active noise cancellation, can detect approaching train alerts (63). Effectiveness

72 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Source: Illinois Department of Transportation, Special Study of Trespassing on the Chicago Transit Authority (11) (left); Transport for London, London Underground(65)(middle and right). Description A track retrieval device is a large composite grabbing tool that allows railroad employees to retrieve items dropped on the rail track without accessing the right-of-way. Using a track retrieval device would eliminate the need for employees or patrons to get down on the track to retrieve dropped items, thus removing that safety hazard (11). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of track retrieval devices in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • New York City Metropolitan Transportation Authority and the Toronto Transit Commission—Both agencies have station kiosks equipped with track retrieval devices for their representatives to retrieve personal items dropped on the railroad right-of-way without accessing it (11). • London Underground—The agency stores track retrieval devices in an orange bag at the station (65). Effectiveness The level of effectiveness of track retrieval devices has not been reported in the literature. Summary A track retrieval device is beneficial for reducing safety risks to employees and patrons and retrieving belongings in a short time. The frequency of railroad service delays could decrease because rail power may not have to be turned off when items are retrieved from the platform instead of on the track. Showing the use of the device to passengers could increase public awareness of the track retrieval device and potentially decrease the number of trespassers attempting to recover personal items dropped on the track (11). Engineering and Physical Measures—Track Retrieval Device

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 73   Source: Illinois Department of Transportation, Special Study of Trespassing on the Chicago Transit Authority (11). Source: Chicago Transit Authority. Description Signage is usually installed at trespassing hotspots to inform trespassers of the danger of trespassing. Signage is relatively low cost and can be implemented in a short time (8, 61). Installing signage at the right place delivers a message to trespassers that unauthorized access to railroad rights-of-way is illegal and has consequences (27). Signage campaigns can be aimed at educating the public and can be performed through digital billboards in stations and metal signage at crossings and at passenger stations (8, 11, 43). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of signage in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • MBTA—The agency and the Samaritans, an international suicide prevention organization, collaborated to launch a signage campaign on digital billboards in transit stations (43). The campaign was expanded to include metal signage at crossings in commuter rail stations in 2018. • CTA—The signage that CTA uses most frequently focuses on the dangers of entering the rights-of-way and exposure to high voltage (11). The signs are located at track level across the right-of-way from the platform at regular intervals. Every rail station and grade Education and Engagement—Signage

74 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way crossing has “Danger—Keep Off Tracks—High Voltage” signs. CTA also deploys a code- of-conduct sign that states, “No one permitted on tracks except employees on duty” at the end of the platform barriers. Currently, CTA is not using any signage that indicates the prosecution or illegality of trespassing. • Finland—A prohibitive sign was designed based on the existing signs used in Finnish rail and road transportation with additional “No Trespassing” text (23). The researchers collected video data for 17 days to assess effectiveness. The prohibitive sign reduced the frequency of daily trespasses by over 30%. • New Zealand and Turkey—Warning signs and prohibitive signs, in combination with fencing, barriers, and educational countermeasures, were found to be effective in decreasing trespassing at railway stations and trespassing hotspot locations (61). • TrackSAFE Australia—TrackSAFE, in partnership with Lifeline, is using billboards and posters for 24-hour crisis support and suicide prevention services (25). Effectiveness A case study performed in Finland reported that prohibitive signs reduced the frequency of daily trespassing by almost 31% (23). The RESTRAIL study discovered that the installation of large posters reduced trespassing events by 52% (61). Warning signs and posters decreased trespassing at a railway station in New Zealand (in combination with fencing and education) (61). Summary The RESTRAIL study recommended both warning signs and prohibitive signs that need to be installed at hotspots (61). The prohibitive signs are recommended if a high benefit-cost ratio or low costs need to be emphasized (23). Combining other trespassing prevention countermeasures with signage can have a significant effect on reducing trespassing (11, 23, 43). Signage is not an effective measure to deter trespassing at night if it is not enforced by proper authorities (11, 23).

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 75   Source: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metro-North Railroad Description This strategy brings diverse community partners together to address railroad trespassing. Two of these community-based approaches include CARE (66) and Together Railroads and Communities Keeping Safe (TRACKS) (67). The guidance of the CARE model, created by FRA, established a framework for stakeholders to get together and use data to develop solutions and implement them. The CARE model also educates the community on the severity of the trespassing problem, which is not commonly known (66). The TRACKS program, used by MNCR and LIRR, is a comprehensive strategy of community outreach, system improvements, Metropolitan Transportation Authority police inspections, and new technology (67). The flexibility of the approach to work on each system’s specific issues and bring together relevant partners makes the program applicable to all types of railroads/light rail lines. Educating youth targets young people before they reach the highest-risk age range, which starts at 20 years old (early prevention) (68). Materials are tailored to each age group (68, 69). For example, the rail stakeholders thought hard-hitting graphic images were effective with teenagers but would not be appropriate for younger children (68, 69). Trackside Classrooms held by Canadian National Railway Police educate children on where to cross safely with a Safe Crossing Week and online videos for children (70). The effort includes running campaigns with schools, reaching youth directly, and providing resources to teachers and parents (71). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of community-based collaboration in the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: Education and Engagement—Community-Based Collaboration • West Palm Beach, Florida, South Florida Regional Transportation Authority, and Worcester, Massachusetts—The CARE model brings together stakeholders in the community to identify the problem, analyze data, identify responses to the issue, and evaluate effectiveness (66).

76 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way • New York, New York, MNCR and LIRR—The TRACKS program was initiated by LIRR and the Metropolitan Transportation Authority to bring together community partners, outreach, education, inspections, and new technology to address trespassing (67). • Sweden—Sweden promotes societal collaboration by involving a variety of community members, including police, firefighters, and health authorities (25). When a suicidal act is suspected, a temporary shutdown can be requested. By doing so, 300 people were removed from the rail property in 2018. • United Kingdom—Campaigns focus on schools, reaching youth directly, and providing resources to teachers and parents (69, 71). The You vs. Train campaign includes videos of real-life situations of injured children. • Finland—School children, including teenagers and young adults, are educated to increase safety knowledge and improve behavior (72). The results show that railway safety education in schools has a positive effect on behavior. • Canadian National Railway—The Canadian National Railway Police holds Trackside Classrooms to educate children on where to cross safely, creating a Safe Crossing Week and online videos for children (70). Effectiveness The CARE approach is effective at using community resources to implement strategies to prevent trespassing. However, it requires committed stakeholders to implement responses (countermeasures) (66). The TRACKS program has been effective at reducing deaths, with a 33% reduction in fatalities since implementing the program on the MNCR and LIRR systems (67). The results of a Finland study showed that railway safety education for children between ages eight and 11 had a positive effect on behavior (72). Summary It is recommended that stakeholders use collaborative strategies among different partners for the greatest effectiveness (61). The CARE approach spends significant time collecting data to understand the trespass issue and then creating partnerships with community stakeholders. The approach can be resource and time-intensive to implement (66). The TRACKS program handed out rail safety information, participated in Level Crossing Awareness Day, leveraged social media, targeted specific groups of trespassers, such as hikers, and created partnerships on suicide prevention because this was a large percentage of the fatalities on the MNCR and LIRR systems (67). Several rail transit and commuter rail agencies stressed collaboration with first responders, cities, and states about rail safety and trespassing. One of the survey respondents reported that the agency invites the local police and fire departments every year to either visit yards and equipment or participate in biannual territory-wide training sessions. The agency offers classroom and hands-on training, which helps the agency maintain good working relationships with its local emergency responders. The survey reported that both online and in-person conferences and training classes that involve Operation Lifesaver, FRA, and transportation safety institutes are a great way to share industry-wide best practices with railroad peers. Among teenagers and young adults, there was a general lack of awareness of the dangers around railways, and many did not know it was illegal. Trespassing was perceived as a victimless crime, indicating that they were not aware of the dangers trespassing presents (69). Therefore, it is important to educate youth about the dangers and risks associated with trespassing on railroad rights-of-way and violating grade crossing warning devices (69). For example, the You vs. Train campaign includes videos of real-life situations of injured children (71). In Utah, the Operation Lifesaver presentations are required in drivers’ education classes in public schools. It is also important to establish relationships between rail transit and commuter rail agencies and the local schools and teachers.

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 77   Photo Credit: JenRhotonCo. Source: Operation Lifesaver. Description FTA is an active partner with Operation Lifesaver, providing funding to develop and distribute informational material (73). FRA endorses expanding educational outreach programs to make them more effective and to reach new audiences that may not have received the safety messages (74). APTA recommends evaluating and establishing guidelines for public safety campaigns and outreach to reduce trespass violations (75). APTA also recommends identifying target audiences by assessing the demographics of those using the system or walking near the system (75). The U.S. DOT suggests using basic safety messages that are similar to larger national campaigns to reinforce messages (74). APTA specifically suggests modifying and adapting Operation Lifesaver’s materials/messages to address local circumstances (11, 75). Surveys revealed that those living near tracks in Finland considered trespassing to be safe and did not know about the legalities, so educational campaigns were suggested (76). CTA in Chicago used a multifaceted approach that included posters, warning signs, anti- trespassing signs, public awareness campaigns, and outreach presentations. CTA’s See Something, Say Something campaign encouraged the public to report issues, such as items dropped on or near tracks, that agents are better equipped to resolve (11). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of public and industry campaigns in the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • Operation Lifesaver—Operation Lifesaver is a nonprofit organization working to educate the public on rail safety (74, 75, 77, 78). It is “dedicated to reducing collisions, fatalities, and injuries at highway-rail crossings and trespassing on or near railroad tracks” (79). Rail Transit Safety Education grants have been available to transit agencies through funding Education and Engagement—Public and Industry Events and Campaigns

78 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way provided by FTA. FTA reports that in 2019, $175,000 in grants was funded through the partnership with Operation Lifesaver to help transit agencies address rail safety concerns in their communities (73). The grant-funded activities are primarily focused on public education and outreach. The activities include but are not limited to radio and television ads, safety videos and classroom materials, public engagement through social media, platform or station ads, and community events (77). • CTA—CTA has a multifaceted approach, including posters, warning signs, anti- trespassing signs, public awareness campaigns, and outreach presentations (11). A 17% reduction in trespassing was experienced after an anti-trespassing campaign. • SEPTA—SEPTA has community outreach programs called Respect the Train and Watch Their Step, which are performed through its systemwide safety awareness day and the distribution of a video and game to educate the public (80, 81, 82). • ProRail, the Netherlands—ProRail tested a publicity campaign to encourage interaction between passengers to create a social safety net (25). Effectiveness Violations were reduced in the test case of the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study program, an education and enforcement initiative that was a collaboration between the U.S. DOT, FRA, and the Illinois Commerce Commission (83). CTA saw a 17% reduction in trespassing after an anti-trespassing campaign (11). Engine operators in Finland thought that information campaigns for children and the general public would be effective (76). Canadian National Railway believes its reduction in trespass accidents is due to its focus on safety education programs and enforcement strategies (70). Trespassing incidents decreased significantly after interventions in Auckland, New Zealand, and greater reductions were seen after 3 months. However, surveys of awareness show that this may be more due to access to prevention measures than to education (84). For maximum effectiveness, education can be employed in combination with other countermeasures such as signage, barriers/fencing, or enforcement (11, 61, 70). Summary The creation of educational materials and programs can be accomplished through partnerships and following the framework provided by other programs (74, 75). Also, the outreach platforms can be expanded to online media (74). Using messages that are impactful and memorable and that do not scare or preach to people will be effective (85). Efforts must be sustained and be updated to remain relevant (11). However, it is difficult to assess if the reduction in violations was solely due to the educational and outreach activities (61, 83, 84). Increasing public awareness via safety campaigns to inform people of the dangers and illegality of accessing the rights-of-way on open and closed railroad systems is a key component in reducing trespassing events.

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 79   Source: Illinois Department of Transportation, Special Study of Trespassing on the Chicago Transit Authority (11). Description Suicide intervention training, also known as “gatekeeper training,” indicates training of designated and authorized individuals, including but not limited to station staff, conductors, engineers, or other railroad personnel, to identify people with high-risk suicidal behaviors and to attempt to intervene successfully (22, 54, 86, 87). Training railway staff to identify trespassers is complementary to suicide intervention training because it prepares individuals to detect at-risk behaviors. However, the training program might not be as intensive as suicide intervention training (88). Current Use The following lists a sample of the current practices of employee intervention training in the U.S. and international rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States— Suicide intervention training is offered to train designated individuals to identify people exhibiting high risk for suicidal behaviors (22, 54, 86, 87). The training is highly effective at stations where suspicious acts can be actively monitored. • MARTA, SEPTA, BART, Transit District, LACMTA, and Metra—The agencies are reported to have rail operator training systems, including reporting trespassing, responding to incidents, and noticing and reporting suspicious behavior on rail tracks (43, 80). Metra is training staff for suicide prevention using Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR) training. • Toronto Transit Commission, Canada—The Toronto Transit Commission has trained frontline subway staff since 2004 and has now expanded training to other employees, including track patrollers and janitorial staff (25). • Network Rail, United Kingdom—Network Rail has trained 20,000 out of 180,000 employees (25). Because the full-day course is not realistic considering employees’ work Education and Engagement—Employee Intervention Training

80 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way schedules, the agency currently offers a 2-hour course. The agency also has an employee recognition program to encourage employees to report interventions. Effectiveness While there are no existing empirical studies that show the impact of gatekeeper training on the number of suicide detections or interventions on the railroad rights-of-way, several studies have shown that such training has a positive effect on trainees’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding suicidal warning signs and intervention (86). In the United Kingdom’s Network Rail, approximately 11% of the staff intervened within the first 6 months after the training (87). Metra employees made 51 interventions in 2017 and 40 interventions by July 2018 (87). The record of interventions made shows the effectiveness of the training program for trainees, not necessarily the program’s effectiveness in reducing the number of rail suicide incidents (22). Summary Implementing the countermeasure on the open track will be challenging. The countermeasure will be highly effective at stations where suspicious acts can be actively monitored (22, 86). It is important to work with a partner and develop a plan to implement the training successfully (87). One of the rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that the agency had trained its engineers, train crews, ticket agents, transportation managers, and signal maintainers in mental health and suicide awareness training. The training provides employees with the tools to identify people in distress or who want to take their own life.

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 81   Source: Utah Transit Authority, Rail Trespass and Suicide Prevention: Safety, Research and Demonstration Grant (45). Description Hope Poles are poles located along rail rights-of-way near at-grade crossings that provide suicide prevention support contact information. The poles have a mounted solar-powered, motion-activated light at the top to increase the visibility of the sign and surroundings. Current Use UTA is identified as the only user of this particular application. The agency currently has six Hope Pole installations, with 20 additional installations planned. Effectiveness The level of effectiveness of Hope Poles has not been reported in the literature. Summary Located along rail rights-of-way near grade crossings, Hope Poles offer suicide prevention support adjacent to a known right-of-way access point. UTA estimates the cost of a Hope Pole, not including crew time for installation, to be about $400, including the sign, solar light, mounting hardware, and concrete (45). Some of the light motion sensors do not work properly, causing the light to activate with darkness, which could cause the battery to run low as the night progresses. Education and Engagement—Hope Poles

82 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way Current Use Seventy-one percent of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that they are currently using education. Of those, 70% reported using education at half or more locations within the agency. Effectiveness According to the survey, among the U.S. rail agency respondents that are currently using education at their agencies, 74% considered education effective. Among the non-U.S. stakeholders, approximately 30% responded that education is somewhat effective. Summary Education is currently being used in the overall rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations. The general trend of the perception of the effectiveness of education increased with increased utilization. In addition to the trespasser mitigation strategies listed in the survey, two respondents reported that No Trespassing signs are currently being used in their agencies at half or more locations and considered the measure effective. Suicide awareness training for engineers, crews, and ticket agents was also reported. It is currently being used in the reporting agency extensively, and the measure was considered very effective. Education and Engagement—Summary of Survey Analysis

Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Trespassing Countermeasure Strategies and Current Practices 83   Source: Union Pacific. Description Enforcement is used to reduce trespass violations by increasing the consequences of trespassing (74). Working with the judicial system to properly adjudicate cases, as well as joint enforcement between railway police and local police, will enhance the effectiveness of the strategy (70, 74). Enforcement activities can be part of targeted or regular patrols or activated as part of an alert from the rail transit or commuter rail agencies, perhaps through monitoring video feeds, automated detection, or crowd-sourced reporting. Current Use According to the survey, 92% of the U.S. and non-U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents reported that they are currently using enforcement. Of those that are currently using enforcement, 57% reported that they are using enforcement at half or more locations within the agency. The following lists a sample of the current practices of enforcement in the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agencies based on the findings from the literature review: • Little Neck, New York: LIRR—The railroad conducted on-site enforcement safety blitzes to reduce trespass violations at Little Neck Crossing (27). The safety blitzes resulted in reduced trespass violations. • Chicago, Illinois: CTA—The agency does not have a dedicated law enforcement agency. CTA uses Chicago Police Department officers and officers from other communities (11). The officers provide a uniformed presence throughout the CTA system. Officers receive specialized training to work on transit. • Crowd-sourced reporting—The concept of See Something, Say Something expands agencies’ ability to identify possible hazards by offering a means by which the public can report possible concerns (89). This includes possible suicide and trespassing behaviors. ELERTS provides a mobile app used by almost 30 passenger rail agencies that offers real- time reporting of safety concerns, often resulting in law enforcement deployment. • Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority—MARTA launched the See & Say mobile application so that people can reach MARTA police via text regarding safety and security concerns, including trespassing (80, 90). Effectiveness Due to the lack of empirical data, law enforcement and patrol’s effectiveness is based more on anecdotal evidence. However, it is reported that enforcement safety blitzes in Little Neck, New York, reduced violations (27). Canadian National Railway also believes the reduction in trespass accidents is due to its focus on safety education programs and enforcement strategies Enforcement—Law Enforcement and Patrol

84 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way (70). The effectiveness of enforcement is directly tied to the laws that a trespasser can be cited under, which can vary by state and jurisdiction (11). Among the U.S. rail transit and commuter rail agency respondents that are currently using enforcement, 64% considered enforcement effective. While the majority of the respondents found enforcement effective, of those that are currently using the strategy at most locations, 18% considered the measure ineffective. Two participants from the non-U.S. stakeholders chose enforcement as the most likely to be selected mitigation strategy due to the effectiveness and ease of implementation. However, for the U.S. labor community participants, the respondent involved with equipment identified enforcement as the least likely strategy to be selected due to cost. Summary Jurisdictional issues arise with law enforcement but can be addressed by collaboration between the stakeholders, including local authorities, judges, and railroads. Education programs should be in combination with enforcement (27). Also, partnerships between rail agencies and local law enforcement can be beneficial (11). Contracted security services can be used in specific areas of concern (11). Enforcement is currently being used in the overall rail transit and commuter rail agencies at some or most locations. The general trend of the perception of the effectiveness of enforcement increased with increased utilization. However, there is concern that the time between notification and law enforcement response makes enforcement ineffective. In addition to the trespasser mitigation strategies listed in the survey, one of the non-U.S. stakeholders reported that their agency has been using big data to target enforcement extensively within the agency and considered the measure somewhat effective. One survey respondent noted that implementing a solution through funding and improvement grants could take a long time. Therefore, in the early phase, it could be a useful mitigation strategy for local governments to have their police departments monitor the areas.

Next: Chapter 5 - Review of Existing Guidelines and Recommendations for Addressing Trespassing Issues »
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 Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview
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Trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way is a longstanding issue impacting every agency.

The TRB Transit Cooperative Research Program's TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 2: Research Overview provides guidance on strategies to deter trespassing on rail transit and commuter rail rights-of-way.

This report is a supplement to TCRP Research Report 233: Strategies for Deterring Trespassing on Rail Transit and Commuter Rail Rights-of-Way, Volume 1: Guidebook.

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