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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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4

System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0

Opening the final day of the workshop series, Workshop Co-Chair Ajay Malshe, R. Eugene and Susie E. Goodson Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, explained that manufacturing touches every gadget, gadgets touch digits, and digits touch almost every part of society across the world. Because the digital divide furthers the techno-socio-economic divide, he asserted that manufacturing inequities would need immediate attention if social equity is to be achieved. He noted that Industry 1.01 created a significant number of job opportunities (and thus the beginning of democratization). During the peak of Industry 2.0,2 however, there were catastrophic losses in manufacturing jobs, (and thus an increase in manufacturing productivity, and an increase in energy demands and manufacturing).

Malshe remarked that Industry 4.03 introduced competition between humans and machines. He described current disparities in technology access across the United States—the cost of inequity is substantial. Although there are a tremendous number of gadgets available, many people cannot afford these products, with the

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1 The First Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century through the use of steam power and mechanization of production.

2 The Second Industrial Revolution began in the 19th century through the discovery of electricity and assembly line production.

3 The Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by the application of information and communication technologies to industry and is also known as “Industry 4.0.” It builds on the developments of the Third Industrial Revolution that began in the 1970s in the 20th century through partial automation using memory-programmable controls and computers.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

average earnings in the United States in 2018 at ~$36,000 per capita (Malshe and Bapat, 2020). If the community enables accessible and affordable innovation and manufacturing opportunities, he continued, a society that is technologically, sociologically, and economically equitable could emerge. To achieve this state, he advocated for manufacturing convergence driven by problems at system-of-systems levels. He stressed the value of thinking spherically to extend beyond Industry 4.0 and championed the convergence of length scales, heterogeneous materials, and top-down and bottom-up processes in one platform to augment soldiers’ functionality for the future of combat and to reduce dependency on supply chains for critical materials and applications at the point of need.

Malshe invited workshop panelists and participants to once again reflect on three key questions: (1) What is your vision of convergent manufacturing, according to your expertise and experience? (2) What are the knowledge gaps for science, engineering, and implementation of convergent manufacturing? (3) What are one or two “moonshot” projects for convergent manufacturing?

EQUITY

Lonnie J. Love, Corporate Fellow, Energy & Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Keynote speaker Love discussed emerging science and technology (S&T) opportunities that align with the goal to democratize manufacturing. He described his work with additive carbon fiber and composites, machine tools, robotics, and automation in Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF), where he has observed synergies among government, industry, and academia. Seventy percent of the equipment placed in this facility is provided at no cost by the companies working with MDF. MDF also works with more than 50 universities. This local ecosystem has generated new technologies and business models; the next step is to expand so that similar types of research facilities could be leveraged across the United States.

Love highlighted several opportunities over the next 15–20 years, particularly for the democratization of energy. The United States has consumed ~100 quadrillion British Thermal Units (BTUs) per year for the past 7–8 years,4 but its output has increased over that time period; in other words, energy efficiency and productivity are increasing while energy consumption remains relatively flat. With ~22 quadrillion carbon-based BTUs going to the grid, the goal is to eliminate as many carbon-based sources as possible. The automotive industry in particular

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4 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, “2019 Energy Flow Chart,” https://flowcharts.llnl.gov/content/assets/docs/2019_United-States_Energy.pdf.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

consumes ~26 quadrillion BTUs of carbon-based sources (mostly petroleum, some natural gas and biomass); consequently, the government and industry hope to electrify much of the transportation sector over the next 15 years. Because only ~0.03 quadrillion BTUs currently come from the grid to electric vehicles, he continued, it is important to consider the impact that offsetting carbon-based sources with electric sources will have on energy production and energy transmission—transferring from petroleum-based to electric sources would cause strains on but also create opportunities for the grid. In the manufacturing industry, ~22 quadrillion BTUs are from carbon-based sources (natural gas and petroleum) and ~10 quadrillion BTUs are from buildings (residential and commercial); thus, there are significant opportunities to manufacture new materials and for new manufacturing processes and applications as the United States moves away from carbon-based sources for energy. Noting that there are ~67 quadrillion BTUs of waste heat from energy production to energy utilization, he mentioned additional opportunities for recovering waste heat and increasing efficiency of processes, both of which are connected to manufacturing.

Love explained that the 20th century energy landscape emphasized scaling through consolidation. For example, scaling production of electricity meant that a few large power plants were needed instead of many small power plants, which sent power over larger distances and contributed to the growth of the United States over the past 100 years. He stressed that only a few entrepreneurs created this vast energy landscape from production, to transmission, to utilization. One hundred thirty years later, a new and hopefully more equitable paradigm is emerging via “Build Back Better,” with the potential for everyone to be involved in energy production, transmission, and utilization. Although large-scale production in the 20th century drove the migration of manufacturing to low-wage nations, Love envisioned a scenario to create equitable manufacturing for the 21st century by locally sourcing and manufacturing materials with a local workforce for local customers—a scenario that could also be applied to energy production.

Love remarked that only ~15 percent of the energy landscape is non-carbon-based. Rapidly weaning off of carbon-based sources would require enormous innovations in production, transmission, and utilization of energy, all of which are manufacturing challenges. Advancements in manufacturing could enable cost-effective, small, modular sources of distributed energy production (e.g., small head hydro; small, local solar or wind sources; and small, modular nuclear reactors). Without having to transmit over a large distance, cost of entry would be reduced for companies, making it easier for new companies to break into the energy sector and for new businesses to be created. To increase the size of the grid in the coming years, he asserted that distributed energy production and local power transmission via microgrids (to increase flexibility and resiliency) are key. This would enable everyone to participate, with each community having its own microgrid.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Love turned to a discussion of S&T manufacturing challenges related to production. Henry Ford’s concept of scaling manufacturing with the assembly line demonstrated that the supply chain could provide components to a centralized assembly facility, have a production line that could produce hundreds of thousands of vehicles per year, and distribute the vehicles to dealerships throughout the nation and eventually the world. This process is still used today, although it is now highly automated. However, he pointed out that this is a difficult ecosystem for new companies to enter: not many have access to the billions of dollars needed for an automotive assembly plant. Nevertheless, with the construction of microfactories to print vehicles, it is possible to break into the industry with millions of dollars instead of billions. This approach, which also applies for printing tools and furniture, offers lower cost and increased flexibility. He reiterated the value of looking locally instead of globally to develop new business models through advancements in manufacturing.

Love outlined S&T opportunities to address challenges in infrastructure, as the grid is expected to expand by 75 percent over the next 20–30 years. He referenced Uber, the world’s largest taxi company that does not own any vehicles, as an example of how to democratize an industry with an innovative business model.5 Hence, he returned to his key question: what if we could democratize energy? If every car produces a few hundred kilowatts of energy, but the cars are only used for a small portion of the day, what if those cars could be portable energy sources and connected to the grid instead of only being used for mobility? He posited that cars could become sources of income in terms of energy production.

Love also described S&T manufacturing challenges and opportunities for processes and materials. Welding, for example, is energy-intensive, as is additive manufacturing. He explained that most industrial printers consume ~100 kwh/kg, whereas a desktop printer consumes ~5 kwh/kg, owing to the difference in the oven used to control the residual stress. Transforming from a neat polymer to a carbon fiber–reinforced material eliminates the need for the oven and substantially reduces energy intensity for large-scale printing. He emphasized that these significant changes in energy intensity emerged simply by creating innovative solutions for the process and materials.

Love underscored that the United States is a wasteful society, especially in terms of composites. Instead of discarding those materials and making new materials, he proposed viewing “waste” as a source of revenue by creating value-added products—additional S&T would make it possible to extract and repurpose these materials. Biomaterials in particular offer an opportunity to reduce energy intensity. He mentioned work with the University of Maine to replace carbon fiber (which is energy intensive) with other types of materials (e.g., bamboo) and achieve

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5 Note that Uber is a ride-sharing platform.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

similar performance with several applications (e.g., building materials, molds for marine applications, precast concrete structures, wind energy, infrastructure such as utility poles, and tooling). There are additional opportunities to transform energy-intensive industries to more clean and productive industries via waste heat recovery, moving from coal and natural gas to electrical sources, electrolysis and electrodialysis, and microwave and radio frequency processing, for example. He stressed that looking holistically at materials and manufacturing processes to develop new applications reduces costs, creates more environmentally friendly options, and reduces the amount of energy needed for manufacturing.

Love expressed excitement about additional opportunities in large-scale metal printing. The United States experienced a migration of its foundries to other countries, and because it will be difficult to get those industries back, he advocated for the development of a microfoundry. For example, the MedUSA system has multiple robots working collaboratively to grow large steel structures. This fairly energy-intensive approach could be further improved with local processing. He reiterated that more people could participate in business models through advancements in these technologies (i.e., democratization). Focusing on local manufacturing and energy production enables greater resiliency, security, and equity.

Question and Answer Session

Workshop Co-Chair and Session Moderator Tom Kurfess, Chief Manufacturing Officer, MDF, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, noted that even when shifting to a local model, the shipping of raw materials presents challenges. Love described his work with a global injection mold company that makes water bottles, whose facilities in China are being re-shored. Given that the volume of plastic in the bottles is 99 percent air, the greatest volume of import was Chinese air. By having raw materials shipped instead, the material that could be transported in the same volume compared to before increased. He commented on the importance of building business models around the local ecosystem. Kurfess observed that many small enterprises are integrated appropriately with a secure digital thread to address similar challenges.

PANEL 5: SYSTEMS AND PART DESIGN AT THE POINT OF NEED

Scott Reese, Executive Vice President of Product Development and Manufacturing Solutions, Autodesk

Reese explained that although more products are available than ever (~30,000 new product introductions per year), the majority of products fail to meet their objectives (~70 percent do not hit profit targets). Productivity gains in manufacturing

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

are also at an all-time low (~3 percent globally), and it is becoming more difficult to find advanced talent to fill manufacturing jobs (2.1 million remain unfilled) (see Conference Board, 2021; Deloitte, 2021; and Nielsen, 2019). He suggested that the best way to address these issues is to develop a different way to work.

Reese asserted that a linear manufacturing process amidst a proliferation of proprietary data is not agile. As the market demands more innovative products as well as more products manufactured at the point of need, these linear approaches to manufacturing will continue to create challenges. He observed that much data are lost when moving from design to engineering, and workflows are disconnected; this creates inefficiencies and late product delivery, with a less-than-optimized end result.

To achieve the agility necessary to manufacture at the point of need, Reese advocated for convergence of product conception, design, and manufacture into one set of processes. To do this, he continued, the data have to be in the cloud, and the capabilities have to be connected—with mass customization, digital collaboration among engineering and manufacturing teams and customers, and hybrid and additive manufacturing with capabilities to distribute around the world.

Lisa Strama, President and Chief Executive Officer, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences

Strama noted that the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences was established to increase U.S. competitiveness by accelerating and transitioning innovation. It engages both vertically within a supply chain and horizontally to identify and fill gaps by adopting and adapting technology from one industry to the next. It has an extensive network of thousands of academic, industry, and other partners.

With consideration for systems and design at the point of need, Strama continued, it is important to rethink the traditional manufacturing process, which is primarily sequential with 15–20 steps per part. The equipment and tooling required to process a part could be in the dozens, depending on the complexity of that part, and the process is multidisciplinary (e.g., mechanical, electrical, software). To achieve design at the point of need, this single thread could be reimagined by combining assembly and test into a new process order. Instead of concurrent engineering and manufacturing, she advocated for distributed manufacturing processes with different handling and environmental factors. The point of need also requires the ability to design for maintenance and sustainment and to address these aspects early in the design process. This further redefines the technical baseline to include system margins for accepting fielded part repairs and the necessary trades to be made in the repair and dispositioning process. Routing of parts also introduces new external challenges to a process that was previously controlled internally. She asserted that traditional “make, buy, and source” adopts a wider landscape beyond

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

the four walls of the factory, which leads to more complex security concerns, depending on the type of handoffs made throughout the process.

Strama indicated that the incorporation of the Internet of Things and predictive data analytics is crucial to upfront decision making. Collective intelligence (i.e., factory location and support; requirements, equipment needs, and maintenance; processing times; first-time-through-test yields; and consideration of lost lead time) across all disciplines becomes integral to visualize and virtualize the design process, manufacturing, and the point of need. Establishing a digital thread with full traceability is also essential for maintaining quality controls of the process. However, simplifying a manufacturing process does not guarantee a shorter lead time. She noted that the first-time-through-test yields should drive what, how, and where manufacturing occurs, and being able to predict those is critical in the process. The result could be (1) longer lead times due to the handoffs and increasing costs, owing to the new manufacturing and test required to support the product; and (2) lower yields if increased transportation, handling, or packaging requirements are necessary. With the total cost of the product in mind, it is important to ensure that data are being added to models throughout the process and captured in a digital thread. She suggested including inspection criteria and quality control measures in the model to virtualize and verify across the entire process, while considering the total cost, first-time-through-test yield, and lead time.

Glaucio Paulino, Margareta Engman Augustine Professor of Engineering, Princeton University

Paulino discussed part design at the point of need via multiscale topology optimization for convergent manufacturing. He shared an image of a part (a canopy) designed with topology optimization at different scales, from the microscale, to the mesoscale, to the macroscale. The part has different microstructures that transition in a functionally graded fashion to a face-x microstructure (see Sanders et al., 2021). He asserted that topology optimization and its applications are pervasive. Other places where it has been applied include the use of topology optimization in the Airbus A380 aircraft to create a new wing design and the use of topology optimization in the biomedical field to design the scaffold that is implanted into cancer patients.

Paulino emphasized that the selection of different microstructures and different tools leads to varied designs and has a significant influence on functionality. Compatible microstructures are important for manufacturing—for example, a gap in thickness would be incompatible. He and his colleagues designed mathematical techniques that make it possible to transition in a functionally graded fashion from one microstructure to another. Different representations show multimaterial topology optimization data for three-dimensional (3D) printing with continuous microstructural embedding (see Figure 4.1). He explained that although there are

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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FIGURE 4.1 Continuous microstructure embedding. SOURCES: Glaucio Paulino, Princeton University, presentation to the workshop, November 22, 2021, from E.D. Sanders, A. Pereira, and G.H. Paulino, 2021, Optimal and continuous multilattice embedding, Science Advances 7(16), doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abf4838, Copyright © 2021 The Authors, distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0.

several approaches to achieve this, one possibility is the use of a functionally graded tetrahedral mesh, which leads to the creation of a functionally graded embedded slice. Macro-to-micro mapping is done via micro slices to allow the printing of exquisite structures and microstructures. It is possible to see transitions between two different regions, for example from a center-x to a face-x microstructure. Returning to the discussion of the canopy designed with topology optimization, he noted that the material was optimized at the micro-level and the structure was optimized at the macro-level—different microstructural configurations lead to the design of a unique part, and different transitions at different locations reveal the complexity of a design.

Nancy Currie-Gregg, Deputy Director and Chief Technology Officer, George H.W. Bush Combat Development Complex, Texas A&M University

Currie-Gregg discussed systems and part design at the point of need. For remote missions, whether in space or on the future battlefield, supply chain functionality can mean the difference between mission success and failure. Therefore,

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

the ability to perform system and part design at the point of need is a critical element in resilient system engineering for future military operations, which involve constantly evolving threats, increasing complexity of systems and operations, rapid response and high operations tempo, and significant geographical scale of operations. She stressed that research and development (R&D) efforts for new technologies and capabilities would support design at the point of need—this requires an agile, mission-oriented approach to research and innovation with partnerships among academia, government, and industry, as well as continued, frequent involvement of and feedback from military stakeholders.

Currie-Gregg described several relevant manufacturing challenges: the diversity of required skills at the point of need (i.e., design engineering, convergent manufacturing, and maintenance of the manufacturing equipment); initial and continued training of military and civilian personnel; technical protection of designs, manufacturing processes, and equipment and assets; reliability, safety, and security of the materials and of the manufacturing equipment and software; and system engineering practices (i.e., verification of as-built systems and parts, and safety/reliability assessments).

Question and Answer Session

Moderator Craig Arnold, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Director of the Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, wondered how key knowledge gaps could be targeted. To address the complexity of manufacturing at the point of need, Reese first underscored the benefits of embracing new technologies and finding new ways to work. Convergent manufacturing relies on computation for building tools and human cognition for completing tasks in which humans have an advantage over machines. He said that it is incumbent upon companies to provide the appropriate training and reskilling to enable their employees to develop this new mindset and bridge the knowledge gaps. Strama explained that factory technicians are often multidisciplined quasi-engineers who can troubleshoot issues with manufacturing equipment and software before engaging a systems engineer. It is important to recognize that the majority of the workforce that fields and repairs hardware are these multidisciplinary technicians. Thus, she said that both engineers and technicians should be engaged in learning new, convergent methods for design. She advocated for a paradigm shift, including an apprenticeship that offers real-world experience and provides a new type of credential (between a technical certificate and an engineering degree) to the workforce that converges technologies. Paulino noted that exploring the capabilities of well-combined, topology-optimized design and additive manufacturing enables unprecedented innovation. For example, when topology optimization was used in the design of the Airbus A380, savings of

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

hundreds of kilograms for each wing were realized. Topology optimization provides a means to do additive manufacturing to optimize at the material level, at different length scales, and for different functionalities. Currie-Gregg added telemanufacturing to the list of important knowledge gaps. She acknowledged the value of hiring multidisciplinary technicians; however, that is not a feasible solution at the soldier level. She encouraged an innovative approach that uses remote support for design or manufacturing parts at the point of need.

Arnold asked how quality control could be implemented to validate parts made in the field. Strama suggested the use of the digital twin; people in the field as well as their perspectives, environments, and missions could be incorporated in the model for the digital twin to help assess the appropriate trades and determine the best way forward. Reese commented that a manufacturer should be involved throughout the process. Consumers expect products to improve over time and self-heal; if not, they will not buy them and the manufacturer will fail.

Arnold questioned how software or scientists in general handles materials with unknown or evolving properties. Paulino replied that controlling microstructure by means of geometry and porosity creates material representations with different functionalities and properties. If the geometry is explored further at different scales, unique multifunctional material properties could emerge. For example, printing with ceramics is challenging because they break, but microscopic coatings make ceramics ductile and flexible. He asserted that this exploration of new materials with better functionality could lead to better integration into a system or part based on desired objectives. Arnold inquired about how systems would need to evolve to manage multimaterial hybrid structures. Currie-Gregg championed the systems engineering approach, because differences between materials could cause unforeseen failures in a system. To ensure quality control, reliability, and safety of the equipment manufactured in situ, she suggested that point-of-need manufacturing be focused on the augmentation of a capability to promote mission success. Soldiers would have the core capabilities of those systems through traditional means, but when faced with unforeseen challenges and hazards, equipment, additional supplies, and support systems could be manufactured in-situ to increase the viability of mission success. Strama stressed the value of both systems engineering and collective intelligence. Historically, software was run independently and converged later in the process, and flaws were not identified until the final integration and test. Instead, she proposed virtually verifying the software into the entire system early in the process, and then verifying and using collective intelligence to read it back into the previous design processes. Reese pointed out that topology optimization could begin to address this problem. He anticipated that, in 10 years, computers will be used very differently than they are now: engineers will be declaring functional requirements and leveraging compute algorithms to determine the best geometry and material instead of drawing designs. Once human guessing is removed from

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

the process, the need for quality control would decrease, essentially inverting the way that products are designed, engineered, and manufactured.

Arnold highlighted the need for the generation, analysis, and sharing of data; he wondered how to overcome security concerns and maintain manufacturing leadership in the United States. Currie-Gregg remarked that cybersecurity is critical for manufacturing at the point of need; a force could interrupt the supply chain by disrupting data streams, and ultimately disrupt operational capabilities. She suggested new methods to secure large amounts of data—when industry is creating systems for military applications, data have to be more readily available across a wider array of individuals to support those systems in situ and to manufacture components to interface with those systems. Paulino recognized industry’s concern for intellectual property but championed the value of data sharing. Advances in data science and machine learning lead to breakthroughs in industry and to solutions for complex problems. He mentioned a program on machine learning for topology optimization: a new system was created where the training of the network was separate from the computations. The more extensive the training library becomes, the better the capability to do intricate designs with minimal resources. This approach could help to avoid the intellectual property issue between academia and industry. For non-military systems, Reese advocated for a shift from closed and proprietary to open and accessible. It is also important for companies to be clear about what they will and will not share instead of identifying everything as intellectual property, which leads to broken workflows and supply chains and creates challenges at the point of need. Strama added that to be successful in designing parts at the point of need, where equipment and resources are limited, constant collaboration with subject matter experts is critical. Models would benefit from more sophisticated antitampering methods, as well as from more information not only to verify for quality assurance and inspection but also to enable better sharing.

Arnold inquired about the best ways to determine risk thresholds for applications. Currie-Gregg proposed using digital twins and simulation models to evaluate operational capabilities and the resiliency, reliability, and safety of systems. This would have to be done concurrently with manufacturing to keep up with the tempo of operations. She emphasized how important it is to increase the probability of soldier success in field operations by supplying at the point of need and decreasing concern about system failure.

Before concluding the discussion, Arnold invited the panelists to share their moonshots for convergent manufacturing. Strama proposed reversing the traditional manufacturing process by reengineering a mechanical rendering of the finished product, going from the components to the systems view and then from the systems to the components view, and infusing knowledge into the design process. Reese described his work with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in which a computer designed a lunar lander using a “generative design” process: the humans

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

defined the problem and the computer generated the geometry. Paulino proposed taking topology optimization to the next level—for example, is it possible to have properties change spontaneously, to engineer bandgaps by design, or to have materials with topological protection? Currie-Gregg described the need for “design by operators,” because asking operators for feedback at the end of the process is not effective. She also suggested a paradigm shift for college-level and community college–level education: applied training should occur in middle and high school because the majority of operators do not spend 4 years in a postsecondary institution. Kurfess emphasized that the human will continue to play an important role in the vast design space, and advanced tools (with the right education and training to use them) will allow humans to explore complex options.

PANEL 6: SUPPLY CHAIN AND SUSTAINABILITY

Erica Fuchs, Professor, Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University

Fuchs provided an overview of an initiative at Carnegie Mellon University on a national strategy for technology. Participants include more than 15 faculty members, whose expertise spans specific technical domains (e.g., semiconductors, energy storage, tool development, data analytics) and areas related to trade, innovation, energy, and policy. She explained that since World War II, U.S. national security and prosperity in a global economy have relied on domestic technical and manufacturing superiority in key technologies. Access to certain supplies and their intermediate inputs can likewise be essential.

Reflecting on a paper from the Council on Foreign Relations about innovation and national security,6 Fuchs pointed out that the United States lacks data, an intellectual foundation, and a policy roadmap—there is no agreement on what a critical technology is or where to invest once critical technologies have been identified. She noted that approaches in the 1980s and 1990s under the Defense Authorization Act were unsuccessful: long lists of critical technologies were compiled, but none made their way into policy. She has observed bipartisan interest in investing in infrastructure as well as in science and critical technologies, and although most agencies are siloed, technology and large investment decisions would be crosscutting. Thus, the moonshot is to create the intellectual foundation, data, and analytical tools to support the government in designing critical technology, supply chain, and infrastructure strategies that help ensure technology leadership and product access to protect the nation’s objectives for security, prosperity, and social welfare.

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6 Council on Foreign Relations, “Innovation and National Security: Keeping Our Edge,” updated September 2019, https://www.cfr.org/report/keeping-our-edge.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Fuchs emphasized that real-time situational awareness of domestic and international technology and production is lacking but could be attained with modern data and analytics tools that transform capabilities to connect with Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers. She proposed using machine learning and natural language processing tools, in particular, to leverage available data for technological development. However, building real-time situational awareness is insufficient; it is also critical to identify innovations that transform the geopolitical landscape (e.g., redesigning semiconductors and porting them onto different nodes to leverage underutilized production capacity in the world). She said that it is crucial to develop a forward-looking strategy—matching techno-economic tools with supply chain analytics and machine learning and natural language processing—that invests in the innovation that will allow the United States to lead in the future.

Fuchs remarked that, currently, it is difficult to share data and coordinate across individual agencies. She highlighted the value of policy packages and institutional reform that would enable investments across missions. Combining deep engineering expertise with analytic expertise (in operations research and machine learning) and policy expertise could be revolutionary. She asserted that leveraging behavioral science, machine learning, and technical expertise in a way that scales the knowledge to accelerate the commercialization of new advanced materials and processes will be critical in helping innovations transform the geopolitical landscape faster.

Alex King, Professor Emeritus, Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University

King explained that a critical mineral or material is defined as having two important features: (1) importance to a particular application (e.g., clean energy) and (2) supply risk (i.e., if a material has significant supply risk but there is no demand, or if a material is vitally important but has no significant supply risk, there is no concern; if a material is vitally important and has significant supply risk, this is problematic) (see NRC, 2008). In 2010, it became apparent that supplies of certain rare-earth elements were in question, owing to increased demand for high-strength magnets for energy conversion and because the rare-earth elements were being sourced almost exclusively from China, which had recently announced export restrictions.

In 2011, King continued, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued its second iteration of Critical Materials Strategy, which identified five rare-earth elements (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, europium, and yttrium) as critical materials—not yet in crisis but threatened with a crisis. Critical Materials Strategy advocated for (1) developing resources that diversify the supply of critical materials; (2) developing substitutes for critical materials; and/or (3) driving reuse, recycling, and efficient use of materials in manufacturing (DOE, 2011). Every 3 years, the

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

White House’s National Science and Technology Council publishes a list of critical materials, which now includes ~50 elements and minerals. King indicated that the five-fold increase in the number of critical materials arises in part owing to the “awareness effect,” in which once a problem is identified, everything becomes a critical material. However, he pointed out that there are also real effects. For example, the world’s first cell phones required ~35 elements while, five decades later, modern cell phones require ~70 elements; as more elements are used in ever-advancing technologies, more materials are considered essential, and their supply chains may be subject to risk. He shared a timeline from the British Geological Survey’s Analysis of Critical Materials, which reviews the degree of supply risk for several at-risk elements. Only two (out of ~26) elements saw their supply risks decline between 2011 and 2015. This demonstrates that more elements are being used and that every element is experiencing an increased level of supply risk, owing primarily to the reliance on fewer sources for elements.

King noted that DOE’s strategy of providing alternative materials, alternative sources, or more recycling has not been effective in the majority of historical or current cases. In comparison with man-made technologies, however, the biota of planet Earth are robust against materials criticality because all of their functions and capabilities are provided by fewer than 30 elements, all of which are plentiful (see King, 2020). He emphasized that if fewer elements are used to manufacture products, lower risk is incurred because there are fewer supply chains that need to be managed. If lighter and more readily available elements are used, there is less risk in each supply chain. His moonshot is to reduce the bill of materials for every product engaged in distributed manufacturing. To make products at the point of need where supplies of different materials may be limited, he said that designs should rely on the smallest possible number of elements. He championed Paulino’s work on achieving different properties from the same material using 3D manufacturing to produce different microstructural architectures.

Shreyes Melkote, Morris M. Bryan, Jr. Professor in Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

Melkote discussed the convergence of different physics to transform raw material into finished products that provide desired functionality at the point of need. He described critical needs to realize this vision of convergent manufacturing: plug-and-play system integration capability (i.e., use of additive and subtractive processes and other surface modification technologies to achieve the desired transformation); sustainable materials and energy sources at the point of need (i.e., the ability to use substitute/recycled materials in the field); know-how “on-demand” to operate convergent manufacturing platforms (i.e., human knowledge, data-driven knowledge, model-based knowledge systems, and autonomy); operational

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

resiliency (i.e., rapid reconfigurability of a platform with different physics and the ability to operate in extreme environments); capabilities that enable rapid inspection and certification of products in the field; and training to support a talent pipeline of soldiers, technicians, and engineers who have the knowledge and capabilities to operate complex systems.

Melkote also outlined key knowledge and capability gaps for convergent manufacturing platforms: capability to predict convergent/hybrid process performance (i.e., multiphysics interactions at different length and time scales during processing as well as process-structure-property relationships); process planning tools for convergent/hybrid processes; leverage of sensing and control algorithms for process autonomy; knowledge of potential product performance for substitute and recycled materials; and a secure digital thread to enable the supply of information and knowledge at the point of need.

John Vickers, Principal Technologist, Space Technology Mission Directorate, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Vickers pointed out that much of NASA’s technology development is similar to that of the U.S. Department of Defense, for which partnerships with other government agencies, industry, and academia are important. He described a recently released strategy for on-orbit servicing, assembly, and manufacturing (OSAM) for the space superhighway as well as a new Office of Science and Technology Policy and National Space Council interagency working group on OSAM, which serves to coordinate U.S. efforts in R&D as well as policy and regulation for this novel activity. OSAM is the cornerstone technology for creating regional hubs, which are intended to support space logistics, to host payloads, and to provide services. Individual in-space capabilities have their own important convergence, but they also have next-level dependent convergent technologies such as autonomy, artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and additive manufacturing. He alluded to an upcoming critical design review of a 3D printed 10-m composite beam operating in-orbit, which will deploy a solar array from a satellite. This will be launched in 2023, but in the future, the goal is to move to the 100-m scale, with the aforementioned convergent technologies playing a key role.

Vickers identified in-space manufacturing as a moonshot capability with the potential to initiate a new industrial revolution. A key question remains about how to operate, maintain, and repair systems when not in physical proximity to them. He emphasized the need for an approach, such as a digital twin, to manage convergence. The digital twin could be more than just a bridge between the physical and the virtual worlds, as much more work can be conducted in the virtual space than in the past.

Vickers discussed the phases of the metal additive manufacturing process, noting that NASA spends billions of dollars on an experimental certification

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

process for safety-critical aerospace metal parts. He proposed replacing much of the expensive testing with the digital twin, computational modeling and simulation, and other convergent technologies, such as in-situ monitoring and control, as a way to reduce both time and cost. He remarked that NASA has prioritized additive technology, especially for rocket propulsion systems, and is benefitting from cost and schedule reductions as well as speed increases; but these benefits are significantly negated by the experimental trial and error and inspection processes. Thus, he highlighted in-space manufacturing, digital twin, and digital certification as areas of opportunity.

Question and Answer Session

Moderator Chris Saldana, Ring Family Professor, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, pointed out that logistics are different in a convergent manufacturing system and wondered what tools would best support analyses for future technologies. Fuchs described three capability categories for tools: (1) increasing real-time situational awareness (i.e., machine learning and natural language processing will not reveal which critical technology would help, but they would help identify Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers not visible in the supply chain), (2) identifying innovations in which to invest to transform geopolitics (e.g., economics and supply chain, including the capability of firms to pivot instead of stockpiling, and technoeconomic modeling, which is forward looking), and (3) accelerating commercialization of those innovations (i.e., automating manual tasks with machine learning and natural language processing and letting experts focus on creativity and innovation).

Saldana questioned whether manufacturing readiness level is an effective measure for critical manufacturing technologies that should be developed in the future. Melkote replied that if speed is the goal, the traditional systems used to gauge readiness (i.e., technology readiness level, manufacturing readiness level) are ineffective. For example, transitioning manufacturing technology development from the laboratory to production could take 5–10 years. He emphasized the value of rethinking the minimum capability desired and how to achieve that in terms of function. It is also important to understand the capabilities of available manufacturing methods. Technology readiness level and manufacturing readiness level are important checks and balances for safety-critical systems, but if the focus is functionality at the point of need, it is more effective to focus on the minimum capability requirements. King added that technology readiness levels are useful in some cases but misleading in others. For some technologies, it takes a long time to introduce substitute materials owing to the need for qualification of the material or the process. Technology readiness levels reveal how far a path is progressing, he continued, not whether the path is best.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

Saldana asked how material criticality analyses are conducted today as well as how to build systems that could perform such analyses. King noted that because the two axes of a critical materials analysis do not have universal metrics, materials are deemed critical fundamentally on the basis of “expert opinion,” and analyses are often misleading; for example, rare-earth elements were understood to be critical for wind energy, yet the vast majority of land-based U.S. and European wind turbines do not use significant amounts of rare-earth elements, owing to technology substitution rather than materials substitution—an approach not considered in DOE’s Critical Materials Strategy. Furthermore, materials criticality analyses are not true risk analyses, which would provide a direct measure of what should be spent to mitigate a problem. The criticality analysis would be useful in highlighting materials that are critical, he continued, but if half of the chemical elements have already been identified as critical then the prioritization is not clear enough to guide mitigation efforts.

Saldana inquired about how to build risk assessment into new technologies. Vickers responded that although technology readiness level and manufacturing readiness level are used routinely at NASA, neither is much more sophisticated than a checklist. Instead, risk analysis, probabilistics, and data analytics tools would better determine product effectiveness and optimality of a design. Risk analysis is a routine approach that NASA takes for safety-critical processes, but a paradigm shift is needed, in which available tools are further integrated. The more distributed and complex the supply chain, he added, the greater the need for sophisticated virtual techniques to precede physical production.

In closing, Saldana invited the panelists to share their moonshots. Fuchs asserted that the United States would benefit from an innovative critical technology analytics program that reports to mission central, is strategic and forward looking, draws data from across agencies, leverages expertise across the nation, and creates public–private partnerships. King suggested reducing risk by reducing the number of supply chains that have to be managed for any manufacturing process, perhaps by half. Melkote noted that machine learning, AI, and digital twin capabilities could address the design-to-manufacturing translation problem. Vickers emphasized that intelligent manufacturing is the moonshot for space.

GROUP QUESTION AND ANSWER SESSION: SCIENCE, ENGINEERING, AND APPLICATION GAPS

Moderator Francisco Medina, Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, posed a question about how convergent manufacturing could make better use of recycled materials. King responded that although there are niche cases in which recycling is successful, recycling is often not an effective approach to solving the critical materials problem, in part owing

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

to the power of primary suppliers. If one starts collecting and recycling materials and offers those recycled materials to manufacturers, they have relationships with primary suppliers who will then raise their price as a result. Furthermore, as more material is manufactured and used, the demand for material increases exponentially; if material demand doubles every year and the product has a 2-year lifespan, four times as much will be needed in 2 years, while the amount available to recycle is only one-quarter of what is needed. He emphasized that recycling can neither keep pace with the expanding market nor become the majority supplier, which exacerbates the primary supplier monopoly problem.

Medina asked what resources could be reused in space for convergent manufacturing. Vickers noted that restocking is a significant problem the farther away one is from Earth. Approximately ~40,000 lb. of repair parts and supplies for the International Space Station are kept in low-Earth orbit, ~80 percent of which are unlikely to be used. Therefore, the ability to manufacture in situ will be critical. Resources are available from both the Moon and Mars, and studies are under way to determine the potential for extracting alloys for 3D printing and manufacturing; using bulk materials for the construction of landing pads; and extracting consumables (e.g., oxygen) for fuel and human consumption. He advocated for leveraging more virtual capabilities, owing to the high cost of traveling to the lunar surface for demonstration.

Medina inquired about strategies for success in convergent manufacturing. Fuchs observed that “convergent manufacturing” has several definitions; in this context, she suggested federal funding that is integrated throughout the life cycle of the material (i.e., from discovery, to commercialization, to production, to learning from the products, to reuse). Machine learning offers continual feedback to the discovery process, which makes it possible to leverage information to innovate, learn, and accelerate. Melkote defined convergent manufacturing as employing transformative capabilities to convert raw materials to finished products in a single platform. Since there are many unknowns, he continued, resources should be used to develop test beds to examine variations of convergent manufacturing, to reveal challenges, and to present new visions for convergent manufacturing.

Medina posed a question about potential challenges in the shipping of raw materials. King referenced recent problems in the Port of Los Angeles and emphasized that any supply chain that covers a significant distance across the world is a potential weakness. The farther something has to be shipped, the more difficult it becomes, which is an important consideration for space, especially in terms of risk assessment. He cautioned against the use of a single supplier. Medina presented a question about space mining for critical materials that could be used on Earth. Vickers explained that the materials would have to be incredibly valuable to engage in such a difficult process with such a long, complex supply chain. King added that if mining the ocean floor was too difficult, mining asteroids in space would have significantly more technical challenges.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

Medina wondered about the appropriate size (e.g., container or backpack) of the system for convergent manufacturing. Vickers explained that although there are likely many applications for a backpack or a truck in a forward location, one example of a practical convergent manufacturing process is in situ monitoring and control for additive systems to predict properties downstream of additive parts. King suggested reframing the question to determine the right size for the system: What is the most important component or device that could be approached through convergent manufacturing? In other words, he proposed identifying desired capabilities of the finished product and allowing those to determine the type of system. Kurfess added that the size of the system is dependent on the product (e.g., food versus metals) and the energy source needed.

DAY 3 SUMMARY

Malshe commented on the need to redefine “intelligence” in any discussion on convergent manufacturing and introduced the concept of “frugal manufacturing,” where less is more, as both intelligent and equitable. He summarized three themes from the workshop series:

  1. Converging designs, materials, and manufacturing processes at the user end—how can low-quality and fewer materials as well as resource-constrained processes be used to deliver high-value functions for accessibility and affordability?
  2. Converging interfaces for plug-and-play and reliable systems—what are critical interfaces that could converge to manufacture at the asymmetric point of need?
  3. Converging skills and knowledge for the operator—how should mindsets be shifted so that thought processes are driven by problem solving for the mission and not structured by disciplines?

He emphasized the value of converging human intelligence, biological intelligence, and AI in a single platform. Kurfess highlighted the varied pathways to achieve convergent manufacturing as well as the flexibility to address materials, processing, and computing power challenges at the point of need. He indicated that the questions raised throughout the workshop about the future of convergent manufacturing are important for the U.S. economy; it is critical to evaluate manufacturing operations, determine how to create a more resilient supply chain, and leverage the defense and civilian industry and workforce to develop a strong manufacturing ecosystem.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

REFERENCES

Conference Board. 2021. Global productivity growth remains weak, extending slowing trend. https://www.conference-board.org/press/global-productivity-2021.

Deloitte. 2021. Creating pathways for tomorrow’s workforce today: Beyond reskilling in manufacturing. https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/insights/industry/manufacturing/manufacturing-industry-diversity.html.

DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 2011. Critical Materials Strategy. https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/DOE_CMS2011_FINAL_Full.pdf.

King, A. 2020. Critical Materials. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2018-0-04537-5.

Malshe, A.P., and S. Bapat. 2020. Quo Vadimus: Humanism, going beyond the boundaries of capitalism and socialism. Smart and Sustainable Manufacturing Systems 4(3):338-340.

Nielsen. 2019. Every 2 minutes, a new product is launched to the U.S. marketplace; here are the products that broke through the noise and redefined innovation in 2019. https://ir.nielsen.com/news-events/press-releases/news-details/2019/Nielsen-Every-2-Minutes-A-New-Product-Is-Launched-To-The-U.S.-Marketplace-Here-Are-The-Products-That-Broke-Through-The-Noise-And-Redefined-Innovation-In-2019/default.aspx.

NRC (National Research Council). 2008. Minerals, Critical Minerals, and the U.S. Economy. Washington DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/12034.

Sanders, E.D., A. Pereira, and G.H. Paulino. 2021. Optimal and continuous multilattice embedding. Science Advances 7(16). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abf4838.

Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×

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×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
×
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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Suggested Citation:"4 System and Supply Chain: Looking Beyond Industry 4.0." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Convergent Manufacturing: A Future of Additive, Subtractive, and Transformative Manufacturing: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26524.
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A convergent manufacturing platform is defined as a system that synergistically combines heterogeneous materials and processes (e.g., additive, subtractive, and transformative) in one platform. The platform is equipped with unprecedented modularity, flexibility, connectivity, reconfigurability, portability, and customization capabilities. The result is one manufacturing platform that is easily reconfigured to output new functional devices and complex components for systems. This manufacturing system also converges the integration of physical components and digital models along with sensor networks for process monitoring and production.

The National Materials and Manufacturing Board of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine hosted a 3-day workshop event to explore research and development (R&D) opportunities and challenges for convergent manufacturing. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense, the three workshops in the series were held virtually on November 15, 2021; November 19, 2021; and November 22, 2021. The workshop series focused on the following three overarching topics: (1) key areas for R&D investments that will enable the readiness and commercial development of convergent manufacturing; (2) application areas for convergent manufacturing, with an emphasis on future Army and related civilian applications; and (3) approaches for the design of a convergent manufacturing platform.

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