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22 The planning process for a NOMS includes the complexities of procuring and staffing the operation of the system. However, equally important is how a system installation is funded and deciding where permanent noise monitors in the field will be placed. Once the system is installed and operational, the question becomes what to do with the voluminous amounts of data and how to develop a noise management program to deal with the data analysis and public outreach requirements. The following sections describe system funding, noise monitor instal- lation and maintenance, and noise management program development. 5.1 System Funding 5.1.1 Background Funding options for installation of a NOMS (full or partial system) are described in the following sections. These sections provide information on eligibility, funding limitations, and the funding share provided by federal Airport Improvement Program (AIP) grants and the airport/state/local share. For more detailed information, airports should refer to the Airport Improvement Program Handbook (FAA 2019). Funding information contained in the Air- port Improvement Program Handbook is also summarized in SectionÂ A.2.2 of AppendixÂ A. 5.1.2 Eligibility To be eligible for AIP funding, a noise compatibility or noise mitigation project must meet one of the requirements in TableÂ R-1, General Eligibility Requirements for Noise Compati- bility Projects, of the Airport Improvement Program Handbook. These are (1) âIncluded in an FAA approved 14 CFR partÂ 150 Program,â (2) âA Facility Used Primarily for Medical or Edu- cational Purposes,â (3) âIn a Land Use Compatibility Plan,â and (4) âIn a Record of Decisionâ (FAA 2019). An airport requiring funding for a NOMS would either have a NOMS specified in the NCP of an approved PartÂ 150 study or a Record of Decision (ROD) for an environmental study on an airport development project (Option #1 or #4). Airports would not be eligible under Option #2 since they are not facilities used for medical/education purposes. The Reauthorization Act of 2018 extended airports eligibility under Option #3, under a Land Use Compatibility Plan to SeptemberÂ 30, 2023. Almost all NOMSs are acquired through an approved PartÂ 150 study or a ROD for an envi- ronmental study. A NOMS would be required to be part of the defined mitigation options in the PartÂ 150 study or ROD to move forward. C H A P T E R 5 NOMS Resource Requirements
NOMS Resource Requirements 23Â Â 5.1.3 Limitations While the AIP provides a major share of the funding for an airportâs NOMS, the limitations on what features can be funded are described in TableÂ R-6, Noise Compatibility Planning/Project Requirements, of the Airport Improvement Program Handbook (FAA 2019). The limitations on features or use are listed in the following: â¢ Monitoring systems are limited to outdoor monitoring systems; â¢ Portable noise monitors cannot be used for enforcement of noise rules; â¢ Fixed noise monitors are only eligible if placed within DNL 65 (at time of installation); â¢ Sponsors need to justify fixed noise monitors, i.e., portable noise monitors are not feasible; â¢ Data ownership to remain with the sponsor (airport) not with the vendor; â¢ Federal share limited to the least costly system to satisfy project requirements and basic functionality; â¢ Sponsor responsible for ongoing service costs to access FAA tracking data; and â¢ Systems are eligible to be replaced after useful life (10 years). 5.1.4 Sources Federal AIP Share Airport sponsors can apply for federal funding through AIP grants. Airport sponsors can be a public agency or a private entity owning a public-use airport. Public agencies include a state, state agency, city, other municipality, or an Indian tribe. Once approved, these grants can be used to pay for a major share of the acquisition costs. Grant monies come from several sources, including entitlements from passenger boarding and cargo landed weight at an airport, dis- cretionary set asides for noise and environmental purposes, and other potential AIP discre- tionary supplementals and funds. The federal share of the AIP grants for noise projects varies by airport type. These varieties are detailed in TableÂ 4-7, Federal Share by Airport Type (Including Exceptions), of the Airport Improvement Program Handbook and are summarized as follows (FAA 2019): â¢ Large hub/medium hubâ80%, â¢ Small hub/non-hub primaryâ90%, â¢ Non-primary commercial serviceâ90%, â¢ General aviationâ90%, and â¢ Relieverâ90%. The federal share also has numerous exceptions. For states with a large amount of public land, the federal share may increase. Airports in American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands may not require a local share. Other exceptions include airports transitioning from small to medium hubs or those that are in economically distressed areas. Airport/State/Local Share Once airports receive their share of federal funding, the remaining shareâusually 10% to 20%, depending on the airportâmust be made up from airport, state, or local sources. These sources for airport capital projects, listed from largest to smallest (excluding AIP grants), include the following: â¢ Proceeds of bonds, â¢ Passenger facility charge (PFC) revenues, â¢ Internal generated capital (from retained airport revenues), â¢ State grants, and â¢ Local financial sources.
24 Primer and Framework for Considering an Airport Noise and Operations Monitoring System While bonds are usually used for larger capital projects, PFC revenue, airport revenues, and state/local grants are more likely to be used for noise projects such as a NOMS. Besides the use of PFCs, airport revenue sources may include the following: â¢ Airport parking revenues, â¢ Rental car revenues, â¢ Terminal concessions, â¢ Advertising sales programs, and â¢ Revenue-producing leases. 5.2 Noise Monitor Installation and Maintenance Noise monitor installation is an important part of the installation and development of a NOMS. Installing and maintaining the noise monitors can be an expensive and time-consuming process. The noise monitor site assessment includes the selection of potential technical sites that will assist in validation of the DNL 60 and 65 contour location and non-technical sites that will measure noise exposure at noise-sensitive locations such as schools and residential areas. Addi- tionally, potential sites are evaluated against installation criteria that include electrical power access, data communication, property ownership, surface shielding, ambient noise, proximity to sources of noise (airport and non-airport), future airport operations, and potential vandalism. The feasibility of the noise monitor installations is a key component of the NOMS decision- making process. AppendixÂ J: Noise Monitor Installation & Maintenance Guide provides practical assistance to an airport considering installing (and maintaining) noise monitors. The issues addressed include â¢ NMT overview, â¢ Site selection, â¢ Maintenance requirements, and â¢ Procurement. 5.3 Noise Management Program Whether an airport installs a simple flight tracking system or a full NOMS, the develop- ment of a noise management program is likely to be the most important aspect of post-system installation. The development of a noise management program includes the use of a system to monitor airport operations and engage communities exposed to aircraft noise. Once a system is procured, the allocation of qualified staff (existing staff or new hires) and noise manage- ment training of staff are key. A NOMS is an effective aircraft noise, operations monitoring, and public outreach tool that, when operated by staff with the right combination of technical and soft skills, can extract data from the system and convey information to stakeholders in clear and useful ways. While system vendors generally provide training on the use of all system features, this type of training is limited and does not include training on how to use the system to develop and monitor actual noise abatement procedures and supplement a noise manage- ment program. To overcome these hurdles, airports must view noise management as an important and valued environmental practice area and must allocate the proper amount of recruiting, com- pensation, and incentives (conference attendance, training/education, and a positive working environment) to staff this area. Additionally, airports must train staff on the application of a system to address airport noise issues and the development of noise management and public outreach programs.
NOMS Resource Requirements 25Â Â AppendixÂ K: Noise Management Program Development Guide provides practical assistance to airports considering the development of a noise management program. This resource will be useful for airports that are deciding to include a system as part of a noise management program. This resource provides ideas for maintaining and training staff and for further devel- oping or enhancing a program by applying best practices. The issues addressed include â¢ Noise office setup, â¢ Noise office staffing, â¢ Noise office policies and procedures, and â¢ Noise office training.