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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

INNOVATIONS FOR TACKLING
TUBERCULOSIS IN THE
TIME OF COVID-19

PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP

Claire Biffl, Julie Liao, and Anna Nicholson, Rapporteurs

Forum on Microbial Threats

Board on Global Health

Health and Medicine Division

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Agency for International Development (10004113). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-68642-6
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-68642-3
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for tackling tuberculosis in the time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26530.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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COMMITTEE ON INNOVATIONS FOR TACKLING TUBERCULOSIS IN THE TIME OF COVID-19: A TWO-PART WORKSHOP1

GAIL H. CASSELL (Co-Chair), Senior Lecturer on Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School

KENNETH G. CASTRO (Co-Chair), Professor of Global Health, Epidemiology, and Infectious Diseases, Rollins School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Emory University

EMILY ABRAHAM, Director, External Affairs and Policy, Global Public Health at Johnson & Johnson

ANDREW CLEMENTS, Senior Technical Advisor, Emerging Threats Division, U.S. Agency for International Development

LUCICA DITIU, Executive Director, Stop TB Partnership, United Nations Office for Project Services

MARCOS A. ESPINAL, Director, Communicable Diseases and Environmental Determinants of Health, Pan American Health Organization

HAMIDAH HUSSAIN, Director, IRD Global

TEREZA KASAEVA, Director, Global Tuberculosis Programme, World Health Organization

KENT E. KESTER, Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

MONIQUE K. MANSOURA, Executive Director, Global Health Security and Biotechnology, MITRE

PETER SANDS, Executive Director, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria

CHARLES WELLS, Head of Therapeutics Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute

National Academies Staff

JULIE LIAO, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

ELIZABETH ASHBY, Associate Program Officer

CHARLES MINICUCCI, Research Assistant

CLAIRE BIFFL, Research Assistant

JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Board Director

__________________

1 The planning committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop, and the Proceedings of a Workshop was prepared by the workshop rapporteurs as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. Statements, recommendations, and opinions expressed are those of individual presenters and participants and are not necessarily endorsed or verified by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and they should not be construed as reflecting any group consensus.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

FORUM ON MICROBIAL THREATS1

PETER DASZAK (Chair), President, EcoHealth Alliance

KENT E. KESTER (Vice Chair), Vice President and Head, Translational Science and Biomarkers, Sanofi Pasteur

RIMA F. KHABBAZ (Vice Chair), Director, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

EMILY ABRAHAM, Director, External Affairs and Policy, Global Public Health at Johnson & Johnson

KEVIN ANDERSON, Senior Program Manager, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security

CRISTINA CASSETTI, Deputy Division Director, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

ANDREW CLEMENTS, Senior Technical Advisor, Emerging Threats Division, U.S. Agency for International Development

SCOTT F. DOWELL, Deputy Director for Surveillance and Epidemiology, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

MARCOS A. ESPINAL, Director, Communicable Diseases and Environmental Determinants of Health, Pan American Health Organization

EVA HARRIS, Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology; Director, Center for Global Public Health, University of California, Berkeley School of Public Health

ELIZABETH D. HERMSEN, Head, Global Antimicrobial Stewardship and Health Equity in Infectious Diseases, Merck & Co., Inc.

CHRISTOPHER R. HOUCHENS, Director, Division of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Countermeasures, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority

CHANDY C. JOHN, Director, Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine and Riley Hospital for Children at IU Health

MARK G. KORTEPETER, Vice President for Research, Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

___________________

1 The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s forums and roundtables do not issue, review, or approve individual documents. The responsibility for the published Proceedings of a Workshop rests with the workshop rapporteurs and the institution.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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MICHAEL MAIR, Acting Assistant Commissioner for Counterterrorism Policy; Acting Director, Office of the Chief Scientist, U.S. Food and Drug Administration

JONNA A. K. MAZET, Vice Provost—Grand Challenges; Chancellor’s Leadership Professor of Epidemiology & Disease Ecology, University of California, Davis

VICTORIA MCGOVERN, Senior Program Officer, Burroughs Wellcome Fund

SALLY A. MILLER, Distinguished Professor of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences in Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences

SUERIE MOON, Director of Research, Global Health Centre; Visiting Lecturer, Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies; Adjunct Lecturer, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

RAFAEL OBREGON, Country Representative, UNICEF Paraguay

KUMANAN RASANATHAN, Unit Head for Equity and Health, Department of Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization

GARY A. ROSELLE, Executive Director, National Infectious Disease Services Program, Veterans Health Administration, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

PETER A. SANDS, Executive Director, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria

THOMAS W. SCOTT, Distinguished Professor, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of California, Davis

MATTHEW ZAHN, Deputy Health Officer, Orange County Health Care Agency

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff

JULIE LIAO, Director, Forum on Microbial Threats

ELIZABETH ASHBY, Associate Program Officer

CHARLES MINICUCCI, Research Assistant (until September 2021)

CLAIRE BIFFL, Research Assistant

JUSTIN HAMMERBERG, Senior Program Assistant (from January 2022)

JULIE PAVLIN, Senior Board Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

Reviewers

This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings:

KUNCHOK DORJEE, Johns Hopkins University

ANNA MARIA MANDALAKAS, Baylor College of Medicine

ELTONY MUGOMERI, Africa University

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of this proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by ANN M. ARVIN, Stanford University. She was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteurs and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

Acknowledgments

The workshop summarized in this proceedings is the product of many valuable contributions. Special thanks go to the presenters and discussants who gave generously of their time and expertise to make the event possible.

In memory of Dr. Hamidah Hussain.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×
Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×

Acronyms and Abbreviations

AMR antimicrobial resistance
AU Africa University
BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority
BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
BMGF Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
CEPI Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations
CHW community health worker
DALY disability-adjusted life year
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DAT digital adherence technology
DOTS directly observed treatment, short-course
DR TB drug-resistant tuberculosis
DS TB drug-susceptible tuberculosis
ECG electrocardiogram
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
GDP gross domestic product
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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HLIP High-Level Independent Panel
HR human resources
ICEC International Cancer Expert Corps
IFI international financial institutions
IGRA interferon gamma release assay
IHR International Health Regulations
IMF International Monetary Fund
IMI Innovative Medicines Initiative
IRB institutional review board
IRD Interactive Research and Development
J&J Johnson and Johnson
LMIC low- and middle-income country
MDG Millennium Development Goal
MDR TB multidrug resistant tuberculosis
mRNA messenger RNA
NGO nongovernmental organization
NHP nonhuman primate
NIH National Institutes of Health
PAN-TB Project to Accelerate New Treatments for Tuberculosis
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PEPFAR President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief
POC point-of-care
POCTRN Point-of-Care Technologies Research Network
PPR pandemic preparedness and response
R&D research and development
ROI return on investment
RR TB rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis
SDG Sustainable Development Goal
TB tuberculosis
TBDA TB Drug Accelerator
TPT tuberculosis preventive therapy
TRP target regimen profile
TST tuberculin or tuberculosis skin test
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
×
UHC universal health care
UN United Nations
UNHLM United Nations High-Level Meeting
USAID United States Agency for International Development
WHO World Health Organization
XDR TB extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26530.
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Despite being preventable and curable since the middle of the twentieth century, tuberculosis (TB) has long persisted as the world's deadliest infectious disease, with the communities most devastated by TB among the poorest and most vulnerable in the world. Only about half of people with TB receive successful treatment each year. As the global threat of antimicrobial resistance continues to escalate, so do cases of drug-resistant TB, or TB that is resistant to various antibiotics that constitute standard treatment regimens.

In response, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats held a two-part virtual workshop on July 22 and September 14-16, 2021 titled Innovations for Tackling Tuberculosis in the Time of COVID-19. The aims of the workshop were to evaluate the current status of TB elimination, assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the global fight against TB, and examine technical and strategic innovations that could be leveraged to meet the United Nations High-Level Meeting on Tuberculosis targets in 2022 and The World Health Organization's END TB Strategy targets by 2030. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions of the workshop.

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