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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Toward a Post-Pandemic World: Lessons from COVID-19 for Now and the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26556.
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Toward a Post-Pandemic World: Lessons from COVID-19 for Now and the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26556.
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Toward a Post-Pandemic World: Lessons from COVID-19 for Now and the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26556.
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. Toward a Post-Pandemic World: Lessons from COVID-19 for Now and the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26556.

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72 TOWARD A POST-PANDEMIC WORLD Davis, H. E., G. S. Assaf, L. McCorkell, H. Wei, R. J. Low, Y. Re’em, S. Redfield, J. P. Austin, and A. Akrami. 2021. Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impact. EClinicalMedicine 38:101019-101019. DiJulio, B., M. Norton, S. Jackson, and M. Brodie. 2015. Survey of Americans on race. ­Kaiser Family Foundation. race-­section-1-racial-discrimination-bias-and-privilege (accessed January 1, 2022). Ellison, A. 2021. Why rural hospital closures hit a record high in 2020. Financial Manage- ment. record-high-in-2020.html (accessed January 4, 2022). Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C., D. Palacios-Ceña, V. Gómez-Mayordomo, L. L. Florencio, M. L. Cuadrado, G. Plaza-Manzano, and M. Navarro-Santana. 2021. Prevalence of post- COVID-19 symptoms in hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine 92:55-70. Garbers, S., P. Peretz, E. Greca, P. Steel, J. Foster, A. Nieto, and M. Arkipoff. 2016. Urban patient navigator program associated with decreased emergency department use, and increased primary care use, among vulnerable patients. Journal of Community Medicine and Health Education 6: 440. Garcia, A. N., T. Kuo, L. Arangua, and E. J. Pérez-Stable. 2018. Factors associated with medical school graduates’ intention to work with underserved populations: Policy impli- cations for advancing workforce diversity. Academic Medicine 93(1):82-89. https://doi. org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001917. Grinberg, N., K. Joseph, L. Friedland, B. Swire-Thompson, and D. Lazer. 2019. Fake news on Twitter during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Science 363 (6425):374-378. Gu, T., J. A. Mack, M. Salvatore, S. P. Sankar, T. S. Valley, K. Singh, B. K. Nallamothu, S. K­ heterpal, L. Lisabeth, L. G. Fritsche, and B. Mukherjee. 2020. COVID-19 outcomes, risk factors and asso­ciations by race: A comprehensive analysis using electronic health records data in M ­ ichigan Medicine. medRxiv. (accessed March 21, 2022). full.pdf. Guess, A. M. 2021. (Almost) everything in moderation: New evidence on Americans’ online media diets. American Journal of Political Science 65(4):1007-1022. Guess, A. M., B. Nyhan, and J. Reifler. 2020. Exposure to untrustworthy websites in the 2016 US election. Nature Human Behaviour 4(5):472-480. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2021a. Understanding and addressing the impact of structural racism and discrimination on minority health and health dispari- ties. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health. HHS. 2021b. Biden administration to invest $3 billion from American Rescue Plan as part of COVID-19 antiviral strategy. Department of Health and Human Services. June 17. https://­american- rescue-plan-as-part-covid-19-antiviral-development-strategy.html (accessed January 18, 2022). Horwitz, L. I., S. A. Jones, R. J. Cerfolio, F. Francois, J. Greco, B. Rudy, and C. M. Petrilli. 2021. Trends in COVID-19 risk-adjusted mortality rates. Journal of Hospital Medicine 16 (2):90-92. Howard, G., D. T. Lackland, D. O. Kleindorfer, B. M. Kissela, C. S. Moy, S. E. Judd, M. M. Safford, M. Cushman, S. P. Glasser, and V. J. Howard. 2013. Racial differences in the impact of elevated systolic blood pressure on stroke risk. JAMA Internal Medicine 173(1):46-51. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

REFERENCES 73 Israel, B. A., A. J. Schulz, E. A. Parker, and A. B. Becker. 1998. Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health 19(1):173-202. Lee, K. C., N. Al-Ramahi, L. Hahn, T. Donnell, L. J. Schonewolf, N. Khan, C. O’Malley, U. G. Khatri, E. Pearlman, M. Balachandran, D. A. Asch, W. L. Herndon, C. Mallozzi, J. Green-McKenzie, N. Kasbekar, C. Cullom, S. Carney, R. W. Shaw, P. Sullivan, P. Okala, P. J. Brennan, and E. South. 2021. Operationalizing equity: A rapid-cycle innovation approach to COVID-19 vaccination in black neighborhoods. doi/pdf/10.1056/CAT.21.0094 (accessed March 21, 2022). LongCOVIDSOS. 2021. The impact of COVID vaccination on symptoms of long COVID. (accessed January 4, 2022). Marani, M., G. G. Katul, W. K. Pan, and A. J. Parolari. 2021. Intensity and frequency of extreme novel epidemics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 118(35):e2105482118. McQueen, D. V. Social and behavioral sciences. Encyclopedia of Public Health. https://www. (accessed January 24, 2022). NCIRD (National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases) Division of Viral Diseases. 2021. Risk for COVID-19 infection, hospitalization and death by race/­ethnicity. https://­hospitalization- death-by-race-ethnicity.html (accessed March 28, 2022). NIMHD (National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities). 2018. Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Framework. overview/research-framework (accessed January 11, 2022). Nyhan, B., and J. Reifler. 2010. When corrections fail: The persistence of political mispercep- tions. Political Behavior 32(2):303-330. Peretz, P. J., N. Islam, and L. A. Matiz. 2020. Community health workers and COVID-19— Addressing social determinants of health in times of crisis and beyond. New England Journal of Medicine 383(19):e108. Porat, T., R. Nyrup, R. A. Calvo, P. Paudyal, and E. Ford. 2020. Public health and risk com- munication during COVID-19—Enhancing psychological needs to promote sustainable behavior change. Frontiers in Public Health 8. Sigfrid, L., T. M. Drake, E. Pauley, E. C. Jesudason, P. Olliaro, W. S. Lim, A. Gillesen, C. Berry, D. J. Lowe, J. McPeake, N. Lone, D. Munblit, M. Cevik, A. Casey, P. Bannister, C. D. Russell, L. Goodwin, A. Ho, L. Turtle, M. E. O’Hara, C. Hastie, C. Donohue, R. G. Spencer, C. Donegan, A. Gummery, J. Harrison, H. E. Hardwick, C. E. Hastie, G. Carson, L. Merson, J. K. Baillie, P. Openshaw, E. M. Harrison, A. B. Docherty, M. G. Semple, and J. T. Scott. 2021. Long COVID in adults discharged from UK hospitals after COVID-19: A prospective, multicentre cohort study using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol. Lancet Regional Health. Europe 8:100186. Taquet, M., S. Luciano, J. R. Geddes, and P. J. Harrison. 2021. Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62 354 COVID-19 cases in the USA. Lancet. Psychiatry 8(2):130-140. Tyson, A. and C. Funk. 2022. Increasing public criticism, Confusion over COVID-19 re- sponse in U.S. Pew Research Center. increasing-public-criticism-confusion-over-covid-19-response-in-u-s (accessed February 16, 2022). U.S. Census Bureau. 2019. Public use microdata sample. surveys/acs/microdata.html (accessed January 3, 2022). PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

74 TOWARD A POST-PANDEMIC WORLD U.S. Census Bureau. 2021. Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2020. Figure 5: Uninsured rate by poverty status and Medicaid expansion of state for adults aged 19 to 64: 2018 and 2020. html (accessed March 21, 2022). White House. 2021. President Biden announces the Build Back Better Framework. ­Washington, DC: The White House. WHO (World Health Organization). 2020. Health inequity and the effects of COVID-19. publications/2020/health-inequity-and-the-effects-of-covid19-2020 (accessed January 3, 2022). Williams, R. D., A. Shah, M. M. Doty, K. Fields, and M. FitzGerald. 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on older adults: Findings from the 2021 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. Commonwealth Fund. Sept. (ac- cessed March 21, 2022). Yao, H., J. Chen, and Y. Xu. 2020. Patients with mental health disorders in the COVID-19 epidemic. Lancet. Psychiatry 7(4):e21. PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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To take stock of lessons learned from COVID-19 around the world and in the United States, the Forum on Microbial Threats held two virtual workshops during 2021. The first workshop focused on what it means to frame the response to COVID-19 through a "syndemic" approach, and what the implications would be for global recovery. The second workshop focused more broadly on key lessons and emerging data from ongoing pandemic response efforts that can be incorporated into current health systems to improve resilience and preparedness for future outbreaks.

This workshop explored the long-term effects of COVID-19 on health equity, including considerations for mental health and social determinants of health. It also addressed uncertainties during a pandemic, such as trust, communication, and engagement and explored approaches to systematize recovery efforts to improve the ongoing responses and prepare for the next pandemic. Experts discussed possibilities for a post-pandemic world and a response strategy for stakeholders that ensures sustained community partnerships and prioritization of health equity. This Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes the presentations and discussions from the second workshop.

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