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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/26568.
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The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy Committee on Enhancing the U.S. Chemical Economy Through Investments in Fundamental Research in the Chemical Sciences Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies Consensus Study Report Prepublication Copy

  THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the American Chemical Society, the U.S. Department of Energy (Contract number 10004932), the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (Contract number 10005235), and the National Science Foundation (Contract number 10004871). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/26568 This publication is available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2022 by the National Academy of Sciences. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and National Academies Press and the graphical logos for each are all trademarks of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2022. The Importance of Chemical Research to the U.S. Economy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/26568.

  The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

  Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. Rapid Expert Consultations published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are authored by subject-matter experts on narrowly focused topics that can be supported by a body of evidence. The discussions contained in rapid expert consultations are considered those of the authors and do not contain policy recommendations. Rapid expert consultations are reviewed by the institution before release. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

  COMMITTEE ON ENHANCING THE U.S. CHEMICAL ECONOMY THROUGH INVESTMENTS IN FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH IN THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES Members MARK S. WRIGHTON, Chair, George Washington University CATHY L. TWAY, Vice Chair, Johnson Matthey ASHISH ARORA, Duke University RAYCHELLE BURKS, American University JOSEPH M. DESIMONE (NAS, NAE, NAM), Stanford University SHANTI GAMPER-RABINDRAN, University of Pittsburgh JEANETTE M. GARCIA, IBM JAVIER GUZMAN, ExxonMobil MARTHA HEAD, Amgen RUSSELL MOY, Southeastern University Research Association (through January 2022) KRISTALA L. J. PRATHER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JASON SELLO, University of California, San Francisco BALA SUBRAMANIAM, University of Kansas JEAN W. TOM (NAE), Bristol Myers Squibb Staff STEVEN M. MOSS, Study Director LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate BENJAMIN ULRICH, Communications Associate CHARLES FERGUSON, Board Director BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant OLIVIA TORBERT, Program Assistant (through February 2021) JEREMY MATHIS, Board Director (through September 2021) MAGGIE WALSER, Interim Board Director (through January 2022) Consultants MICHAEL ZIERLER, RedOx Scientific Editing LEE FLEMING, University of California, Berkeley DANIEL BASCO, Vertex Evaluation and Research, LLC Sponsors NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Prepublication Copy v

  BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY Members SCOTT COLLICK, Co-chair, DuPont JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS, Co-chair, University of California, Davis GERARD BAILLELY, Procter and Gamble RUBEN G. CARBONELL (NAE), North Carolina State University JOHN FORTNER, Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science KAREN I. GOLDBERG (NAS), University of Pennsylvania JENNIFER M. HEEMSTRA, Emory University JODIE L. LUTKENHAUS, Texas A&M University SHELLEY D. MINTEER, University of Utah AMY PRIETO, Colorado State University MEGAN L. ROBERTSON, University of Houston SALY ROMERO-TORRES, Thermo Fisher Scientific REBECCA T. RUCK, Merck Process Research & Development ANUP K. SINGH, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory VIJAY SWARUP, ExxonMobil Staff CHARLES FERGUSON, Senior Board Director MEGAN E. HARRIES, Program Officer LIANA VACCARI, Program Officer LINDA NHON, Associate Program Officer THANH NGUYEN, Finance Business Partner JESSICA WOLFMAN, Research Associate ABIGAIL ULMAN, Research Assistant BRENNA ALBIN, Program Assistant AYANNA LYNCH, Program Assistant EMMA SCHULMAN, Program Assistant vi Prepublication Copy

  Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: GREGG BECKHAM, National Renewable Energy Laboratory GEOFFREY W. COATES, Cornell University GEORGE P. COBB, Baylor University JILL MARTIN, Dow Chemical Company TRACY MCGILL, Emory University MELISSA PASQUINELLI, North Carolina State University HENRY A. SODANO, University of Michigan YING WANG, AbbVie KATE S. WHITEFOOT, Carnegie Mellon University LUISA WHITTAKER-BROOKS, University of Utah JANE E. WISSINGER, University of Minnesota Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by CAROL J. HENRY, George Washington University, and F. FLEMING CRIM, University of Wisconsin—Madison. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. This study would not have been successful without the assistance of many. The committee is grateful to the people who helped provide research support to the report, including analytical support for the Vertex report provided by the staff at IP Checkups, Inc. which includes Jesse Hooper, Matt Rappaport, and Mark Garner, and additional analytical support from Divya Sebastian at Duke University. Prepublication Copy vii

   

  Preface Chemistry has contributed significantly to the nation’s economic prosperity, human health, national security, and overall quality of life. In fall 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies) convened a committee to consider strategies to sustain and enhance the economic activity driven by fundamental research investments in the chemical sciences. The work of the committee focused on four areas: (1) examination and definition of the role of the chemical industry in the U.S. economy; (2) assessment of how long-term investments in fundamental chemical research have contributed to national security, environmental sustainability, thriving manufacturing industries, and energy technology; (3) exploration of strategies for targeted research investments in the chemical sciences by both public and private sectors to stimulate growth and to ensure that the U.S. plays a leadership role in the field; and (4) consideration of options for research investments that would enhance the chemical economy and also advance environmentally sustainable practices and build a diverse workforce for the chemical economy. The committee is diverse and has drawn on rich and extensive experiences in academia, industry, and government as researchers and as leaders of organizations that invest in the chemical sciences. The work of the committee has drawn on other leaders in the chemical sciences and those with economics expertise to provide information vital to the development of our report. We are grateful for the efforts of all those who have contributed to the information-gathering phase of our work. The report from our committee provides a compelling rationale for why chemistry has been, and will continue to be, critical to the well-being of people everywhere. Contributions from chemists have enabled the development of life-saving pharmaceuticals; materials for structural purposes, for packaging, and for renewable energy technologies; modern microelectronics fueling our information technology infrastructure; and electrochemical devices to power transportation vehicles. Our recommendations will contribute to advancing human health and achieving environmental sustainability, while enhancing the U.S. economy and sustaining our national security. In our work, we have identified areas where success in chemistry will contribute to addressing major global challenges. Advances in chemical instrumentation and computational power promise continuing rich returns from sustaining a long-term investment in fundamental chemical research. The daunting challenges we face affect all, and it is imperative that we apply both financial and human resources to address these problems. Chemistry is done by people. Drawing on a diverse, well-prepared workforce will be essential to make more rapid progress in the future. Proactive effort to equitably engage all of our human resources will stimulate more rapid innovation in chemistry. While chemistry has enabled quality-of-life advances, many of these advances have had unforeseen negative consequences. Therefore, chemistry is both the source of many current global problems, and will also enable the potential solutions to these problems. Negative environmental impacts brought about by the combustion of fossil fuels and the proliferation of waste from plastics illustrate two such problems where advances in chemistry will be vital to the solutions for addressing the challenges. As the complementary 2022 New Directions for Chemical Engineering report by the National Academies also notes, we have the opportunity and responsibility to apply advances in chemistry and in chemical engineering to address the global problems we face related to energy, the environment, and sustainability. The work of our committee has been done almost entirely via virtual meetings. Despite this mode of working, it has been a reward to come to know such a talented and dedicated group who have worked well together. Building new friendships is a result of good committee work, and it is our pleasure to acknowledge the tremendous effort from all. We are thankful, especially, for the talented team led by Steven Moss at the National Academies, which includes Liana Vaccari, Jessica Wolfman, Brenna Albin, Prepublication Copy ix

Preface and Benjamin Ulrich, as well as ample help from Michael Zierler, a rapporteur and consultant on the project, who all helped us complete an important report. Mark S. Wrighton, Chair Cathy Tway, Vice Chair Committee on Enhancing the U.S. Chemical Economy Through Investments in Fundamental Research in the Chemical Sciences x Prepublication Copy

  Contents SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................. 1 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 12 1.1 Key Themes of the Report, 12 1.2 Report Definitions, 14 1.3 Imagining the Future of the Chemical Economy, 16 1.4 Study Scope and Approach, 23 1.5 Previous Consensus Studies Related to the Chemical Economy, 24 1.6 Organization of the Report, 25 2 UNDERSTANDING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CHEMISTRY................................ 27 2.1 Brief History of the U.S. Chemical Industry, 28 2.2 Estimating Current Size and Impact of the Chemical Economy, 29 2.3 Research and Innovation in the Chemical Industry, 37 2.4 Understanding U.S. Competitiveness in the Chemical Economy, 45 2.5 Conclusions, 55 3 SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE CHEMICAL ECONOMY ..................................................... 57 3.1 Basic Chemistry in Society: Contributions and Consequences, 58 3.2 Transitioning to Sustainability and Decarbonization in the Chemical Economy, 60 3.3 Policies to Assist in Adoption of Sustainability and Decarbonization, 68 3.4 Fundamental Chemical Research for Sustainability, Decarbonization, and Environmental Stewardship, 71 3.5 Conclusions, 91 4 EMERGING AREAS IN THE CHEMICAL SCIENCES ....................................................... 94 4.1 Measurement, 95 4.2 Automation, 101 4.3 Computation, 106 4.4 Catalysis, 111 4.5 Conclusions, 122 5 PREPARING AND EMPOWERING THE NEXT GENERATION CHEMICAL WORKFORCE .......................................................................................................................... 124 5.1 A Diverse and Equitable Chemical Workforce, 124 5.2 Mentorship and Support for Success, 127 5.3 Development Opportunities for Academic Institutions, 133 5.4 Workforce Development, 137 5.5 Conclusions, 142 6 FUNDING CHEMICAL RESEARCH .................................................................................... 144 6.1 Federal Investments in Chemical Research and Education, 144 6.2 Corporate Funding of Chemical Research, 152 6.3 Philanthropic Funding of Chemical Research and Education, 155 Prepublication Copy xi

Contents 6.4 Financial Responsibilities of Academics Institutions in Supporting Research, 156 6.5 Conclusions, 158 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................... 159 7.1 The Importance of Chemical Research to the Chemical Economy, 159 7.2 The Role of Chemical Research in Team Science, 161 7.3 Chemical Research and Sustainability, 161 7.4 Challenging the Underlying Assumptions of Chemical Research, 163 7.5 Chemical Data and Analysis, 164 7.6 Chemical Workforce, 165 7.7 Funding Chemical Research, 166 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................ 168 APPENDIXES A COMMITTEE MEMBER BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES...................................................... 198 B REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL FOR ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ................................................ 202 C LIST OF OPEN SESSION SPEAKERS ..................................................................................... 204 D INDIVIDUAL EXPERT INTERVIEWS .................................................................................... 206 E CALL FOR INPUT FROM THE CHEMISTRY COMMUNITY ........................................... 208 xii Prepublication Copy

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Chemistry plays a pivotal role in the strength of the U.S. economy and the advancement of humankind. Chemists' achievements include life-saving pharmaceuticals, advanced energy solutions, improved agricultural productivity, and novel materials used in products from clothing to electronic devices. The many sectors reliant on the U.S. chemical economy account for about 25% of the U.S. GDP and support 4.1 million U.S. jobs. However, a new and evolving chemistry landscape requires changes with regard to funding, training, and a focus on integrating sustainability into manufacturing, product usage, and product disposal.

This report identifies strategies and options for research investments that will support U.S. leadership while considering environmental sustainability and developing a diverse chemical economy workforce with equitable opportunities for all chemistry talent. The report recommends that funding agencies and philanthropic organizations who support the chemical sciences fund as large a breadth of fundamental research projects as possible. Chemical industry and their partners at universities, scientific research institutions, and national laboratories should align the objectives of fundamental research to directly assist with new practices toward environmental stewardship, sustainability, and clean energy. Additionally, the report recommends that funding agencies make substantial investment toward education research to enable innovative ways of teaching about emerging concepts, tools and technologies.

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